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The paper examines regional and sub-regional differentials in socio-economic transformation of Dalits, officially known as scheduled castes, in Northwest India with the help of three indicators, namely literacy level, residential mobility or degree of urbanization, and rural occupational transformation making district as a unit of data mapping and analysis. Data on these indicators have been used from Census of India, covering a period of six census decades, 1961–2011. Deprivation index method has been used to prepare composite index of socio-economic transformation. In Northwest India, every fifth person belongs to dalit category of population, against the national average of one in each six persons. Dalit population is lagging far behind the general population in socio-economic transformation in different parts of India. There were, however, wide inter- and intra-state disparities in their well-being. Within NW India, Jammu and Kashmir and Chandigarh (UT) recorded the high level of socio-economic development of dalit population, both in 1961 and 2011. But Haryana performed well, especially in comparison to neighboring Punjab, in terms of socio-economic transformation during 1961–2011. It is satisfying that the pace of socio-economic transformation of dalits has accelerated during post-Independence era, narrowing down the wide gap between dalits and general population in the country. This speaks of the success of government sponsored programs and policies for their socio-economic transformation, initiated by the State in Independent India. The former dalit castes are now more awakened in social, political, and economic terms. This trend is likely to continue in future, but with greater benefits to newly emerged elite class within the dalits. The government programs and policies in future must concentrate not only on reducing the inter- and intra-regional disparities in their socio-economic well-being, but also addressing those inequalities found between “dalit” and “non-dalit” castes, on one hand, and “creamy” and “non-creamy” layers within the dalits.
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DALIT CASTES NOTIFIED IN ALL THE FIVE STATES/UTSBatwal/Barwala, Chamar/Ramdasia/Ravidasi, Dumna/Doom, Megh/Julaha/Kabirpanthi, Chura/Bhangi (5).
DALIT CASTES NOTIFIED IN PUNJAB, HARYANA, HIMACHAL PRADESH, AND CHANDIGARHAd-Dharmi, Bangali, Barar, Bauria/Bawaria, Bazigar, Bhanjara, Chanal, Dagi, Darain, Dhanak, Dhogri/Sigi, Gagra, Gandhila/Gandil/Gondola, Khatil, Kori/Koli, Mariya, Mazhabi, Nat, Od, Pasi, Perna, Pherera, Sanhai, Sanhal, Sansi, Sansio, Sapela, Sarera, Sikligar, Sirkiband (30).
DALIT CASTES NOTIFIED ONLY IN PUNJAB AND HARYANADeha/Dhaya/Dhea, Mochi (2).
DALIT CASTES NOTIFIED ONLY IN PUNJABMahatam/Rai Sikh (1).
DALIT CASTES NOTIFIED ONLY IN JAMMU & KASHMIRBasith, Dhyar, Gardi, Ratal, Saryara, Watal (6).
DALIT CASTES NOTIFIED ONLY IN HIMACHAL PRADESHBadhi/Nagalu, Bandhela, Bansi, Barad, Chhimbe/Dhobi, Darai, Daule, Dhaki, Dhaogri, Hali, Hesi, Jogi, Kamoh, Karoack, Lohar, Rehar, Sipi, Teli, Thathiar (19).TOTAL = 63.
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- Transformation of Dalit Population in Independent India: A Study of Regional Differentials in Northwestern India
- Chapter 16