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Über dieses Buch

This two-volume set CCIS 961 and 962 constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of the First International Conference on Transdisciplinary Multispectral Modeling and Cooperation for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage, TMM_CH 2018, held in Athens, Greece, in October 2018.

73 revised full papers of 237 submissions are included in these volumes. The papers of the first volume are organized in the following topical sections: the project of the rehabilitation of Holy Sepulchre’s Holy Aedicule as a pilot multispectral, multidimensional, novel approach through transdisciplinary and cooperation in the protection of monuments; digital heritage; novel educational approach for the preservation of monuments; resilience to climate change and natural hazards; conserving sustainably the materiality of structures and architectural authenticity; and interdisciplinary preservation and management of cultural heritage. And the papers of the second volume are organized in the following topical sections: sustainable preservation and management lessons learnt on emblematic monuments; cross-discipline earthquake protection and structural assessment of monuments; cultural heritage and pilgrimage tourism; reuse, circular economy and social participation as a leverage for the sustainable preservation and management of historic cities; inception – inclusive cultural heritage in Europe through 3D semantic modelling; heritage at risk; and advanced and non-destructive techniques for diagnosis, design and monitoring.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Opening Lecture

Frontmatter

The Project of the Rehabilitation of Holy Sepulchre’s Holy Aedicule as a Pilot Multispectral, Multidimensional, Novel Approach Through Transdisciplinarity and Cooperation in the Protection of Monuments

The Holy Aedicule of the Holy Sepulchre, an emblematic monument that has survived throughout the centuries, recently underwent a major and demanding rehabilitation under the responsibility of the National Technical University of Athens Interdisciplinary Team. The requirement for reinstating structural integrity to the Holy Aedicule, for preservation of the values it represents and for achieving a sustainable rehabilitation in a demanding environment, demanded a complex framework of cooperation between different disciplines and the religious and societal carriers. Innovations were developed and successfully implemented in order to assist in achieving the project goals, marking future trends in the field of monuments protection. The rehabilitation of the Holy Aedicule, through fruitful cooperation between engineering disciplines, evolved beyond a purely engineering achievement into an emblematic example of transdisciplinarity, where Holistic Innovation and Research are intertwined with Social accessibility and the Sciences of Archaeology and Theology, creating new paths into discovering the secrets of the Tomb of Christ.

Antonia Moropoulou, Manolis Korres, Andreas Georgopoulos, Constantine Spyrakos, Charalambos Mouzakis, Kyriakos C. Lampropoulos, Maria Apostolopoulou

The Project of the Rehabilitation of Holy Sepulchre’s Holy Aedicule as a Pilot Multispectral, Multidimensional, Novel Approach Through Transdisciplinarity and Cooperation in the Protection of Monuments

Frontmatter

The Holy Sepulchre as a Religious Building

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre was shaken by a strong earthquake in 1927, which seriously damaged the Aedicule inside. The three denominations which were responsible for the Aedicule – the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem, the Roman Catholic (Franciscan) Custodian and the Armenian apostolic Church – could only agree at that time on the most necessary work on the Holy Sepulchre to be done; as a result the Aedicule was in danger of collapse. In 1947 the former British mandate government was forced to support the Aedicule with steel pillars. The interior and exterior of the Aedicule was also damaged by candle soot, which affected the entire construction of the building. Particularly, older frescoes and writings adoring the Aedicule were covered in soot. Much later, in 2016/2017 the three denominations agreed on a restoration and it was commissioned to the renowned engineer Prof. Dr. Antonia Moropoulou and her team from NTU Athens. From the context of these disputes it becomes clear that the building of the Holy Sepulchre is not easy to be separated form its religious significance. Specifically, it has a special geopolitical significance in the whole history of its existence due to its religious dynamics. The paper will show the historical development of the Holy Sepulchre Church building through important sources in the first and second millennium. Furthermore, it will also be pointed the inter-religious significance of the Church. In particular, the ceremony of the Holy Fire on Holy Saturday will be mentioned, which was once celebrated not only as a Christian event, but also by Muslims on 9th and 10th centuries. This ceremony also played an important symbolic role in the separation between the East and West Christianity. The entire building of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre can be understood properly only if its religious significance in time can be recognized. The paper will focus for this reason on the historical-religious significance of the building. This church is an example of how religion can become the protector or the destroyer of Cultural Heritage.

Stefanos Athanasiou

Preliminary Assessment of the Structural Response of the Holy Tomb of Christ Under Static and Seismic Loading

The complex structure that houses the Holy Tomb of Christ, the so called Holy Aedicule, in the Most Holy Church of the Resurrection in Jerusalem has been imposed to considerable damage and structural reformations during its long history. Before the most recent rehabilitation works performed between 2016 and 2017 by the interdisciplinary team of the National Technical University of Athens, the Holy Aedicule has been reconstructed in 1810; however, no later than the first half of the 20th century, a supporting structure was placed at the monument in order to prevent it from further damage. Extensive structural and non-structural damages in recent years, have led to the urgent need for rehabilitation measures. This paper provides a first stage evaluation of the initial condition of the Holy Aedicule under static and seismic loading. This assessment is a part of the series of studies that preceded the rehabilitation works that were performed by the interdisciplinary team of the National Technical University of Athens, completed in March 2017. Based on this initial evaluation a retrofit scheme was applied in order to eliminate the weaknesses of the bearing structure.

Constantine C. Spyrakos, Charilaos A. Maniatakis, Antonia Moropoulou

Corrosion Protection Study of Metallic Structural Elements for the Holy Aedicule in Jerusalem

This paper concerns the corrosion evaluation and protection study of metallic structural elements embedded in mortars and stone. The corrosion protection study of the metallic structural elements was evaluated at the Holy Aedicule monuments in Jerusalem. Chapel Aedicule, which contains the Holy Sepulchre itself, located in the center of Rotunda. The Aedicule has two rooms, the first holding the Angel’s Stone, which is believed to be a fragment of the large stone that sealed the tomb; the second is the tomb itself. In order to assess the environment and the corrosion rate of the metal components, visual inspection, corrosion potential of embedded metals (Open Circuit Potential) and the electrical conductivity of mortars and stones were measured. The aforementioned measurements resulted that the environment of the metal elements has low to moderate corrosive capacity. However, even if the corrosion environment is moderate, always in the case of monuments when metallic elements involved should be protected.

Eleni Rakanta, Eleni Daflou, Angeliki Zacharopoulou, George Batis, Antonia Moropoulou

Innovative Methodology for Personalized 3D Representation and Big Data Management in Cultural Heritage

Three-dimensional (3D) visualization is an effective way not only to study but also to disseminate the built environment particularly the one of the cultural heritage (CH). The extended growth of the technical means have enabled standardized methods for (semi) automatic 3D model production motivating more and more researchers from various backgrounds (e.g. material scientists) to integrate the aspect of 3D modeling within their work despite the certain limitations concerning the amount and types of the data that have to be managed. In order to facilitate the needs of data management, a scalable, interactive, web-based platform is proposed within this work. The case study over which the proposed methodology has been implemented is the recently rehabilitated Holy Aedicule of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem due to the vast amount of heterogenous data produced for the needs of monument’s documentation before and during rehabilitation. To address this issue, the present study will provide the missing layer that enables the semantic data labeling, through data processing and filtering, and their spatial representation - visualization. Additionally, a straightforward methodology for affordable but of high quality and precision modeling of cultural heritage data and its exploitation towards the delivery of personalized content is achieved. As a result, the derivative georeferenced high-resolution 3D models are transformed resulting in a multi-resolution model management which under the appropriate configuration of the JavaScript components on an interactive web platform.

Emmanouil Alexakis, Evgenia Kapassa, Marios Touloupou, Dimosthenis Kyriazis, Andreas Georgopoulos, Antonia Moropoulou

Governance and Management of the Holy Edicule Rehabilitation Project

This paper presents the key aspects of Governance and Management of the project that rehabilitated, reinforced and conserved the Holy Edicule in the Holy Church of the Resurrection in Jerusalem. The overall approach was based on the continuous communication and collaboration with the three Christian communities who share the principal responsibility for the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This was combined with full transparency on all aspects of the project and intense publicity and external communication so that the progress of the work would be shared and publicized to the media of the world at large. The Church of the Holy Sepulchre and the Holy Edicule have been monuments of ecumenical love and devotion throughout the centuries and we wanted to accentuate this by making the project available to the world. The coordination of the scientific and the managerial team was founded on frequent meetings where all key people would participate and contribute to the resolution of the issues and sound decision making. The quality of the work and the decision making was made possible by the analysis and storage of all emergent data with the full deployment of scientific equipment and digital technologies. The high level of uncertainty in the first four months of the project made it necessary to adopt an agile approach to decision making and management. The stakeholders and the project teams should be ready and able to respond quickly to emergent data about the monument and its features, by making the necessary adjustments to the project plan, schedule and budget, and ensuring that we would put the knowledge gained to good use. The project was successfully completed on time and with a small increase of total expenditure compared to the original budget.

Antonia Moropoulou, Nikolaos Moropoulos

Digital Heritage

Frontmatter

Branding Strategies for Cultural Landscape Promotion: Organizing Real and Virtual Place Networks

Neoteric Western civilization refers to the historic past of the ancient Greek city of Sparta proclaiming it as an initial paradigm of up-standing, virtuous governance and political formation. It was the acknowledgment of the previous correlation between neoteric references and Hellenic classical antiquity that drove the School of Architecture of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), in collaboration with the University of Peloponnese, to undertake a research program concerning the development of a ‘place branding’ strategy for the promotion of the cultural landscape of the territory of contemporary municipality of Sparta.The research proposal that will be presented insists on the creation of landscape visitors’ networks, connecting important focal places of historic importance in the interior of the urban structure, as well as in the surroundings of the contemporary city, with exceptional interest for the zone of river Eurotas. However the most important concern of the proposal is associated not with the real landscape treatment, but rather with the interrelation of material landscape networks to virtual space narrative references, attempting to bring visitors in immediate contact with libraries, museums and galleries of the world, where the mythological and historic past of the real, contemporary landscape of Sparta is treasured up.

Konstantinos Moraitis

3D Survey of a Neoclassical Building Using a Handheld Laser Scanner as Basis for the Development of a BIM-Ready Model

This paper explores the application of two widely-used digital technologies, Digital documentation using laser scanning and Building Information Modelling (BIM), in the case of neoclassical buildings. Laserscanning with a handheld scanner was used for the 3D documentation of a neoclassical building in Athens, including exterior and internal spaces. The resulting point cloud dataset constitutes the primary survey record of the neoclassical building in its current state (as-existing). Finally, a BIM-ready model of the existing structure was proposed as an alternative method for the production of coordinated 2D drawings and facilitating requirements of subsequent development of the project.

Dimitrios-Ioannis Psaltakis, Katerina Kalentzi, Athena-Panagiota Mariettaki, Antonios Antonopoulos

Exploring the Possibilities of Immersive Reality Tools in Virtual Reconstruction of Monuments

In the last decades digital technologies have been employed in the field of cultural heritage for various purposes. Immersive visualization, digital reconstruction of archaeological sites and findings and virtual reality applications are only a few potential tools available when studying the past. The aim of this paper is to present the digital reconstruction of an archaic column, a research conducted at the Digital Media Lab, Technical University of Crete, in coordination with the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports. The 3D models of five very heavy parts of an archaic column were used for studying and virtually reconstructing the complete column. The column was part of an archaic temple unique in size and in type for the area of Chania, in West Crete, Greece. Structure from Motion technique was applied for the reproduction of high quality and accurate digital models of five sandstone drums. Specifically Agisoft Photoscan software was combined with fast, easy and low cost equipment. Furthermore our research team is currently investigating ways to utilize immersive reality for the reconstruction of the archaic column. The five 3D models that were produced with the SfM, are being uploaded as .obj files into Google Tilt Brush. Subsequently the user can experiment by moving, rotating and scaling the individual 3D parts in a 3D environment in real time, in Vive HTC, thus drastically simplifying the digital reconstruction process for similar projects. Finally, a hypothetical façade and a plan view of a similar archaic temple were transcribed in opaque sketches and imported in the immersive reality environment in order to serve as the canvas on which the 3D reconstruction of the column can take place in real scale.

Panagiotis Parthenios, Theano Androulaki

Reconstruction and Visualization of Cultural Heritage Artwork Objects

Cultural heritage artwork objects usually consist of multiple surfaces with details that become more apparent over time. The most common deformations concern the composition of materials, the use of objects. Reconstruction techniques are used for building 3D models of existing objects from sensor data such as laser scanner and photogrammetry data. Similarly, we can use additional types of sensor data for reconstructing (i) the micro-structure of the object (dents, bumps, cracks) or (ii) the material layers that lie underneath the external surface.We report on the development of methods for digitally reconstructing and visualizing cultural heritage objects including their material consistency and their micro-structure.

Anastasia Moutafidou, Ioannis Fudos, George Adamopoulos, Anastasios Drosou, Dimitrios Tzovaras

Vandalized Frescoes’ Virtual Retouching

In this study, we present the results of the application of virtual color restoration on the vandalized frescoes of the Church of Saint John (located in the courtyard of the University of West Attica Campus II). In order to retrieve the monument’s interior and exterior, three-dimensional scanning technology and photogrammetry were implemented in two distinct periods. In 2010, scanning through terrestrial laser scanner and capturing the interior were held. documentation via photogrammetry took place in 2016. Due to the extensive vandalism that suffered its interior, the current documentation was limited only to the monument’s exterior. For the application of digital color restoration, firstly we decided to individually apply the three retouching techniques in the virtual environment: chromatic abstraction, neutral color and mimetic color restoration technique. As the optical result of the virtual interventions was not aesthetically correct, we decided to combine contemporary aesthetic approaches, as well as basic retouching techniques and apply them in an original way: chromatic abstraction, neutral color and mimetic color restoration technique, which lead to a new mixed method. According to the Venice Charter article 9 retouching aims to restore the aesthetic value of the monument with respect to its historic value and must stop where conjecture begins. Furthermore, the retouching techniques should be visibly distinct by the authentic painting layer and any intervention made should be based on archaeological and historical knowledge. Therefore, the workflow which was decided to follow, complied with the Code of Ethics of Conservation of Cultural Heritage.

Melina Aikaterini Vlachou, Dimitrios Makris, Leonidas Karampinis

Idea: Ancient Greek Science and Technology

The exhibition IDEA - Ancient Greek Science and Technology presents, in a synthetic way, the advancement of greek thought and innovation which created a series of scientific fields, parallel to the discovery of a multitude of technical and technological achievements. The Exhibition highlights all those elements that raised the Ancient Greek world at the wondrous level everyone recognizes, defining the western and consequently the modern world. The exhibition objectives are: Presenting to the public the connection between science and technology in Ancient Greece. Associating Greek knowledge and innovation and their contribution to the advancement of new cognitive fields. Showcasing the important fields of science, arts and technological achievements in the Greek world. Showcasing the discoveries and achievements of Ancient Greeks and associating them with later developments of knowledge till the present. Reminder of the influence and contribution of those achievements as the basis of the knowledge and the foundations of the western civilization.The exhibition was inaugurated on September 11, 2016 at the NOESIS Technology Museum. Since March 2018 it is installed in Hellenic Cosmos Cultural Center.The modern way of presenting the exhibition and using digital media challenges visitors to get to know the world of ancient Greek science and technology in an understandable and entertaining way. The 19 themes include rich visual material, digital and physical models of technological finds, interactive and audiovisual media, three-dimensional virtual projections, achieving a multidimensional reconstruction of the technology of the ancient world.

Panagiotis Ioannidis, Angeliki Malakasioti, Maria Mavrokostidou

Cross-Sector Collaboration for Organizational Transformation: The Case of the National Library of Greece Transition Programme to the Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center (2015–2018)

2018 marked the year of the relocation of the National Library of Greece (NLG) from a centrally located 19th century neoclassical building, where it had been housed since 1903, to its new seaside premises at the Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center (SNFCC). After being in a state of neglect for almost 20 years, the NLG had to undergo a major transformation before it could move and be able to function in the new building; the collections had to be prepared for safe relocation, new services had to be designed, the public image of the Library needed to be revisited and staff skills had to be developed. The transition of the NLG to the new building was made possible thanks to a designated grant of €5 million from the Stavros Niarchos Foundation (SNF). The Transition Programme was carried out between 2015 and 2018 and was divided in 5 actions: 1. Collections Transition and Development, 2. Digital Services Development, 3. Public Library Department Design, 4. Audience Development and 5. Staff Training. The current paper gives an overview of this large scale, cross-sectoral Public-Private-People Partnership, focusing on the multidisciplinary projects that were designed and implemented, key challenges and successes, innovations and open-ended issues.

Julia Elmaloglou, Georgia Angelaki, Stephania Xydia

Volos in the Middle Ages: A Proposal for the Rescue of a Cultural Heritage

In this paper the history of the ‘unknown’ Medieval Volos will be studied and an attempt will be made to promote the cultural heritage of the Byzantine era. The effort will be completed with the proposal to create a thematic museum in the area of the Castle of Palea and a cultural route through the points of interest we have identified. The aim of the survey is to create a tourist attraction and thus to improve cultural tourism. Furthermore, knowing the history of our region means to know the evolution followed by the society. This is important because many people ignore the history of this period. For the region of Volos we have a lot of historical evidence for earlier historical periods, such as Neolithic and Classical. However, it remains unknown what happened in the region during the medieval period from the 4th to the 15th century AD.

Konstantia Triantafyllopoulou

Information Technology, Smart Devices and Augmented Reality Applications for Cultural Heritage Enhancement: The Kalamata 1821 Project

The purpose of this paper is to present the development of a modern web multimedia application named “Kalamata Action Map”. The application provides a map based environment for users to exploit the Messenian landscape of the early 19th century thus enhancing our understanding on temporal and spatial interactions of that Era and towards the present. Designed for educational and touristic purposes, using historic material as a starting point “Kalamata Action Map” takes advantage of the intriguing urban surroundings, avoiding the limitations imposed by a closed museum environment. The application will be developed for use over the internet with open access. Data and images of landscape and architectural features, artifacts, everyday life etc. associated with historical information in reference to the War for Greek Independence and the establishment of the Modern Greek State will be integrated in a friendly and enticing way offering a unique user experience.The application provides interactive maps of the city of Kalamata, serving as an exciting and modern depiction of the historic events that led to the beginning of the War for Greek Independence in 1821. Moreover, and additionally to the various historic, folklore and architectural elements, the application will also include digital representations of artworks and everyday objects and suggested routes for nearby destinations in the Prefecture of Messenia, therefore creating a digital network of interconnecting locations of historic interest, improving their commercial and touristic connections. The use of the application has the potential to serve as a significant reference point both for residents and visitors.

Vayia V. Panagiotidis, George Malaperdas, Eleni Palamara, Vasiliki Valantou, Nikolaos Zacharias

DiscoVRCoolTour: Discovering, Capturing and Experiencing Cultural Heritage and Events Using Innovative 3D Digitisation Technologies and Affordable Consumer Electronics

Recent years have seen the growing digitisation of cultural heritage, leveraged by innovative information technologies (imaging technologies, multimedia, virtual reality etc.). Advanced digitisation technologies have been instrumental in transforming conservation and scientific research methods regarding cultural heritage, as well as people’s experience of cultural heritage relics, monuments and events, thus paving the way for novel consumer services. The present paper revolves around the use of advanced 2D/3D digital scanning of large scale objects and surroundings and the valorisation of the digital spatial models produced, in order to advance preservation efforts, to enhance scientific research work and to create unique, immersive cultural experiences, using affordable consumer electronics. With regards to the latter, the proposed DiscoVRCoolTour prototype specifically targets the production, marketing and consumption of cultural tourism. Digitisation technologies are already in use in the context of cultural tourism (e.g. in museums and monuments). However, limited research and solutions can be found with respect to the interaction between cultural heritage, scan/photo and immersive technologies, potential customers’ and visitors’ experiences in the cultural tourism locations, events and attractions. Physical as well as virtual customer services based on digitisation technologies for cultural tourism attractions, locations and entire destinations are still not exploited properly.Overall, a manifold of applications and services can be generated from the adoption and adaptation of relevant 2D/3D digital scanning technologies already applied in other sectors (e.g. construction industry). In this context, the paper first presents relevant digital technologies for digital data acquisition of large scale objects and surroundings and discusses critical aspects of the proposed solution, namely with regards to digital imaging, scan/photographing methods, virtual reality experience, secure metadata storage, etc. Subsequently, the applications and expected benefits of the DiscoVRCoolTour prototype for cultural heritage conservation and valorisation are discussed, including new emerging forms of cooperation and novel “technology-induced” business models.

Constantin Makropoulos, Dimitra Pappa, René Hellmuth, Alexander Karapidis, Stephan Wilhelm, Vassilis Pitsilis, Florian Wehner

The Digitization of the Tangible Cultural Heritage and the Related Policy Framework

Nowadays, the digital revolution has changed the conventional way of acquiring images and reproduction of the existing or the imaginary world, leading to new forms and dimensions of the “reality”. The perception of the user is expanded through 360° technology, Augmented Reality (AR), Mixed Reality (MR), Virtual Reality (VR) platforms that originally sprang through the gaming industry and have influenced, among other things, the field of culture, both in terms of its production and its management and enhancement. Our research work aims to present the issues of the related policy framework that arise from the use of the new digital technologies which in our days drastically change the way of management of the Greek tangible cultural heritage. The paper will concentrate at the interaction between archaeological law, copyright law and the use of digital media of creation, promotion and diffusion of tangible cultural heritage.

Konstantina Siountri, Evangelia Vagena, Dimitrios D. Vergados, Joseph Stefanou, Christos-Nikolaos Anagnostopoulos

Novel Educational Approach for the Preservation of Monuments

Frontmatter

Authentic Learning to Better Prepare for Preservation Work

Cultural heritage preservation has developed from an insular vocation into a field of innovative scientific methodologies characterized by a holistic approach combining a range of scientific fields. Unfortunately, preservation education has not been able to keep pace with all these developments. In this paper authentic learning is analyzed as a possible educational scenario to help improve preservation education to connect to the state of affairs at the preservation workplace. The purpose is to sketch an educational framework based on knowledge and experiences with authentic learning in other engineering fields as a primer for the design and implementation of ‘authentic learning for preservation’. From the analysis it becomes clear that authentic learning can support the selection of valuable unknown experiences and support the design and development of ‘authentic learning for preservation’ experiments to help closing the gap between preservation education and cultural heritage practice. The authentic learning model as presented here clearly supplies a framework to consider in this endeavor. As such the paper can be helpful in the discussion about the usefulness and feasibility of this approach.

Pieter de Vries, Antonia Moropoulou

20 Years of the N.T.U.A. Interdisciplinary Post Graduate Programme “Protection of Monuments”

The National Technical University of Athens Postgraduate Master Program “Protection of Monuments”, organized by the School of Architectural Engineering with co-organization by the School of Chemical Engineering and collaboration with the Schools of Civil Engineering and Rural-Surveying Engineering has offered to the Greek society and to the field of preservation of cultural heritage, 20 years of creative interdisciplinary education of engineers, archaeologists, conservators, natural scientists and other scientists of related disciplines. It provides advanced education and specialization, develops competencies and skills to solve complex problems, in order to educate researchers and professionals in conservation and restoration of architectural heritage and historic materials. The interdisciplinary approach is divided in two Directions of Studies: Direction A “Conservation and restoration of historic buildings”; Direction B “Materials and conservation interventions”. The curriculum of multidisciplinary courses is constantly updated and renewed according to scientific-technological advancements, innovative holistic digital methodologies and international standards. It includes core subjects aiming to scientific specialization and optional subjects aiming to extend and deepen knowledge. During the last 20 years of continuous operation, it has created new successful trends in the development of an interdisciplinary educational system and the infusion of innovation in the process of creative and sustainable preservation of Cultural Heritage. It has also helped to create a new generation of engineers and other experts technologically and scientifically skilled, open minded and collaborative with a creative and visionary approach to the Protection of Monuments. In the near future the program will also be offered to international students.

Irene Efesiou, Eleni Maistrou, Antonia Moropoulou, Maria Balodimou, Antonia Lampropoulou

Education and Training for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage, as a Strategic Aim of the Department of Architecture, Frederick University Cyprus

The Department of Architecture at Frederick University Cyprus offers a five-year program which leads to the professional degree of an Architect Engineer. The aim is to educate future architects, providing them with knowledge and sensitivity on the built environment of the European and Mediterranean region and to become an outstanding academic center for studies in the wider European context. There are 4 compulsory courses that directly deal with architectural history and cultural heritage and another 13 that put cultural heritage as a base for their learning outcomes. In addition, research and diploma project courses give also the option to students, to deal with the analysis of historical buildings and constructional systems, history of architecture, urban restoration projects, integration of contemporary architecture into a heritage environment and intervention proposals. Many courses bring students in direct contact with selected historical buildings and urban complexes. Two compulsory courses include investigation on site, constructional analysis and intervention proposals on selected monuments. The Department offers a Master’s Degree in “Conservation and Restoration of Historical Structures and Monuments”. The aim of the program is to instruct students, not only in the methodology concerning the protection and restoration of historical buildings, but also in the practices, which are nowadays internationally applied in restoration projects. The course accepts students with degrees in architecture, civil engineering, archaeology, history etc. Finally, the Department’s strategic goal is the dissemination of research on heritage conservation to the local society through public lectures, high school student events, cooperation with local authorities and publications.

Marios Pelekanos, Byron Ioannou

Cultural Heritage and Education/Training/Occupational Activity of Engineers in Greece

Culture heritage importance has many aspects. From the influence of our sense of identity to the economic aspects as tourism is a leading industry in culture heritage sites. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether engineers perceive the relation of their education, training and experience received or delivered by them, to activities that include the aspect of cultural heritage. The survey was conducted with an online questionnaire that was filled in by 133 engineers. The demographic, academic and occupational characteristics of the respondents were examined for their impact on the responses. Although the role of engineers in the field of cultural heritage is undoubted, the basic answer was that their studies did not include lessons in this field and they did not prepared them to have professional activity related to cultural heritage. The survey could be extended with interviews for further investigation. Such a survey could give directions for the upgrade of education and training of engineers.

Stamatia Gavela, Anastasia Sotiropoulou

The Historic Centre of Vimercate: Investigation, Education, Community Involvement

In the last three years multidisciplinary investigations have been carried out on a number of historic buildings in the town of Vimercate, near Milan, whose origins date back to the times of the Romans. The red ribbon that ties together all the analyses, carried out in the frame of university courses, is the continuity of the layered structures and the slow evolution of building techniques.Beyond the interest of some new achievements in history of architecture, as it is the case for the medieval S. Antonio’s church and the baroque Trotti Palace, the main value of these activities has been a transfer of knowledge to trigger a changing attitude in preservation and planning policies.In the last decades, the local Municipality did not put the preservation and valorization of built heritage as a leverage for development and quality of life. History was felt just as a burden. Therefore, relevant knowledge was just frozen in old sentences, as if research and innovation had no role in the development of the local community.The organization of activities with schools, associations and people tried to disseminate curiosity and awareness. Some of the activities were also framed in granted projects on preventive conservation. The first tangible outputs have been observed both in the recognition of values in urban regeneration projects, e.g. in the area of the former hospital, and in the principles adopted for the future urban plan.The implementation of multidisciplinary technologies proved to be effective in feeding communication and developing audience. The learning experience in the realm of real processes proved to be effective in improving students’ attitudes.

Stefano Della Torre, Rossella Moioli, Lorenzo Cantini

Connections with the Cultural Heritage in Formal and Informal Learning: The Case of an Interactive Visual Game of School Life Museum in Chania

The game frames the collection of School Life Museum of Chania since September 2018 and is an output of a European partnership between Greece and Turkey under the ERASMUS program on digital story telling and visual teaching and learning in primary education. The game was attempted to support links with open digital resources and national repositories, highlighting cultural heritage as a pedagogical tool and inspiration for formal and informal education.In the interactive game meet and talk through the canvas of an original digital narrative points of the cultural heritage of Crete and Ephesus. Apart from Photodentro and cultural metadata, links are also encouraged with the Center for Greek Language with a digital scenario of the writer focusing on educational cultural heritage. In addition, the game leads users to the digital library for European culture, the Europeana.

Maria A. Drakaki

From Discovery to Exhibition - Recomposing History: Digitizing a Cultural Educational Program Using 3D Modeling and Gamification

The main objective of this paper is to show the need for redefining the role of digitalization in the field of interpreting archaeological sites and museum exhibitions. Digitalization of archaeological fragments provides an excellent research platform, useful to distant researchers. New experiential activities will be provided in the process of knowledge development, communication and sharing. All ages and levels of students make practical, effective use of the produced platform, where, using 3D models, they will study and recompose the past. The aim is to enrich the educational methods, so that they respond fully to sustainable economic and social development. The research presented is developed in two levels. The first creates digital laboratories, where students follow findings from revealing till exhibition. The second investigates the use of this platform as a management tool by professional users (archaeologists, historians, conservators) in order to elaborate fragments of objects or even the whole findings, without real contact. The project enables distant research and mainly the possibility to examine findings that may be lost in future.To meet the above objectives, high-accuracy digital copies and 3D models are of significant importance. The project investigates the potential of using a structured light scanner and image-based modeling. The multi-image techniques using images of findings taken from different angles, distances, level of illumination, create a dense point cloud in 3D space and develop an interface, which enables users to process it using simple tools. The produced ‘game’ offers a playful, interactive and engaging experience. The application developed encompasses important functionality (kinematics, collision detection, point intersection, movement validation, lightmapping, skinning, animation state machines). In addition, the environment of the tool enables the students to provide feedback about the application and the entire experience, which can be used for further study and improvement planning.

Maria Xipnitou, Sofia Soile, Ioannis Tziranis, Michail Skourtis, Alcestis Papadimitriou, Athanasios Voulodimos, Georgios Miaoulis, Charalabos Ioannidis

Resilience to Climate Change and Natural Hazards

Frontmatter

Climate Information for the Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Needs and Challenges

Continued preservation of cultural heritage requires reliable climate information as input for an accurate projection of possible impacts of climate change. Future climate-induced outdoor risks for cultural heritage can in general be estimated from the information provided by Earth System Models (ESMs). In this paper we present the results of the project Climate for Culture. The project focused on damage risk assessment, economic impact and mitigation strategies for sustainable preservation of cultural heritage in times of anthropogenic climate change. We utilized advanced climate modelling techniques with dynamical downscaling and novel analysis methodology allowing better integration of climate information to impact studies on cultural heritage. Challenges of bridging supply and demand of climate information relevant for adaptation measures for the preservation of cultural heritage are also addressed.

Lola Kotova, Daniela Jacob, Johanna Leissner, Moritz Mathis, Uwe Mikolajewicz

Heritage Resilience Against Climate Events on Site - HERACLES Project: Mission and Vision

Europe has a significant cultural diversity together with exceptional ancient architectures and artefact collections that attract millions of tourists every year. This incalculable value and global assets have to be preserved for future generations. The effects of floods, extreme wind storms or rains on these assets are clearly identifiable but it should be worth to note that all these effects are seriously amplified on ancient and fragile assets where advanced techniques, commonly used for modern buildings and structures, cannot be applied to preserve their originality. Moreover, ancient paintings as well as ancient structures, are very sensitive to environmental parameters (e.g. level of moisture in the air, temperature, etc.) and their relative quick leaps undermine the asset from the inside (mould, thermal stress, etc.). Again, in order to preserve ancient buildings and artefacts, dedicated technique, material and methodologies have to be applied to these important and valuable heritages. In order to address all the above challenges, the concept underpinning HERACLES project is to propose a holistic, multidisciplinary and multi-sectorial approach with the aim to provide an operative system and eco-solutions to innovate and to promote a strategy and vision of the future of the CH resilience. The HERACLES vision will be tested in Greece (Koules Fortress in Heraklion and Knossos Palace) and in Italy (historical town of Gubbio - Town Walls and Consoli Palace).

Giuseppina Padeletti

Resilient Eco-Smart Strategies and Innovative Technologies to Protect Cultural Heritage

In all parts of Europe Cultural Heritage represents a significant economic sector on which many communities depend. However, built CH artefacts are under continuous degradation from environmental and anthropological effects, and face significant risk of catastrophic damage from events such as flooding, earthquakes, storm and fires, which are themselves exacerbated by the impact of climate change. Action must be taken to manage these risks and mitigate their effect, however traditional approaches have been fragmented between different areas of expertise and disciplines, without regard to the combined effect of such uncoordinated interventions, leading to ineffective and often detrimental impact on the very assets they seek to protect.Therefore, in this paper we propose a new holistic approach to the effective safeguarding and management of built CH artifacts through the provision of a decision support platform based upon interdisciplinary resilience modelling of current and future risks and interventions, monitoring and analysis of CH assets and natural hazards, creation of a semantic knowledge base and vulnerability, risk and cost modelling for planning and implementing intervention strategies.The main goal of this research is to deliver an architecture that takes account of and supports mitigation of the inter-related impact of environmental, climatic and anthropogenic factors on such significant cultural heritage assets as are represented by the world heritage sites acting as primary use cases for the project. The economic impact of such interventions is also addressed, since the financial importance of tourism at these sites must be balanced with the cost of intervention to protect them whilst recognising the socio-economic benefits to be gained.

Anastasios Doulamis, Kyriakos Lambropoulos, Dimosthenis Kyriazis, Antonia Moropoulou

Interventions on Coastal Monuments Against Climatic Change

Climate change impacts are functioning as risk multipliers to problems which are already apparent and affect cultural heritage sites. Sea Level Rise and increased storm events can damage structures that were not designed to withstand prolonged structural pressure, erosion, and immersion. Risks affecting coastal cultural heritage may stem from exposure to one or more hazards and it is important to facilitate a holistic understanding of factors driving them. Wave energy and overtopping of coastal structures represents a potential hazard for people, property and infrastructure. Especially when the coastal structure is a monument or landmark, mitigation measures and monitoring are needed. Depending on the level of acceptable risk and required degree of certainty related to wave overtopping, coastal engineers rely on predictions from semi-empirical desktop methods and numerical models for answers. Moreover, the anticipated increase in extreme events due to climatic change make protection and prevention action even more necessary. In this work the combination of risk assessment analysis related to increasing sea level and storm frequency, wave numerical modelling, breakwater design and economic sustainability is presented. As a case study, the Venetian Coastal walls of the city of Heraklion are considered. Numerical modelling results were generally found to be consistent with overtopping wave measurements. For the analysis of the wind regime in the near and far future, climatic modelling has been used. Climatic modelling results indicate that for the coastal area of Heraklion the wind speed and directions are expected to change in the near and far future, with an increase in wind speeds but also an increase in the frequency of the wind directions that effect the monuments the most. Based on the results of the measurements and numerical modelling, mitigation actions were proposed that include, increasing the submerged armouring of the Venetian City walls and the use of natural based solutions for low slope areas in order to reduce wave energy, run up and overtopping, reconstruction of the natural environment, so that the monument can be made accessible for longer periods of time.

George Alexandrakis, Georgios V. Kozyrakis, Nikolaos Kampanis

Increasing the Resilience of Cultural Heritage to Climate Change Through the Application of a Learning Strategy

There is growing concern about the threat posed by climate change to cultural heritage, notably to World Heritage properties. Climate change is triggering changes in rainfall patterns, humidity and temperature, as well as increasing exposure to severe weather events that can negatively impact on cultural heritage materials and structures by enhancing the mechanical, chemical and biological processes causing degradation. In response to this climate change challenge, the Climate for Culture (CfC) project, funded by the European Commission, investigated the impacts of climate change on the European cultural heritage through the use of a high-resolution regional climate model that projected future changes in climatic conditions, and simulated the future conditions of the interiors of historical buildings and their impacts on the collections they hold using building simulation tools. This paper compares the climate change impacts on cultural heritage identified by the CfC project with semi-structured interviews with experts working on cultural heritage preservation in Norway, Italy and the UK. Hence, the perceptions of the cultural heritage community on the impacts of climate change on heritage assets are first explored, which are then compared with the risk matrices produced by the CfC project as a decision-support tool to inform managers involved in the preservation of cultural heritage. In addition, the learning strategy underpinning examples of climate change adaptive measures applied to cultural heritage is discussed. Through the identification of the current learning strategy in the case study sites, this research highlights the lack of dissemination of the outcomes of scientific research to managers of cultural heritage in the context of adaptation to climate change impacts.

Elena Sesana, Chiara Bertolin, Arian Loli, Alexandre S. Gagnon, John Hughes, Johanna Leissner

Conserving Sustainably the Materiality of Structures and Architectural Authenticity

Frontmatter

Taxonomy of Architectural Styles and Movements Worldwide Since 8500 BC

An appropriate taxonomy of architectural styles and movements worldwide, since 8500 BC, is provided to be utilized as a basis for the digital documentation of buildings and other architectural constructions.Architecture is classified in unities, so that each one of them is relatively autonomous. Each architectural style or movement corresponds to a particular culture (tribe, religion, ideology), to a particular geographic region (landscape, climate, available materials), to particular functional needs and demands, and to a particular technology.The number of proposed unities is 119. The same classification criteria are applied upon all geographical areas and periods, so that the same scale is provided.

Christos Floros

Monastery of Kimisis Theotokou, Valtessiniko, Arcadia, Greece - Restoration of the Τemple and Integration of New Structures

The presentation concerns the restoration of the temple of Kimisis Theotokou and the older cells of the monastery, as well as the integration of the new buildings into the surrounding area.

Vobiri Julia

Deterioration of Monument Building Materials: Mechanistic Models as Guides for Conservation Strategies

Chemical dissolution and salt crystallization are very important factors contributing to the deterioration and damage of the built cultural heritage consisting of marble and limestone. Understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the calcitic materials damage is necessary for the design of efficient strategy for the prevention of deterioration can be done only through the appropriate kinetics measurements. Kinetics of dissolution of calcitic materials and of the growth of salts of interest should be measured, precisely and reproducibly. In the present work, the rates of dissolution of calcitic marbles (>98% calcite) and sandstone were measured at constant undersaturation and were correlated with the respective solution undersaturation. The dissolution kinetics measurements showed that calcitic limestone at pH 8.25 had a lower dissolution rate constant in comparison with the respective value for Pentelic marble, a calcitic material (ca. 98% calcite). The mechanism was surface diffusion controlled at alkaline pH values. In more acid pH values mass transport became more significant. Reduction of the rates of dissolution was achieved by the addition of substances with functional groups, which may interact with the surface of the calcite crystals. Several inorganic ions (including orthophosphates, pyrophosphates, phosphonates, fluoride and sulfate) and one organic environmentally friendly compound, polycarboxymethyl inulin (CMI) (MW 15000) were tested and their effect on the rates of dissolution was discussed. Phosphonates, were found to have a beneficial effect on the control not only of marble dissolution, but also on the crystallization of damaging soluble salts like NaCl and Na2SO4·10H2O (mirabilite).

Dimitra G. Kanellopoulou, Aikaterini I. Vavouraki, Petros G. Koutsoukos

Interdisciplinary Preservation and Management of Cultural Heritage

Frontmatter

Technological Innovations in Architecture During Antiquity. The Case of Cyprus

Stone, adobe and mortars have constituted the primary building materials throughout antiquity in Cyprus and many other countries in the Mediterranean area. What is impressive is that many structural innovations took place during the first periods of antiquity such as the first use of adobes, the investigation of gypsum and lime manufacture technology as well as the appearance of ashlar stone. In this paper the results of a systematic research regarding the different building materials used during the earliest periods of antiquity in Cyprus are presented. The investigation of prehistoric mortars demonstrated that the discovery of lime and gypsum technology occurred on the island during the Neolithic period while lime mortars were widely disseminated during the Chalcolithic period. Although the production of adobes in Cyprus seems to have been known since the Neolithic period, the use of moulds during their preparation was identified during the Late Bronze Age. The appearance of ashlar stone occurred during the Late Bronze Age, while in the earlier periods only rubble stone was used. It is interesting that each innovation in building technology is associated with other social, economic and political factors of each period. Thus, the first appearance of lime and gypsum mortars as well as the first use of adobe coincided with the first permanent habitation on the island. In parallel, the discovery of crushed-brick lime mortars, the use of moulds in the manufacture of adobes as well as the use of ashlar during the Late Bronze Age can be connected with the development of the first urban settlements with monumental public buildings.

Maria Philokyprou

TLS Survey and FE Modelling of the Vasari’s Cupola of the Basilica dell’Umiltà (Italy). An Interdisciplinary Approach for Preservation of CH

This paper presents an interdisciplinary approach for identification and assessment of historic buildings that combines Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) survey and Finite Element (FE) numerical modeling. The structural analysis of an historic building requires the development of an interconnected series of operations aimed at obtaining a satisfactory knowledge of the building, where usually in-situ investigations are performed together with advanced computational analyses. In this process, the geometric and topographic survey plays a pivotal role and therefore the possibility to rapidly acquire large amounts of spatial data (and to geo-reference any kind of information) allows to provide effective geometric and monitoring data that can be subsequently employed for structural analyses. In this respect, the interchange between Geo-informatics and Engineering sciences can be considered a challenging issue in the field of conservation/preservation of cultural heritage (CH). On the one hand, in fact, the accuracy of measured data directly affects decision-making and analysis process. On the other hand, the merging of digital documentation technologies with innovative computational techniques supports the creation of an inter/trans-disciplinary cooperation model towards sustainable preservation of CH. These issues are herein addressed through the discussion of an emblematic case study: the Cupola of the Basilica dell’Umiltà in Pistoia (Italy) designed and realized by Giorgio Vasari in the middle of the sixteenth century.

Grazia Tucci, Gianni Bartoli, Michele Betti

Interdisciplinary Approaches in Cultural Heritage Documentation: The Case of Rodakis House in Aegina

The surveying and documentation of cultural heritage monuments are widely considered to be the very first steps towards their preservation. In practice, these procedures are undertaken with the use of advanced equipment, which yields the capabilities of detailed recording, representation and digitisation, so as to provide easy access to the material gathered and thus ensure its availability for future research. The expected actions and procedures appear to unfold smoothly when the cultural artifact being documented is public, and is presented as a focal point of cultural interest, ascribing to it an active role in the social, cultural and economic development of the place where it is located. On the contrary, the documentation of private monuments exhibits considerable difficulties in obtaining access permissions, gathering archival material, using specialised technical equipment and coordinating actions in the context of research procedures and interdisciplinary approaches.The vernacular house of Rodakis is a private monument on the island of Aegina. Despite the fact that it was well known during its creator’s lifetime, continued to be a point of attraction and interest for experts and a place of informal education for students, and was officially declared as a monument of cultural heritage, none of the above was able to prevent its destruction, without the required maintenance over time. The changes in its property status established new conditions for the exclusion of experiential visits at the natural monument, which had indeed become dangerous without the necessary restoration works.The references and studies on the character of Rodakis house as a monument of architectural heritage cover a period of 110 years, during which an extended directory of archival material of various types was compiled. Overall, these elements place the house in a prominent position, but have not yet been assembled in a comprehensive interdisciplinary study. The present paper attempts to outline the conditions and the possibilities for cooperation between different scientific fields, in the interdisciplinary surveying and documentation of private architectural monuments.

Georgiadou Zoe, Alexopoulou Athina-Georgia, Ilias Panagiotis

Assessment of Masonry Structures Based on Analytical Damage Indices

In this paper, a methodology is presented aiming to predict the vulnerability of masonry structures under seismic action. Masonry structures, among which many are cultural heritage assets, present high vulnerability under earthquake. Reliable simulations of their response under seismic stresses are exceedingly difficult because of the complexity of the structural system and the anisotropic and brittle behavior of the masonry materials. Within this framework, a detailed analytical methodological approach for assessing the seismic vulnerability of historical and monumental masonry structures is presented, taking into account the probabilistic nature of the input parameters by means of analytically determining fragility curves. The emerged methodology is presented in detail following an in depth application on both theoretical basis and existing cultural heritage masonry structures.

Athanasia Skentou, Maria G. Douvika, Ioannis Argyropoulos, Maria Apostolopoulou, Antonia Moropoulou, Panagiotis G. Asteris

Α Historical Mortars Study Assisted by GIS Technologies

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have a vital role on broadening the understanding of the relationship of space, place, and culture. In recent years, a steady increase in the use of GIS in the fields of Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Management can be attested [1]. GIS has nowadays become one of the most versatile and comprehensive analytical tools in Archaeology in terms of handling archaeological data and exploring human space [2]. In this paper we will present the contribution of GIS in the study of the historical mortars of one of the most important castles in the Peloponnese, the castle of Androusa in Messenia. GIS was used in the documentation of the fortification of the castle and in the organization and archiving of the analyses of mortars. An interactive database was created, including the fortification ground plan, photographs and the results of the analytical study of eleven mortar samples. This database offers an easy access platform of the archiving data, with the potential of continuous update, while maintaining the historical and archaeological data in the same time.

Panagiotis Vryonis, George Malaperdas, Eleni Palamara, Nikos Zacharias

Towards a Blockchain Architecture for Cultural Heritage Tokens

Disputes over Cultural Heritage tokens and collections claims among collectors, organized social groups, countries, ethnicities, even civilizations, are but uncommon over time. Universal ontologies such as the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (ISO 21127:2014) have emerged as global standards over the past years, to allow for seamless structuring and interchange Cultural Heritage artifacts documentation information, in spite of their actual nature (physical, intangible, digital, etc.).Yet, no objective universal procedure exists to safeguard the originality of the records and the archives; the immunity of essential sensitive data of the documentation tokens (dates, places, owners, etc.) is still questionable.Aiming toward a coherent, effective Blockchain architecture to establish an immune, objective, collective archive of the documented Cultural Heritage tokens, the present proposes an implementation based on a comparative analysis of the prominent Blockchain architectures.

Aristidis G. Anagnostakis

Protection and Highlighting of a Waterfront Zone Disposing Strong Cultural Characteristics

The scope of this intervention is to present a project concerning the protection and the functional and aesthetic upgrade of a coastal zone which lies at the tip of the Argolic gulf in the Eastern Peloponnese. The coastal zone connecting two very well-known historic cities Nafplio and Nea Kios runs for approximately 14 km and it disposes some interesting features. It constitutes an important seaside wetland which concentrates rare flora and fauna species, mainly avifauna, having a particular financial importance for the production cycle of food, as well as for the broader balance of the region’s ecology. Important historic and archaeological sites which can and should be highlighted lie in immediate vicinity to that part of the coastal zone, as well as historic rivers which flow into the Argolic gulf, all of which offer the occasion to take a cultural route in the outdoors as it combines elements having environmental, historic and regional value. The protection and highlighting of this zone will contribute on one hand to the sensitization of the local population in matters of cultural heritage and environmental protection, and on the other to the reinforcement of cultural tourism. The study was interdisciplinary, as it required historical and archaeological documentation of the intervention site and had to address urban and development issues, issues of protection of historic sites, natural environment and landscape, architectural issues and issues pertaining to electrical installations, big data and digital enhancement issues and, of course, specialized wetland protection issues.

Dimitris Psychogyios, Helen Maistrou

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