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Über dieses Buch

This journal subline serves as a forum for stimulating and disseminating innovative research ideas, theories, emerging technologies, empirical investigations, state-of-the-art methods, and tools in all different genres of edutainment, such as game-based learning and serious games, interactive storytelling, virtual learning environments, VR-based education, and related fields. It covers aspects from educational and game theories, human-computer interaction, computer graphics, artificial intelligence, and systems design. The 5th volume in this series represents a selection of 12 contributions from DMDCM 2010, the 5th International Conference on Digital Media and Digital Content Management, held in Chongqing, China, in December 2010, as well as 9 regular papers. The papers cover topics such as human-computer interaction, virtual exhibit, face recognition, character animation etc.; they moreover present a large number of application examples in the area of e-learning, game, animation, multimedia, and virtual reality which gives more broad view on the application of edutainment-related techniques.



Regular Papers

Innovative Integrated Architecture for Educational Games: Challenges and Merits

Interactive Narrative in game environments acts as the main catalyst to provide a motivating learning experience. In previous work, we have described how the use of a dual narrative generation technique could help to resolve the conflict between allowing high player student agency and also the track of the learning process. In this paper, we define a novel architecture that assists the dual narrative generation technique to be employed effectively in an adaptive educational game environment. The architecture composes components that individually have shown effectiveness in educational games environments. These components are graph structured narrative, dynamically generated narrative, evolving agents and a student model. An adaptive educational game, AEINS, has been developed to investigate the synergy of the architecture components. AEINS aims to foster character education at 8-12 year old children through the use of various interactive moral dilemmas that attempt the different student’s cognitive levels. AEINS was evaluated through a study involved 20 participants who interacted with AEINS on an individual basis.
Rania Hodhod, Paul Cairns, Daniel Kudenko

Beyond Standards: Unleashing Accessibility on a Learning Content Management System

Standards are typically conceived as a means of inclusion, where the term inclusion can refer either to an economic scenario or a social one. They represent a pattern, a paradigm, or an archetype to be wrapped around some kind of reality. Standards related to the Internet and its applications are explicit sets of requirements to be satisfied. Applying and implementing such standards reveals their capabilities to definitively satisfy their goals, beyond the authoritative principles they implicitly carry on. This paper explores questions and perspectives about the implementation of two accessibility standards in an e-learning platform, achieving inclusion both of the standards and their goals to provide accessibility. Their actual implementation in the LCMS ATutor reinforces considerations about inconsistencies and points out some aspects which may otherwise not be glaring. In order to offer enhanced accessibility, some adjustments have been applied in the implementation phase, as the paper describes.
Silvia Mirri, Paola Salomoni, Marco Roccetti, Gregory R. Gay

Design and Implementation of an OpenGL Based 3D First Person Shooting Game

First person perspective games are an important part of the many genres that make up the multi-billion dollar gaming industry. In this article, we present the design and implementation of a 3D first person shooting (FPS) game. Our main contribution is to suggest proper practices rooted in computer graphics and geometry mathematics that we believe should be used when designing 3D FPS games. These practices are level of detail (LOD) based terrain generation and texture mapping based simulation of sky, water and tree. Besides, particle system and billboard technique, character model and animation, mouse pick and sound are also illustrated.
Qiaomin Lin, Zhen Zhao, Dihua Xu, Ruchuan Wang

Direct Interaction between Operator and 3D Virtual Environment with a Large Scale Haptic

Previous studies have some research results on the interaction method between operator and 3D virtual environment through avatar. Direct interaction provides the method by which operator direct touch 3D virtual object. Therefore, it provides more natural and intuitive methods. A direct interaction system, include large scale 3D virtual environment and string-driven haptic, has been proposed. Key technologies of hand position measurement and string tension control are studied. Within this system, virtual squash enjoy system has been developed. Through some experiments, the feasible of this system has been proved.
Jie Huang, Jian Li, Rui Xiao

Modeling and Optimizing of Joint Inventory in Supply Chain Management

Supply Chain Management is a key factor of enhancing competitiveness and achieving success in an enterprise. And inventory control is an important content in this management. In this study, we studied on the new inventory management methodJoint Inventory Management. A model of Joint Inventory for manufacturing and marketing is established. Then Genetic Algorithms is employed to optimize the model. Finally the new method is used in an enterprise.
Min Lu, Haibo Zhao

Vision-Based Robotic Graphic Programming System

Visual sensor is widely used in the robotics industry for its cheapness and acquiring information-rich. In this paper we study on vision-based robot programming system and represent the system architecture including the whole framework, the hardware and software components, the visual feedback control loop structure. The relative techniques include robot vision calibration, the building of 3D graphics simulation platform and the workstation-based open robot controller. At last we demonstrate a game of robot lighting candles based on the simulation platform and a game of robot locating in real experiment, separately.
Jianfei Mao, Ronghua Liang, Keji Mao, Qing Tian

Integrating Activity Theory for Context Analysis on Large Display

During recent years, interaction research on large display is a promising domain, and techniques and usability improvements constantly emerged. Different researchers focus on separate aspects but we need a comprehensive approach to analyze the context of use on large display. In this paper, we applied activity theory to understand the large display usage and showed design ideas of large display: centralized mapping and gesture tracing. We took the speaker-audience usage as an example and presented two prototypes based on activity-centered analysis. Our results were evaluated and the feedback showed that activity-based integration is a feasible solution to large display design.
Fang You, HuiMin Luo, JianMin Wang

Line Drawings Abstraction from 3D Models

Non-photorealistic rendering, also called stylistic rendering, emphasizes on expressing special features and omitting extraneous information to generate a new scene different from the primary one through digital processing. The stylistic rendering is of importance in various applications, in particular in the entertainment such as production of cartoon, digital media for mobiles etc. Line drawing is one of the rendering techniques in non-photorealistic rendering. Using feature lines to convey salient and important aspects of a scene while rendering could provide clearer ideas for model representation. In this regard, we propose a method to extract feature lines directly from three-dimensional models in this paper. By the method, linear feature lines are extracted through finding intersections of two implicit functions that can work without lighting, and rendered with visibility in a comprehensive way. Starting from an introduction to the purpose of line drawings, the development of the method is described in this paper. An algorithm for line extraction using implicit functions is presented in the main part of the paper. Test results and analysis on performance of the test are given. Finally, a conclusion is made, and the future development on line drawings is discussed.
Shujie Zhao, Enhua Wu

Interactive Creation of Chinese Calligraphy with the Application in Calligraphy Education

Given a few tablet images of Chinese calligraphy, it is difficult to automatically create new Chinese calligraphy with better effects while keeping similar style. A semiautomatic creation scheme of Chinese calligraphy and its application in calligraphy education are proposed. First of all, the preprocessing, contour tracing and skeleton extraction are performed respectively on the images of original Chinese calligraphy characters. After that, strokes are extracted interactively. Then a statistical model is used to make stroke reforming. All strokes are stored separately in the stroke library. Finally, new Chinese calligraphy characters are created based on the structure of skeletons and right selection of reformed strokes from the stroke library. The experimental results show the created Chinese calligraphy characters look similar to the samples in the structure, however, with different effects.
Xianjun Zhang, Qi Zhao, Huanzhen Xue, Jun Dong

Papers from DMDCM 2010

Outline Font Generating from Images of Ancient Chinese Calligraphy

Chinese calligraphy is an art unique to Asian cultures. This paper presents a novel method for generating outline font from historical documents of Chinese calligraphy. The method consists of detecting feature points from character boundaries, and approximating contour segments. The feature-point-detection is based on statistical method considering the characteristics of a calligrapher. A database of basic strokes and some overlapping stroke components of Chinese characters extracted from the calligrapher are constructed in advance. And the relation between the noise level of stroke contours and the standard deviation of Gaussian kernel is retrieved from the database using linear regression. Thus, given an input character contour, the standard deviation for smoothing the noisy character contour can be calculated. Furthermore, a new method is employed to determine the feature points at the standard deviation. The feature points at a character contour subdivide the contour into segments. Each segment can be fitted by a parametric curve to obtain the outline font. Some experimental results and the comparisons to existing methods are also presented in the paper.
Junsong Zhang, Guohong Mao, Hongwei Lin, Jinhui Yu, Changle Zhou

Tangible Interfaces to Digital Connections, Centralized versus Decentralized

In the era of distributed digital media, technology is moving to the background and interoperability between devices increases. The handles for users to explore, make and break connections between devices seem to disappear in overly complex menu structures displayed on small screens. Two prototypes have been developed that introduce a tangible approach towards exploring, making and breaking connections between devices in a home environment. Findings suggest that users are better able to project their mental model of how the system works on decentralized representations and that a tangible solution is not necessarily a better one.
Matthijs Kwak, Gerrit Niezen, Bram van der Vlist, Jun Hu, Loe Feijs

Research and Implementation of the Virtual Exhibit System of Historical Sites Base on Multi-touch Interactive Technology

With the help of multi-touch interactive technology, we build up a virtual exhibit system for Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang in China to represent the carved murals, ancient scriptures and Dunhuang historical culture. We analyze the theory of multi-touch and evaluate the advantage of virtual reality interactive engine “Virtools”. A program is designed that can use the Multi-touch and the Behavior Interaction Module of Virtools to achieve the integration of Multi-touch Interaction. The virtual objects are created and artistically processed in “3Ds MAX” software. After that, we comply interact function for them in Virtools. By recording the change of location to the touch points and gestures, the moving, scaling and rotating to manipulate the images by fingers are achieved. Furthermore, we simulate the field of human eyes to panoramic tour the Mogao Grottoes. The proposed system can bring the user into a virtual world that is not only lifelike but also fantastic.
Yi Lin, Yue Liu

A Highly Automated Method for Facial Expression Synthesis

This paper proposes a highly automatic approach for a realistic facial expression synthesis that allows for enhanced performance in speed and quality, while minimizing user interferences. It will present a highly technical and automated method for facial feature detection, by allowing users to perform their desired facial expression synthesis with very limited labour input. Moreover, it will present a novel approach for normalizing the illumination settings values between the source and the target images, thereby allowing the algorithm to work accurately, even in different lighting conditions. We will present the results obtained from the proposed techniques, together with our conclusions, at the end of the paper.
Nikolaos Ersotelos, Feng Dong

Sketch Based 3D Character Deformation

Most 3D character editing tools are complex and non-intuitive. It takes lot of skill and labor from the artists to create even a draft 3D humanoid model. This paper proposes an intuitive 2D sketch-driven drafting tool that allows users to quickly shape and proportion existing detailed 3D models. We leverage on our existing vector shape representation to describe character body-part segments as affine-transformed circle-triangle-square shape blends. This is done for both the input 2D doodle as well as for the extracted point clouds from 3D library mesh. The simplified body part vector shapes help describe the relative deformation between the source (3D library mesh) and the target (2D frontal sketch). The actual deformation is done using automatically setup Free Form Deformation cages. To perform body-part shape analysis, we first segment the mesh with Baran and Popovic’s algorithm for automatic fitting of an input skeleton to a given 3D mesh, followed by our existing 2D shape vector fitting process. There are several promising character design applications of this paper; e.g. accelerated personality pre-visualization in movie production houses, intuitive customization of avatars in games and interactive media, and procedural character generation.
Mo Li, Golam Ashraf

Mean Laplace–Beltrami Operator for Quadrilateral Meshes

This paper proposes a discrete approximation of Laplace-Beltrami operator for quadrilateral meshes which we name as mean Laplace-Beltrami operator (MLBO). Given vertex p and its quadrilateral 1-neighborhood N(p), the MLBO of p is defined as the average of the LBOs defined on all triangulations of N(p) and ultimately expressed as a linear combination of 1-neighborhood vertices. The operator is quite simple and numerically convergent. Its weights are symmetric, and easily modified to positive. Several examples are presented to show its applications.
Yunhui Xiong, Guiqing Li, Guoqiang Han

Multi-user 3D Based Framework for E-Commerce

The lack of attraction and visibilities of products in nowadays e-Commerce applications may lead users to reduce their interesting to purchase products online. It is very useful to adopt 3D virtual world into e-business websites to attract users. Based on the current rendering plug-ins, a collaborative protocol of Multi-user 3D System (M3DS) for virtual environment is designed. It is a set of messages which coordinate avatars interaction in virtual world. We also introduce the main technologies of rendering plug-ins which are used to present 3D information on the client side. Meanwhile, an architecture and application framework for multi-user 3D web applications is designed.
Yuyong He, Mingmin Zhang

Coordinate Model for Text Categorization

Nowadays most of text categorization algorithms use vector space model. It can not make full use of position of terms, and the position brings much semantic information. This paper proposes a coordinate model. By using this model, the terms’ position information can be utilized. In this model, some central terms are selected as origin and a multidimensional space is built, other words will be put into this space by their position relative to these origin. In our experiment, we present a boost algorithm based on coordinate model. The result shows that there are much information can be mined from coordinate model.
Wei Jiang, Lei Chen

An Interface to Retrieve Personal Memories Using an Iconic Visual Language

Relevant past events can be remembered when visualizing related pictures. The main difficulty is how to find these photos in a large personal collection. Query definition and image annotation are key issues to overcome this problem. The former is relevant due to the diversity of the clues provided by our memory when recovering a past moment and the later because images need to be annotated with information regarding those clues to be retrieved. Consequently, tools to recover past memories should deal carefully with these two tasks. This paper describes a user interface designed to explore pictures from personal memories. Users can query the media collection in several ways and for this reason an iconic visual language to define queries is proposed. Automatic and semi-automatic annotation is also performed using the image content and the audio information obtained when users show their images to others. The paper also presents the user interface evaluation based on tests with 58 participants.
Rui Jesus, Teresa Romão, Nuno Correia

VR-Based Basketball Movement Simulation

Because modern competitive sport develops fast to high-level, complex and advanced phases, sports training begins to use modern scientific method. In order to excavate people’s potential energy, modern sports depend on scientific technology. This article elaborated the virtual reality and the sports system simulation technology in the basketball teaching, the training application significance, As well as basketball skill, tactical simulation method and virtual reality design and realization.
Lin Zhang, Ling Wang

Mixed 2D-3D Information for Face Recognition

Face recognition with assistance of 3D models has been a successful approach recently. In this paper, we develop a face recognition system fusing 2D and 3D face information. First, the HarrLBP representation is proposed to represent the 2D faces. Then, the 3D morphable model (3DMM) is employed to estimate the 3D shape for the given 2D face, and five kinds of 3D facial geometrical features are extracted from the virtual 3D facial meshes to assist the face recognition. Finally, we fuse the 2D HarrLBP and the five 3D features under a linear self-adaptive weight scheme to promote the final recognition efficiency. The experimental results on ORL and JAFFE2 face database show the good performance of the proposed fusion method, and demonstrate that our method is robust to the facial expressions and poses to a certain extent.
Hengliang Tang, Yanfeng Sun, Baocai Yin, Yun Ge

Research on Augmented Reality Display Method of Scientific Exhibits

With the digital technology, the traditional display method is changing to the digital display method. This article is precisely launches the research under such background. First, we summarize the researches of the display methods of scientific exhibits in recent years. On the basis, we propose a display way of scientific exhibits based on mind mapping technique and augmented reality technology. And we also expound the implementation steps of the display way. Finally, we take the display of food chain for an example to illustrate the display method.
Hui Yan, Ruwei Yun, Chun Liang, Daning Yu, Baoyun Zhang


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