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Since the mid 1990s, data hiding has been proposed as an enabling technology for securing multimedia communication, and is now used in various applications including broadcast monitoring, movie fingerprinting, steganography, video indexing and retrieval, and image authentication. Data hiding and cryptographic techniques are often combined to complement each other, thus triggering the development of a new research field of multimedia security. Besides, two related disciplines, steganalysis and data forensics, are increasingly attracting researchers and becoming another new research field of multimedia security. This journal, LNCS Transactions on Data Hiding and Multimedia Security, aims to be a forum for all researchers in these emerging fields, publishing both original and archival research results. The 7 papers included in this issue deal with the following topics: protection of digital videos, secure watermarking, tamper detection, and steganography.



An Efficient Robust Watermarking Method Integrated in H.264/SVC

In this article we investigate robust watermarking integrated with H.264/SVC video coding and address coarse-grain quality and spatial resolution scalability features according to Annex G of the H.264 standard. We show that watermark embedding in the base layer of the video is insufficient to protect the decoded video content when enhancements layers are employed. The problem is mitigated by a propagation technique of the base layer watermark signal when encoding the enhancement layer. In case of spatial resolution scalability, the base layer watermark signal is upsampled to match the resolution of the enhancement layer data.

We demonstrate blind watermark detection in the full- and low-resolution decoded video for the same adapted H.264/SVC bitstream for copyright protection applications and, surprisingly, can report bit rate savings when extending the base layer watermark to the enhancement layer. Further, we consider watermark detection integrated in the H.264/SVC decoder operating on the partially decoded residual data for copy control or authentication applications.

Peter Meerwald, Andreas Uhl

PC-Based Real-Time Video Watermark Embedding System Independent of Platform for Parallel Computing

An improved system is described for embedding watermarks into video frames in real time using software running on an ordinary personal computer and that is independent of the parallel-computing platform. It uses standard video I/O and is separate from the encoding process, so it can be incorporated into various types of encoding and distribution systems, which makes it well suited for distributing live content. Real-time processing is achieved by making the watermark-pattern generation process common to every frame a pre-process and by reusing the watermark pattern output from this pre-process. It is also achieved by storing the watermarked video frames into video memory on the video I/O board, thereby eliminating the need for storing them in buffers on hard disk. Testing of a prototype system for standard-definition video demonstrated the validity of this approach.

Takaaki Yamada, Isao Echizen, Hiroshi Yoshiura

IR Hiding: Method for Preventing Illegal Recording of Videos Based on Differences in Sensory Perception between Humans and Devices

A method is described that prevents videos and movies displayed on a screen from being illegally recorded using digital cameras and camcorders. Conventional protection methods, such as embedding digital watermarks into images for use in identifying where and when the original content was illegally recorded, do not actually prevent the content from being illegally recorded. The proposed method, which is based on the differences in sensory characteristics between humans and devices, actually prevents illegal recording. It does not require the addition of a function to the user-side device; instead, it uses infrared light to corrupt the recorded content. This light is invisible to the naked eye but is picked up by the CCD or CMOS device in the camera. This makes the recorded content unusable. Testing using a functional prototype implemented on a 100-inch cinema screen showed that the method effectively prevents illegal recording. Also described is an effective countermeasure against the use of a camera or camcorder fitted with an infrared cut filter.

Isao Echizen, Takayuki Yamada, Seiichi Gohshi

Secure Watermarking on 3D Geometry via ICA and Orthogonal Transformation

The technique of independent component analysis (ICA) has been utilized in digital image and audio watermarking. In this paper, it is applied to improve the security of 3D geometry watermarking by using the ICA de-mixing matrix for transformation. An orthogonal transformation (OT) matrix is further employed so that another watermarking scheme is generated. With the same embedding method, the two watermarking schemes are implemented on the test models. The experimental results show that they have similar performance in imperceptibility and capacity. As both of them have the properties of blind extraction and security, the OT-based scheme can be regarded as a simplified version of the ICA-based one with less computational cost.

Hao-tian Wu, Yiu-ming Cheung

Measuring the Statistical Correlation Inconsistencies in Mobile Images for Tamper Detection

In this paper, we propose a novel framework to statistically measure the correlation inconsistency in mobile images for tamper detection. By first sampling a number of blocks at different image locations, we extract a set of derivative weights as features from each block using partial derivative correlation models. Through regularizing the within-image covariance eigenspectrum and performing eigenfeature transformation, we derive a compact set of eigen weights, which are sensitive to image signal mixing from different source models. A metric is then proposed to quantify the inconsistency among the sampled blocks at different image locations. Through comparison, our eigen weights features show better performance than the eigenfeatures from several other types of forensics features in detecting the presence of tampering. Experimentally, our method shows good tamper detection performance especially when a small percentage of sampled blocks are from a different camera model or brand with different demosaicing processing.

Hong Cao, Alex C. Kot

Secure Steganography Using Randomized Cropping

In this paper, a novel steganographic scheme is proposed, where embedding is done adaptively in image regions with high level of high frequency component. The steganalytic detection performance becomes poorer as these high frequency components mask the steganographic embedding noise. The security of the proposed scheme is further increased by separating the embedding domain from the steganalytic domain. This separation is done by randomizing the embedding domain using a new concept called randomized cropping. State of the art spatial domain steganalyzers are considered to evaluate the security of the proposed scheme. The LSB matching algorithm is used for steganographic embedding. It is shown experimentally that the LSB matching algorithm wrapped with proposed scheme performs comparatively better than simple LSB matching scheme, against the steganalytic attacks under consideration.

Arijit Sur, Vignesh Ramanathan, Jayanta Mukherjee

Steganography in Streaming Multimedia over Networks

This paper presents steganography methods to covertly transmit data via RTP (Real-time Transport Protocol) header and RTP payload in multimedia streaming over networks. The proposed covert channels do not change the original traffic pattern. The bandwidth and the impact of the proposed covert channels on the received video quality are analyzed. Steganalysis of the proposed hiding methods is also discussed and the proposed covert channels cannot be detected by traffic pattern, received video quality, or the statistical property required by the standard. Simulations on real video traces and RTP packets collected from multicasting videos to LAN (Local Area Network) are conducted and the results show the proposed covert channels not only achieve relatively high bandwidth but also keep the received video quality high or unchanged. Those features make the proposed covert channels practical and not easy to be detected.

Hong Zhao, Yun Q. Shi, Nirwan Ansari


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