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Über dieses Buch

This volume contains fifty-six revised and extended research articles, written by prominent researchers participating in the congress. Topics covered include electrical engineering, chemical engineering, circuits, computer science, communications systems, engineering mathematics, systems engineering, manufacture engineering and industrial applications.

This book offers theoretical advances in engineering technologies and presents state of the art applications. It also serves as an excellent source of reference for researchers and graduate students working with/on engineering technologies.



Chapter 1. Tidal Current Turbine, Wind Turbine and Their Dynamic Modelling

Wind and tidal current are of the most common energy resources for generating electricity in the near future because of the oil problems (crises and pollution). Within that frame, wind and tidal current energies are surging to the fore. The dynamic model of the offshore wind and tidal current is very important topic for dealing with these renewable energies. This chapter describes the overall dynamic models of wind and tidal current turbine using three different types of generators (doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) and direct drive permanent magnet synchronous generator (DDPMSG)). The state space for all types of the generators is concluded.

Hamed H. H. Aly, M. E. El-Hawary

Chapter 2. Practical Approach in Design of HVAC Systems Utilizing Geothermal Energy

Geothermal is the Earth’s thermal energy. In recent years geothermal energy has been utilized for generation of electricity, heating and air conditioning (HVAC). Geothermal HVAC systems are cost effective, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly way of heating and cooling buildings. The Department of Energy (DOE) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) have both endorsed geothermal HVAC systems. Their flexible design requirements make them a good choice for schools, high-rises, government’s buildings, commercial and residential properties. Lower operating and maintenance costs, durability, and energy conservation make geothermal a great alternative to conventional HVAC systems. This chapter gives the step-by-step for estimate, design, calculation, procurement, installation and commissioning of geothermal heating and air conditioning system for residential or small businesses. A comparison between the conventional HVAC and the geothermal counterpart is provided to demonstrate their advantages.

M. Fathizadeh, D. Seims

Chapter 3. Efficiency Analysis of Submersible Induction Motor with Broken Rotor Bar

This study analyzes effects of squirrel cage faults on submersible induction motors efficiency at steady-state condition. There are a lot of studies about effects of the cage faults on motor performance. Especially, the effects of the cage faults on the motor parameters such as current, torque and speed are well known. Unlike the literature, cage fault effects on efficiency are analyzed in this study. Furthermore, fluctuations and mean value changes resulting from the rotor faults are ranked according to size of these faults. Healthy and five different faults were investigated by using 10, 25, 30 and 50 HP submersible induction motors in both simulations and experiments. Time stepping finite element method solution was used to compute motor quantities in the simulation. Good agreement was achieved between simulation and experimental results. The effects of rotor faults on motor efficiency were clearly ranked according to size of faults.

Hayri Arabaci, Osman Bilgin

Chapter 4. Analysis of a Multilevel Inverter Topology with Reduced Number of Switches

Multilevel inverter is energy conversion device that is generally used in medium-voltage and high-power applications. It offers lower total harmonic distortion, switching losses and voltage stress on switches than conventional inverter. In this chapter, the topologies of the conventional multilevel inverters are discussed and a novel multilevel inverter topology with the reduced number of power switches is proposed. Also, a modulation technique for the proposed multilevel inverter is introduced. This multilevel inverter structure consists of the level module units to enhance the level of the output voltage. Since a level module unit consists of only a DC voltage source and a bidirectional switch, this structure allows a reduction of the system cost and size. Effectiveness of the proposed topology has been demonstrated by analysis and simulation.

Hulusi Karaca

Chapter 5. Comparison of PWM Techniques for Back to Back Converters in PSCAD

This article presents the simulation and comparison between the space vector pulse width modulation and sinusoidal pulse width modulation techniques for back to back converters with a decoupling control strategy, PSCAD/EMTDC for simulation purpose is used. Also, a study of steady state and transient performance characteristics of the system is carried out for both techniques. The simulation results show that the transient response is similar for both schemes, and the SVPWM technique has the advantage less harmonic content, which it is useful in applications that require a low harmonic level for avoiding overheats and malfunction in sensitive systems.

Agustina Hernandez, Ruben Tapia, Omar Aguilar, Abel Garcia

Chapter 6. Robust Control Strategy for a WECS Based at PMSG

The wind energy boom in the world began in 1980’s. This work presents the modeling and control of a Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) based Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The WECS adopts a back-to-back converter system with Voltage Source Inverter (VSI). In the strategy, the generator-side converter is used to tracks the maximum power point and the grid-side converter is responsible for the control of power flow and control the dc-link voltage. The control scheme uses a B-spline artificial neural network for tuning controllers when the system is subjected to disturbances. The currents from VSI’s are controlled in a synchronous orthogonal


frame using an adaptive PI control. The B-spline neural network must be able to enhance the system performance and the online parameters updated can be possible. This work proposes the use of adaptive PI controllers to regulate the current and DC link voltage. The simulations results confirm that the proposed algorithm is remarkably faster and more efficient than the conventional PI. Comprehensive models of wind speed, wind turbine, PMSG and power electronic converters along with their control schemes are implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

Omar Aguilar Mejía, Ruben Tapia Olvera

Chapter 7. Optimum APC Placement and Sizing in Radial Distribution Systems Using Discrete Firefly Algorithm for Power Quality Improvement

This paper presents an improved solution to determine simultaneously the optimal location and size of active power conditioners (APCs) in distribution systems using the discrete firefly algorithm (DFA) for power quality enhancement. A multi-criterion objective function is defined to enhance voltage profile of the system, to minimize voltage total harmonic distortion and total investment cost. The performance analysis of the proposed DFA is performed in the Matlab software on the radial IEEE 34-bus test system to demonstrate its effectiveness. The DFA results are then compared with the standard firefly algorithm, standard particle swarm optimization (PSO), genetic algorithm, and discrete PSO. The simulation and comparison of results prove that the DFA can accurately determine the optimal location and size of the APCs in radial distribution systems.

Masoud Farhoodnea, Azah Mohamed, Hussain Shareef

Chapter 8. Evaluation of Water Consumption and Neuro-Fuzzy Model of the Detergent Leavings Kinetics’ Removal in a Clean in Place System

This work has focused on describing the water consumption and the Neuro-Fuzzy model of the detergent leavings kinetics’ removal of a CIP System, based on the pH measured. The plant dynamics has been identified for different operational conditions. A flowrate value of 10.5 L.min


has been proved to be effective in order to provide the minimum required rinse water volume to execute the stage of the CIP system, which means that it is possible to optimize the process reducing energy, water and steam consumption as well as the time of unused machinery bringing productivity gains. The obtained models, allowed the prediction of the system dynamics behavior. The results were validated when compared with the experimental data. Three triangular membership functions for the input data modeled accordingly the pH dynamics with an error of 0.011 when comparing the validation data and the obtained model.

Rodrigo Sislian, Valdir M. Júnior, Leo Kunigk, Sérgio R. Augusto, Ricardo A. Malagoni, Ubirajara C. Filho, Rubens Gedraite

Chapter 9. In Situ Photocatalytic Reduction for Contaminated Soil with Hexavalent Chromium by Titanium Dioxide

The photocatalytic reduction of hexavalent chromium was conducted in laboratory environment in order to evaluate the alternative use of this technology for in situ decontamination. The soil samples used had initial concentrations of Cr(VI) of 651.0, 308.0 and 112.0 mg kg


, with loads of catalyst TiO


which were exposed to UV irradiation through black light. Different loads of catalyst of 0.1–2 % (w/w) were tested in soil contaminated by hexavalent chromium with a concentration of 651 mg kg


for a period of 88 h of exposure. In addition, we examined the effect of alkalinity Ca(OH)


(10 % w/w). The rise in the pH due to Ca(OH)


addition shows no measurable effect on the chromium reduction. The photocatalytic remediation using TiO


combined with UV light showed their effectiveness in the reduction of Cr(VI) at 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 cm of depth of contaminated soil, moreover also showed mobility of the contaminant towards to surface.

A. López–Vásquez, N. Ramirez, R. López–Vásquez

Chapter 10. An Improved Cross-Correlation Velocity Measurement Method Based on Fraction Delay Estimation

For target detection, identification and imaging, velocity estimation of high-speed targets is very important. Since the target echoes may not locate at the same range bin, and the Doppler velocity is seriously ambiguous, it is difficult to apply the traditional Doppler velocity method into estimation of high speed targets. Currently a wideband cross-correlation method is widely used to estimate the velocity. However, the measurement accuracy is limited by the sampling interval. An improved cross-correlation velocity measurement method based on the fractional delay estimation is proposed in this paper, and corresponding simulations are carried out. The results show that the estimation accuracy of the proposed method is within 1 m/s in the situation of wideband. The proposed method breaks through the limitation of integer sampling interval, as well as results in higher estimation accuracy.

Xinggan Zhang, Yechao Bai, Xiaoli Chen

Chapter 11. A New Common Subexpression Elimination Algorithm for Constant Matrix Multiplications Over Binary Field

In this work, a new multi-term common subexpression elimination (CSE) algorithm is proposed. The new algorithm aims to reduce area-delay-production (ADP) in VLSI designs of constant matrix multiplication (CMM) over binary field. For promoting delays optimization, a gate-level delay computing method is used to compute the delays based on the transformed constant matrices. The new algorithm also takes a greedy algorithm to search the minimal ADP result. The worst case computational complexities of the delay computing method and the new CSE algorithm are analyzed, respectively. Experimental results have shown that the new CSE algorithm has more efficient in ADP reduction in VLSI designs of binary CMM.

Ning Wu, Xiaoqiang Zhang, Yunfei Ye, Lidong Lan

Chapter 12. Accuracy Enhancement of a SHM System by Light Scanning Sensor Improvement

This paper describes an analog signal processing technique, for the development of a novel electronic circuit to be embedded in a photodiode sensor, as an integrated circuit board for electronic signal processing, to detect the energy centre of an optical signal, which represents the most accurate position measurement from a light emitter source mounted on a structure (like buildings, bridges, and mines). The Optical Scanning Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is proposed due to the fact that the signal processing stage is embedded in the sensor and does not require additional software processing, reducing the time and memory spacing requirements for information recording. The theoretical principle of operation, technological and experimental aspects of design, development and validation are presented.

Wendy Flores-Fuentes, Moises Rivas-López, Oleg Sergiyenko, Julio C. Rodriguez-Quiñonez, Daniel Hernandez-Balbuena, Javier Rivera-Castillo

Chapter 13. A Metric Suite for Predicting Software Maintainability in Data Intensive Applications

Software maintainability is the vital aspect of software quality and defined as the ease with which modifications can be made once the software is delivered. Tracking the maintenance behaviour of a software product is very complex that is widely acknowledged by the researchers. Many research studies have empirically validated that the prediction of object oriented software maintainability can be achieved before actual operation of the software using design metrics proposed by Chidamber and Kemerer (C&K). However, the framework and reference architecture in which the software systems are being currently developed have changed dramatically in recent times due to the emergence of data warehouse and data mining field. In the prevailing scenario, certain deficiencies were discovered when C&K metric suite was evaluated for data intensive applications. In this study, we propose a new metric suite to overcome these deficiencies and redefine the relationship between design metrics with maintainability. The proposed metric suite is evaluated, analyzed and empirically validated using five proprietary software systems. The results show that the proposed metric suite is very effective for maintainability prediction of all software systems in general and for data intensive software systems in particular. The proposed metric suite may be significantly helpful to the developers in analyzing the maintainability of data intensive software systems before deploying them.

Ruchika Malhotra, Anuradha Chug

Chapter 14. High-Assurance Cryptography for Web-Based Enterprises

Each web service and each infrastructure service has a need for symmetric and asymmetric encryption, as well as signature processing and other cryptographic processes. A number of specialized cryptographic functions have been developed for hardware and network operations. Their use is appropriate for network level operations. For purposes of this chapter, the discussion is limited to IP enabled communications and similar algorithms. Cryptography is used by most of the services in an enterprise. Asymmetric encryption is performed in suitably security hardened stores and symmetric encryption is performed in most bi-lateral operations. Signatures for integrity and trust use are pervasive. Key management is required throughout the enterprise. The crypto services may be used through all of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model layers, however, this document concentrates on layers 4 and above. The pace of development of computer systems has led to a need for greater and greater key lengths to insure that keys used for encryption cannot be easily discovered. The chapter reviews many of the cryptographic algorithms in use and recommends those that will provide high assurance systems with adequate protection. The chapter also reviews the computational losses in bit effectiveness and provides an algorithm for computing the bits required for levels of protection.

William R. Simpson, Coimbatore Chandersekaran

Chapter 15. Algorithm Based Partial Reconfiguration with Application on Matrix Inverse Computations

Partial reconfiguration of algorithms is becoming increasingly attractive in many computational applications. This research article covers two aspects of the reconfiguration approach: The first aspect shows that partial reconfiguration is capable of reconstructing computations. The second aspect will construct a theoretical hardware device that realises these computations. With this research article, we analyse the importance of partial reconfiguration for algorithms in one hand and in the second hand we use and apply this concept for the invention of a method that computes two matrices that are inverses of each other. In this paper we specify the computation of two inverse upper and lower matrices using the partial dynamic reconfigurability concept. We propose for this novel algorithm a pseudo code implementation and its hardware construction.

Etienne Aubin Mbe Mbock

Chapter 16. Algorithmic Analysis of the Pseudoanalytic Cryptographic Algorithm

In order to protect the information, the study and development of a new cryptographic method is a hard duty, due to the high amount of techniques to decrypt and obtain the information; this works is fully dedicated to analyse the run time of the cipher method employing the Pseudoanalytic Function Theory. The main purpose of this work, is to analyse the cipher method exposed in [


] and calculate the time complexity in order to study the behaviour and look at the possibility to develop an optimized algorithm, preserving the property of confidentiality information, but decreasing the time lapse.

Ariana Guadalupe Bucio Ramirez, Cesar Marco Antonio Robles Gonzalez, Marco Pedro Ramirez Tachiquin, Rogelio Adrian Hernandez Becerril

Chapter 17. Toward Modeling Emotion Elicitation Processes Using Fuzzy Appraisal Approach

This paper investigates using a fuzzy appraisal approach to model the dynamics for the emotion generation process of individuals. The proposed computational model uses guidelines from OCC emotion theory to formulate a system of fuzzy inferential rules that is capable of predicting the elicitation of different emotions as well as transitioning between different emotional states as a result of an occurred event, an action of self or other individuals, or a reaction to an emotion triggering object. In the proposed model, several appraisal variables such as event’s desirability and expectedness, action’s praise-worthiness and object’s degree of emotional appealing were considered and thoroughly analyzed using different techniques. The output of the system is the set of anticipated elicited emotions along with their intensities. Results showed that the proposed computational model is an effective and easy to implement framework that poses an acceptable approximation for the naturally sophisticated dynamics for elicitation and variation of emotional constructs in humans.

Ahmad Soleimani, Ziad Kobti

Chapter 18. A Graph-Based Model for Quadratic Separable Programs and Its Decentralization

This document proposes a Newton step graph-based model for Quadratic separable Problems (QSP). The Newton step is well suited for this kind of problems, but when the problem size grows the matrix-based QSP model will grow in a non linear manner. Furthermore, handling the constraints becomes the main problem as we have to select the right constraints in the different solution steps. When this happens, the sparse matrix representation is the path to follow, but very little has been made in order to fully explode the sparsity structure. Indeed, the Hessian matrix for the QSP model has a very particular structure which can be exploited by using the graph underlying the problem, this is the approach taken in this document. To this end a graph is built derived from the components involved in the Newton step which describes the solution for the QSP problem. Based on this graph, the gradient can be evaluated directly based on the graph topology, as it will be shown, the information needed for such evaluation is embedded within the graph. These links eventually will guide the solution process in this approach. A deeper analysis of these links is done which leads to its complete understanding. It will be seen that the main effect of the link weakening operation is to allow the computation of the exact gradient. However, the solution will be reinforced by taking into account the second order information provided by the linking structure. Furthermore, the link weakening is used to separate coupled problems which in turn leads to a decentralized scheme. Finally, several decentralization approaches for the Newton step graph-based model for QSP are proposed.

Jaime Cerda, Alberto Avalos, Mario Graff

Chapter 19. Predicting Congestions in a Ship Fire Evacuation: A Dynamic Bayesian Networks Simulation

In this paper, some new simulation results achieved from our proposed simulation model for analyzing congestions in ship evacuation are presented. To guarantee a safe evacuation, this model considers the most important real-life factors including, but not limited to, the passengers’ panic, the age and sex of the passengers, the structure of the ship, and so on. The qualitative factors have been quantized in order to compute the probability of congestion during the entire evacuation. We then utilize the dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) to predict congestion and to handle the non-stationarity of the scenario with respect to the time. Considering the most important scenarios and running the simulation, we demonstrate the distinct effects of these factors on congestion. The role of decision supports (DS), i.e. smartphone evacuation applications and rescue team presence on congestion is also studied. In addition, the impact of congested escape routes on the evacuation time is also investigated. The presented model and results of this paper are possible decision support tools for maritime organizations, emergency management sectors, and rescuers onboard the ships, which try to alleviate the human or property losses.

Parvaneh Sarshar, Jaziar Radianti, Jose J. Gonzalez

Chapter 20. An Intelligent Composition Algorithm for Automatic Thematic Music Generation from Extant Pieces

Recently, research on computer based music generation utilizing composition algorithm has drawn attention. The goal of this research is to produce new music, never heard before, using the algorithm developed and presented in this paper. The developed algorithm uses learning technique and probability and statistical analysis. The algorithm uses note sequences and other musical parameters such as note length, pitch, accidentals, modifications (intensity, speed), and note sequence repetition density for the preparation of a probability table that will generate new music. We used thematic music pieces (from same theme) as input music for analysis using learning followed by statistical analysis. We used MATLAB for analysis and MC Music editor for display. This research study is the first of its kind to create thematic music pieces effectively in a computer-based environment. The outcome of this research has a wide range of usage: waiting-music during automated phone-calls, background music in airports, airplanes, and restaurants, and so on. The work was extended to include variations of frequency and the shape of the note sequences for analysis.

Abhijit Suprem, Manjit Ruprem

Chapter 21. On Combining Boosting with Rule-Induction for Automated Fruit Grading

The automation of post-harvest fruit grading in the industry is a problem that is receiving considerable attention in the realm of computer vision and machine learning. Classification accuracy with automated systems in this domain is a challenge given the inherent variability in the visual appearance of fruit and its quality-determining features. While the accuracy of automated systems is of paramount importance, the usability and the interpretability of machine learning solutions to the operators are also crucial since many sophisticated algorithms involve numerous tunable parameters and are often “black-boxes”. This research presents a generalizable machine learning solution that balances the need for high accuracy and usability by decomposing the problem into sub-tasks. A powerful boosting algorithm (AdaBoost.ECC) with low interpretability is employed for learning fruit-surface characteristics. The classification outputs of boosting then become inputs for rule-induction algorithms (RIPPER and FURIA), generating human-interpretable rule sets that are amenable for review and revisions by operators. Using seven datasets of different fruit varieties, the performance of the proposed method was compared against a manually calibrated commercial fruit-grading system. The results showed that the proposed system is able to match the accuracy of machines calibrated by domain experts having many years of experience, while providing simpler rule sets possessing high interpretability and usability while yielding knowledge discovery.

Teo Susnjak, Andre Barczak, Napoleon Reyes

Chapter 22. Fuzzy Logic Modeling for Higher Adhesion Strength of Cr/Cr-N Multilayer Thin Film Coating on Aerospace AL7075-T6 Alloy for Higher Fretting Fatigue Life

Adhesion strength of coating is one of the most imperative factors in magnetron sputtering technique. Therefore; exploring the effect of coating parameters on enhancing adhesion strength of coating to substrate is extremely important. In this study, an experimental assessment was carried out to discover the fretting fatigue life of Cr/CrN coated AL7075-T6 alloy with higher adhesion strength to substrate by application of PVD magnetron sputtering technique. A fuzzy logic method was utilized to examine how to achieve higher adhesion of coating regarding to changes in input process parameters including DC power, nitrogen flow rate and temperature for fretting fatigue life Improvement.

Erfan Zalnezhad, Ahmed Aly Diaa Mohammed Sarhan

Chapter 23. Measuring the Usability of the Interface of the Saudi Digital Library

With the rapid expansion of the use of web-based resources for education purposes, the usability of a digital library has come to be considered as an important element in the achievement of the full potential of any DL project. This paper applied a questionnaire-based usability test as the main method of measuring the usability of the interface of the Saudi Digital Library (SDL). Based on related studies, a set of sixteen items covering four axes: efficiency, effectiveness, aesthetic appearance and learnability were developed to evaluate the interface of the SDL. Twenty-two undergraduate students from the department of Information Studies in IMAMU participated in completing the Likert scale questionnaire. The main finding of the study indicated that the level of usability of the SDL’s interface was not acceptable, in particular in terms of aesthetic appearance. Moreover, it appears that problems facing other Internet applications in Saudi Arabia will continue to influence the development of digital library projects.

Abdulrahman Nasser Alasem

Chapter 24. Predictive Models for Undergraduate Student Retention Using Machine Learning Algorithms

In this paper, we have presented some results of undergraduate student retention using machine learning and wavelet decomposition algorithms for classifying the student data. We have also made some improvements to the classification algorithms such as Decision tree, Support Vector Machines (SVM), and neural networks supported by Weka software toolkit. The experiments revealed that the main factors that influence student retention in the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) are the cumulative grade point average (GPA) and total credit hours (TCH) taken. The target functions derived from the bare minimum decision tree and SVM algorithms were further revised to create a two-layer neural network and a regression to predict the retention. These new models improved the classification accuracy. Furthermore, we utilized wavelet decomposition and achieved better results.

Ji-Wu Jia, Manohar Mareboyana

Chapter 25. Mobile Adaptive Tutoring System with Formative Assessment

Smartphones and tablets are becoming major learning tools in higher education. But developing educational software for smart phones and tablets based on iOS, Android, and Windows operating systems are time consuming task. Since smart phones and tablets are equipped with the web browsers, instead of developing educational software for all different operating systems, it is only necessary to develop educational web application. This way, all the effort for developing educational software can be concentrated on how to evaluate learner’s level of understanding. In this paper, how to generate a formative assessment using educator’s knowledge structure map and how to implement it as an web application is shown.

Hisashi Yokota

Chapter 26. A Mentorship Framework for WIL in Software Development

The major difficulty faced by potential graduates in the software development diploma in South African universities of technology is lack of placement for work integrated learning. Most companies do not have anyone with time to properly mentor a potential graduate. The student challenge is transition from the academic environment to the workplace without graduate attributes, such as employability skills, kaizen theory and productivity theory. The universities on their own cannot prepare a student for the real world of work without engaging external industry partners. The research study provides a mentorship framework to operationalize simulated work integrated learning to incorporate concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation in writing applications according to industry outcomes. The research results present a case study of the Tshwane University of Technology in the implementation of the mentorship framework for simulated work integrated learning.

Mosima Anna Masethe, Hlaudi Daniel Masethe

Chapter 27. CLAHE Inspired Segmentation of Dermoscopic Images Using Mixture of Methods

The overarching objective of this study is to segment lesion areas of the surrounding healthy skin. The localization of the actual lesion area is an important step towards the automation of a diagnostic system for discriminating between malignant and benign lesions. We have applied a combination of methods, including intensity equalization, thresholding, morphological operation and GrabCut algorithm to segment the lesion area in a dermoscopic image. The result shows that the approach used in the study is effective in localizing lesion pixels in a dermoscopic image. This would aid the selection of discriminating features for the classification of malignancy of a given dermoscopic image.

Damilola A. Okuboyejo, Oludayo O. Olugbara, Solomon A. Odunaike

Chapter 28. ISAR Imaging for Moving Targets with Large Rotational Angle

Wideband radar can get high range resolution. In order to obtain high azimuth resolution, a large rotation angle of moving targets relative to the radar line of sight is required. As the migration of scatterers in different range resolution cells is different, range alignment cannot compensate it completely. When the rotation angle of the moving target is large, the migration through resolution cell (MTRC) will occur obviously, which results in great image resolution degradation. A new ISAR imaging algorithm is proposed in this paper to solve the problem. In the proposed algorithm, the process of large-angle high-resolution imaging is divided into several small-angle low-resolution imaging processes. Then after image scaling, image rotation, image translation, inverse process of ISAR imaging, data splicing and re-ISAR imaging, high resolution image will be produced. Theoretical analysis and simulations show that the proposed algorithm can compensate the MTRC of scatterers and obtain high-resolution images.

Jinjin Zhang, Xinggan Zhang, Yechao Bai

Chapter 29. Analysis of Acoustic Signal Based on Modified Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition

Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) has been proposed recently as an adaptive time-frequency data analysis tool in the nonlinear and nonstationary signal processing research field. However, it has some drawbacks such as mode mixing, which is defined as a single intrinsic mode function (IMF) consisting of signals of widely disparate scales, and the prediction problem, which is intimately related to the end effects in the EMD. Although the ensemble EMD (EEMD), which overcomes these problems, can represent a major improvement of the EMD, this paper proposes a modified EEMD which includes the best IMF selection algorithm to analyze the acoustic signal. To evaluate the proposed method, it is applied to the vibration signal of an induction motor which has a bearing fault and musical percussion sound.

Sundeok Kwon, Sangjin Cho

Chapter 30. High Precision Numerical Implementation of Bandlimited Signal Extrapolation Using Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions

An efficient and reliable yet simple method to extrapolate bandlimited signals up to an arbitrarily high range of frequencies is proposed. The orthogonal properties of linear prolate spheroidal wave functions (PSWFs) are exploited to form an orthogonal basis set needed for synthesis. A significant step in the process is the higher order piecewise polynomial approximation of the overlap integral required for obtaining the expansion coefficients accurately with very high precision. A PSWFs set having a fixed Slepian frequency is utilized for performing extrapolation. Numerical results of extrapolation of some standard test signals using our algorithm are presented, compared, discussed, and some interesting inferences are made.

Amal Devasia, Michael Cada

Chapter 31. Path Loss Prediction in Relay Station Environment

Relays play important role in deployment of Long Term Evolution (LTE) and LTE-Advanced systems. This chapter addresses prediction of the propagation path loss on the link between eNodeB and relay stations. The path loss models are derived on a basis of an extensive measurement campaign conducted in 1,900 MHz frequency band. An effect of the relay station antenna height is studied and included in the path loss modeling. An antenna height correction factor is derived and included in the modeling. Finally, a relationship between the intercept, slope of the model and the relay antenna height is derived.

Masoud Hamid, Ivica Kostanic

Chapter 32. System Integration of a Home Network System with a Narrowband Power Line Communication Method and a Voice Recognition Command Controller

After a home network system, consisting of some electric devices, had been constructed by a Narrowband power line communication method, the system was integrated with an external voice recognizing control board. Experimental data was measured for the communication characteristics between a central PC and a central-side PLC modem in Local loopback test, and then between the PC and a receive-side modem in Remote loopback test. The voice control board was connected to the PC via Bluetooth communication, and used to manipulate the home electric devices’ setup statuses. A communication protocol was designed for the system, and by changing its length, the system’s response time was measured in the local loopback test and the remote test. The response time of the system in the remote loopback test was about 345 ms for the protocol of the length of 13 Bytes. So, the proper protocol length for this system was decided to be 13 Bytes long. The command-recognizing time of the controller, measured by the Polling Process Technique, showed that it depended on the number of commands. For eight commands, the recognizing time of the voice board was about 100 ms. The Bluetooth and the power line communication data rates were 9,600 and 2,400 bps. Home electric devices’ statuses were shown graphically on the computer screen according to the device’s setup conditions, which were controlled by some voice commands.

Lee Kyung Mog

Chapter 33. A New Non-stationary Channel Model Based on Drifted Brownian Random Paths

This paper utilizes Brownian motion (BM) processes with drift to model mobile radio channels under non-stationary conditions. It is assumed that the mobile station (MS) starts moving in a semi-random way, but subject to follow a given direction. This moving scenario is modelled by a BM process with drift (BMD). The starting point of the movement is a fixed point in the two-dimensional (2D) propagation area, while its destination is a random point along a predetermined drift. To model the propagation area, we propose a non-centred one-ring scattering model in which the local scatterers are uniformly distributed on a ring that is


necessarily centred on the MS. The semi-random movement of the MS results in local angles-of-arrival (AOAs) and local angles-of-motion (AOMs), which are stochastic processes instead of random variables. We present the first-order density of the AOA and AOM processes in closed form. Subsequently, the local power spectral density (PSD) and autocorrelation function (ACF) of the complex channel gain are provided. The analytical results are simulated, illustrated, and physically explained. It turns out that the targeted Brownian path model results in a statistically non-stationary channel model. The interdisciplinary idea of the paper opens a new perspective on the modelling of non-stationary channels under realistic propagation conditions.

Alireza Borhani, Matthias Pätzold

Chapter 34. On the Performance of MU SIMO/MIMO UWB Communication Systems Applying Time-Reversal Technique

Time Reversal (TR) is a technique to focus broadband signals tightly in time and space domains. Previously, this technique has been used in acoustics, medical and especially in underwater communication applications. TR technique is combined with Ultra Wideband (UWB) technology to offer a new efficient solution for the cost and complexity degradation of UWB receivers. It is capable of interference reduction such as: inter-symbol interference (ISI), inter-user interference (IUI)…, meanwhile the user equipments have no need of complex equalizers at the transmitter and receiver. In this book chapter, we focus on presenting the operational mechanism and giving some specific results which concern with applying TR technique for UWB communication systems. Specifically, the channel capacity is investigated in SIMO and MIMO UWB systems.

Vu Tran-Ha, Duc-Dung Tran, Dac-Binh Ha, Een-Kee Hong

Chapter 35. Efficient Bandwidth Allocation Methods in Upstream EPON

The Internet has become the world’s leading universal global communication infrastructure. Optical solutions are sought after at the access network to support the ever increasing demand in bandwidth. Passive Optical Networks (PONs) are seen to provide a cost effective solution for this. PON Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) scheme provides the means for upstream traffic allocation. In this paper, the operation of several bandwidth allocation algorithms in upstream Ethernet PON (EPON) is presented. An Efficient Distributed DBA (EDDBA) that supports Quality of Service (QoS) for both inter and intra ONU allocation is proposed. The proposed scheme introduces an identical DBA algorithm running simultaneously in each ONU. The simulation performance for the proposed DBA was conducted using Prolog and shows flexibility, reliability in handling data, voice, and video traffic.

S. K. Sadon, N. M. Din, N. A. Radzi, Mashkuri Bin Yaacob, Martin Maier, M. H. Al-Mansoori

Chapter 36. Soft Tissue Characterisation Using a Force Feedback-Enabled Instrument for Robotic Assisted Minimally Invasive Surgery Systems

An automated laparoscopic instrument capable of non-invasive measurement of tip/tissue interaction forces for direct application in robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery systems is introduced in this chapter. It has the capability to measure normal grasping forces as well as lateral interaction forces without any sensor mounted on the tip jaws. Further to non-invasive actuation of the tip, the proposed instrument is also able to change the grasping direction during surgical operation. Modular design of the instrument allows conversion between surgical modalities (e.g., grasping, cutting, and dissecting). The main focus of this paper is on evaluation of the grasping force capability of the proposed instrument. The mathematical formulation of fenestrated insert is presented and its non-linear behaviour is studied. In order to measure the stiffness of soft tissues, a device was developed that is also described in this chapter. Tissue characterisation experiments were conducted and results are presented and analysed here. The experimental results verify the capability of the proposed instrument in accurately measuring grasping forces and in characterising artificial tissue samples of varying stiffness.

Mohsen Moradi Dalvand, Bijan Shirinzadeh, Saeid Nahavandi, Fatemeh Karimirad, Julian Smith

Chapter 37. Perception and Trust Towards a Lifelike Android Robot in Japan

This paper reports the results from an experiment examining people’s perception and trust when interacting with an android robot. Also, they engaged in an economic trust game with the robot. We used the physical distance to the robot, and questionnaires to measure the participants’ character and their perception of the robot. We found influences of the subject’s character onto the amount sent in the trust game and distance changes over the three interaction tasks. The perception of the robot changed after the interaction trials towards less anthropomorph and less intelligent, but safer.

Kerstin Sophie Haring, Yoshio Matsumoto, Katsumi Watanabe

Chapter 38. A Wearable Walking-Aid System For Visual-Impaired People Based on Monocular Top-View Transform

This paper presents a wearable system which can provide walking-aids for visual-impaired people in an outdoor environment. Unlike many existing systems that rely on stereo cameras or combination of other sensors, the proposed system aims to do the job by using just single camera mounted at user’s belly. One of the main difficulties of using single camera in outdoor navigation task is the discrimination of obstacles with cluttered background. To solve this problem, this paper makes use of the inhomogeneous re-sampling property of top-view transform. By mapping the original image to a top-view virtual plane using top-view transform, background edges in the near-field are sub-sampled while obstacle edges in the far-field are oversampled. Morphology filters with connected component analysis are used to enhance obstacle edges as edge-blobs with larger size, whereas sparse edges from background are filtered out. Based on the identified obstacles, safe path can be estimated by tracking a polar edge-blob histogram on the top-view domain. To deliver the safe direction to the user, an audio message interface is designed. The system is tested in different outdoor scenes with complex road conditions, and its efficiency has been confirmed.

Qing Lin, Youngjoon Han

Chapter 39. Design and Characterization of a Model Fatigue Testing Machine for Academic Laboratories

Many engineering machines and mechanical components are subjected to fluctuating stresses, taking place at relatively high frequencies and under these conditions failure is found to occur. This is “fatigue failure”. And this led to the invention of a fatigue testing machine. In view of effective design that will not fail accidentally, this research is conceived. This testing machine will determine the strength of materials under the action of fatigue load. Specimens are subjected to repeated varying forces or fluctuating loading of specific magnitude while the cycles or stress reversals are counted to destruction. The first test is made at a stretch that is somewhat under the ultimate strength of the material. The second test is made at a stress that is less that than that used in the first. The process is continued, and results are plotted.

Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Clementina Ogochukwu Okeke, Lazarus Onyebuchi Chima

Chapter 40. The 2007–2009 Financial Crisis and Credit Derivatives

We discuss the relationship between investor payoffs and credit derivatives such as credit default swaps (CDSs) and mortgage-related collateralized debt obligations (CDOs). In this regard, we investigate the role that the interplay between these components played in the global financial crisis (GFC). More specifically, we develop a stochastic model for investor payoffs from investment in CDO tranches that are protected by CDSs. In a continuous-time framework, this model enables us to solve a stochastic optimal credit default insurance problem that has investor consumption and investment in structured mortgage products as controls. Finally, we provide numerical results involving mezzanine CDO tranches being hedged by CDSs and explain their link with the GFC.

Mmboniseni Mulaudzi, Mark Petersen, Janine Mukuddem-Petersen

Chapter 41. Research Studies on Irreversible Relative Movements (Creeping) in Rolling Bearing Seats Regarding the Influential Parameters and the Remedies

The effect of irreversible relative movements, i.e., creeping, in rolling bearing seats is a highly topical issue. Creeping leads to a continuous rotation of the bearing ring relative to the connection geometry (housing or shaft). Creeping may cause wear in the bearing seats, eventually resulting in bearing failure. Therefore, creeping must absolutely be avoided. This study focused on the influential factors that cause the creeping phenomena. In addition, methods to reduce the effects of creeping were defined. Finally, an algorithm for the determination of the critical creeping load was developed. This work enables the user to develop concrete information to optimise a bearing with respect to the bearing seat design and the selection of the roller bearing to prevent creep damage.

Erhard Leidich, Andreas Maiwald

Chapter 42. Erlang Distribution and Exponential Distribution Models in Wireless Networks

Two mathematical models of wireless networks are analyzed in the given chapter. We demonstrate that the Erlang family provides more flexibility in modeling that exponential family, which only has one parameter. For this purposes one model has special Erlang distribution and second one is using exponential distribution. In practical situations, the Erlang family provides more flexibility in fitting a distribution to real data that the exponential family provides. The Erlang distribution is also useful in queueing analysis because of its relationship to the exponential distribution. To demonstrate the applicability of the Erlang distribution, we consider two queueing models, represented radio channels where the interarrival times between failure have the Erlang Distribution for FIRS model and Exponential distribution for second model.

Lela Mirtskhulava, Giorgi Gugunashvili, Mzia Kiknadze

Chapter 43. On the Numerical Solution of Multi-dimensional Diffusion Equation with Non Local Conditions

In this paper, we investigate the solution of multi-dimensional diffusion equation using decomposition method. We consider two cases: a two-dimensional equation with non local boundary conditions and a three-dimensional equation with an integral condition. The method is reliable and gives a solution in a series form with high accuracy. It also guarantees considerable saving of calculation volume and time as compared to traditional methods. The obtained results show that the decomposition method is efficient and yields a solution in a closed form.

Ahmed Cheniguel

Chapter 44. Parameter Identification for Population Equations Modeling Erythropoiesis

Physiological models explaining the anemia of chronic kidney disease have become more complicated over the last years. Identification of model parameters poses difficulties as measurements are very limited. A model for erythropoiesis, consisting of coupled partial differential equations, is adapted to individual patients. The numerical approximations make use of evolution operators and are based on the theory of abstract Cauchy problems. The abstract Cauchy problems corresponding to the model equations are approximated by Cauchy problems on finite-dimensional subspaces of the state space of the original problem. A low approximation dimension suffices to obtain accurate numerical solutions and estimates for the parameters. An example of (locally) well identifiable parameters expressing numerical convergence for increasing dimensions of the finite dimensional approximating system is discussed. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a clever choice of cost-functionals can reduce the observation time needed for parameter identification from 150 to 90 days.

Doris H. Fuertinger, F. Kappel

Chapter 45. Design Support System of Fishing Vessel Through Simulation Approach

The objective of this work is to create a module for a ship maneuvering simulator, which will allow the training of the crews of vessels in deep water. In this work we developed a system of “artificial intelligence” to model marine biological entities: this system can simulate the movement of a school of fish in a realistic manner. In addition, we developed an analysis of the main instruments on board and problems relating to the virtual simulation.

Stefano Filippi, Piero Giribone, Roberto Revetria, Alessandro Testa, Guido Guizzi, Elpidio Romano

Chapter 46. Fuzzy Controller Design for an FCC Unit

This paper examines the procedure for a nonlinear modeling and fuzzy controller design of a Fluidized Catalytic Cracking Unit, also known as FCCU. The case study is an FCCU plant in Abadan Refinery, Iran. FCCU is one of the most important sections in the Petrochemical industry. In 2006 alone, FCCUs refined one-third of the Crude Oil worldwide. FCCUs convert heavy distillates, such as Gasoil (feed) and Crude Oil, to Gasoline, Olefinic gases and other more usable products. Factors including but not limited to FCCU’s high efficiency, and daily price fluctuations in Gas, Oil and Petrochemical products, make the optimization of such units the center of focus for both engineers and investors. Unlike the conventional controllers, Fuzzy Logic is the perfect choice for stochastic, dynamic and nonlinear processes where the mathematical model of the plant cannot be produced, or if realizable, a great deal of approximation is involved. The heuristic approach in Fuzzy Logic controllers is the closest form to the human language, and this virtue will make it a perfect candidate for a wide range of industrial applications. The investigations in this paper are simulated and proven by MATLAB Fuzzy Logic Toolbox R2013a. In this paper, the applicability and promising features of Fuzzy Logic controllers for such a complex and demanding plant will be investigated.

Hossein Tootoonchy, Hassan H. Hashemi

Chapter 47. A Cost-Criticality Based (Max, +) Optimization Model for Operations Scheduling

The following work proposes a (max, +) optimization model for scheduling batch transfer operations in a flow network by integrating a cost/criticality criterion to prioritize conflicting operations in terms of resource allocation. The case study is a seaport for oil export where real industrial data has been gathered. The work is extendable to flow networks in general and aims at proposing a general, intuitive algebraic modeling framework through which flow transfer operations can be scheduled based on a criterion that integrates the potential costs due to late client service and critical device reliability in order to satisfy a given set of requests through a set of disjoint alignments in a pipeline network. The research exploits results from previous work and it is suitable for systems handling different client priorities and in which device reliability has an important short-term impact on operations.

Karla Quintero, Eric Niel, José Aguilar, Laurent Piétrac

Chapter 48. Detailed Analysis of Deformation Behavior of Plexiform Bone Using Small Specimen Testing and Finite Element Simulation

Bone is a complex anisotropic and heterogeneous material. The structure of bone material is considered to be hierarchical in nature that changes from nano to macro level. Small punch testing, used in the present study, is a very useful technique to analyze the deformational behavior of materials that are difficult to obtain in a sufficient size for conventional mechanical testing. The finite element modeling (FEM) of small punch testing was carried out using ABAQUS code. The material properties of cortical bone for FE simulation were considered to be both isotropic and transversely isotropic in nature. This study shows that isotropic tensile properties of cortical bone are sufficient to predict the deformational behavior of cortical under small punch testing.

Nitin Kumar Sharma, Swati Sharma, Daya K. Sehgal, Rama Kant Pandey

Chapter 49. Factors Affecting the Intention to Leave Among White-Collar Employees in Turkey

Intention to leave refers to conscious and deliberate willfulness to leave the organization. Job satisfaction and organizational commitment are the two most important factors which play an important role in determining employees’ intention to leave their job. The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of job satisfaction, organizational commitment’s components (affirmative, continuance, normative), perceived organizational support, and job stress on white-collar employees’ intention to leave in Turkey. A structural equation-modelling approach was applied to identify the variables that significantly affect the intention to leave. Using LISREL, data collected from 225 employees were used to test the proposed model. Results indicated that seventy two percentage of white-collar employees’ intention to leave is explained by job satisfaction, affective commitment, and normative commitment. Among them, job satisfaction has the strongest effect.

Ecem Basak, Esin Ekmekci, Yagmur Bayram, Yasemin Bas

Chapter 50. Risk Appraisal in Engineering Infrastructure Projects: Examination of Project Risks Using Probabilistic Analysis

Understanding the significant implication of uncertainty is an important step in infrastructure project appraisals. A detailed discussion and application of a risk-based, cost-benefit analytical framework with focus on the analysis of likelihood of risks is presented in this chapter. Three risk analysis tools (i.e. Monte Carlo simulation, Latin Hypercube sampling, and engineering reliability analysis) are presented and compared based on their efficiency and accuracy. Likelihood of risk was represented by a project’s probability of investment loss. The framework was applied to a residential property in Melbourne, Australia, with house price as an uncertain variable. It was shown that engineering reliability analysis was the most accurate and efficient in calculating a probability of loss in a 3-year investment duration. In addition, Latin Hypercube sampling, requiring 50 to 100 iterations for convergence, was superior to Monte Carlo simulation which needed 500 to 1000 iterations. Finally, an integrated model is presented to estimate the project risk in term of expected loss.

Jane Lai, Lihai Zhang, Colin Duffield, Lu Aye

Chapter 51. Virtual Production Intelligence: Process Analysis in the Production Planing Phase

To gain a better and deeper understanding of cause and effect dependencies in complex production processes it is necessary to represent these processes for analysis as good and complete as possible. Virtual Production is a main contribution to reach this objective. To use the Virtual Production effectively in this context, a base that allows a holistic, integrated view of information that is provided by IT tools along the production process has to be created. The goal of such an analysis is the possibility to identify optimization potentials in order to increase product quality and production efficiency. The presented work will focus on a simulation based planning phase of a production process as core part of the Virtual Production. An integrative approach which represents the integration, analysis and visualization of data generated along such a simulated production process is introduced. This introduced system is called Virtual Production Intelligence and in addition to the integration possibilities it provides a context-sensitive information analysis to gain more detailed knowledge of production processes.

Daniel Schilberg, Tobias Meisen, Rudolf Reinhard

Chapter 52. Operating Room Scheduling Problems: A Survey and a Proposed Solution Framework

Healthcare is becoming one of the fast growing industries in both, the developed and developing countries. Operating rooms provide a large portion of hospital revenue; hence, scheduling operation room surgeries is very important to maximize profits. This paper reviews the three operating room scheduling problems: the case mix problem, the master surgery scheduling problem and the surgery scheduling problem. Also, the paper introduces a research framework for an integrated planning method for the three problems.

Zakaria Abdelrasol, Nermine Harraz, Amr Eltawil

Chapter 53. Improving the Logistics Operations of the Hospital Pharmacy Using a Barcode-Rfid Identification System

Medicine represents a critical component of healthcare but impacts negatively the quality of healthcare systems because it faces serious issues such as medical errors, adverse impacts on the environment and the growing presence of counterfeit products. Despite medicines specifications and inefficiencies could contribute to their increasing cost in the healthcare sector, very little research has been published on the main issues affecting the management of medicines and how technology systems could collaborate to improve their management. Within the scope of this paper, we will concentrate on analyzing the main inefficiencies of logistics processes executed by the hospital pharmacy and identifying how an RFID-barcode identification system could improve pharmacy operations. Based on process mapping and qualitative data obtained from semi-structured interviews, this paper describes six main inefficiencies namely incorrect inventory management, medicine shrinkage, intensive manual labor, long procurement cycles, time-consuming product recalls and improper use of technology. By identifying cases and bundles with RFID technologies and primary and secondary packages with barcode labels, hospital pharmacy could ensure that medicines don’t affect severely the sustainability of healthcare system in general and the patient security in particular.

Alejandro Romero

Chapter 54. Algorithms for the Circle-Packing Problem via Extended Sequence-Pair

The circle-packing problem is a problem of packing circles into a two dimensional area such that none of them overlap with each other. Each of the former methods has its own difficulty; some of them are only applicable to the case that the area the circles are to be packed into has a special shape; some of them require different search technique according as the shape of the area. Also, most of the former methods search in a restricted neighbor. In addition, there exist unsearchable location of circles. These facts mean former methods cannot assure global optimization. Hence, in the present paper, we propose sequence-pair for circle packing (SPC), a method of representing relative location of circle pairs, which is an extended version of sequence-pair for rectangles. We propose also a method of obtaining an approximate solution of the circle-packing problem, where all constraints are replaced by approximate linear inequalities.

Shuhei Morinaga, Hidenori Ohta, Mario Nakamori

Chapter 55. Integration of Knowledge-Based Approach in SHM Systems

This paper discusses the potentials for integration of knowledge-based techniques in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). Knowledge-based techniques and methods reinforce health assessment and influence on predictive maintenance of structures. A concept of the knowledge-based approach is developed. In particular, toolboxes for a simple numerical 3-degree of freedom (dof)-model and for force reconstruction at Canton Tower are implemented, respectively. The case studies deepen the insight into identifying needs in the field of SHM to employ knowledge-based approaches, especially in the reasoning process. The proposed concept lays the ground for future research in the field of SHM for utilizing knowledge-based methods in correlation with SHM algorithms and analysis of feedbacks obtained from sensors, engineering expertise and users former experience. The foresight is to broaden the scope for applying Knowledge Management (KM) techniques and methods towards developing a decision-making component for supporting SHM systems, and in turn fostering the detection, localization, classification, assessment and prediction.

Fazel Ansari, Inka Buethe, Yan Niu, Claus-Peter Fritzen, Madjid Fathi

Chapter 56. Models Supporting Project Subcontractors Selection for Main Types of Contracts

Depending on your view of the allocation of risk between the project owner and contractor use are three main types of contracts. In this paper, we analyze the problem optimal selection of subcontractors in the case of the application a fixed price, cost-plus and time and materials contracts. Models described in the article can be found applicable in the relations between the project owner and the contractor and between the contractor and subcontractors. As a methodological basis we use the multi-criterial decision model assigning each task to specific contractors (subcontractors) in the project with the function of distribution of penalties arising from delayed completion and potential benefits in the event of early project termination.

Pawel Blaszczyk, Tomasz Blaszczyk
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