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2022 | Buch

Transformer and Reactor Procurement

herausgegeben von: Gilson M. Bastos, Tom Breckenridge, Mike Lamb, Tara-Lee MacArthur, Simon Ryder

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe: CIGRE Green Books

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This Green Book provides those involved in transformer procurement with comprehensive guidance on industry best practice to avoid wrong decisions. Transformers are one of the expensive components in the power system, and also contribute a large proportion of the losses. Transformers also have long lives - more than 40 years in many cases. Making the wrong decisions during the procurement process can have serious and long-lasting consequences.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
1. Overview of Transformer and Reactor Procurement
Abstract
This chapter gives an overview of the transformer and reactor procurement process, including all stages from identification of functional requirements to trial operation. It includes guidance on each stage, placing special emphasis on identifying customer expectations and requirements and ensuring that they are consistently met. More detailed guidance on each stage is provided in the relevant chapter.
Tom Breckenridge, Simon Ryder
2. Tender Process for Transformers
Abstract
This chapter describes how the tender process is organized to ensure that user expectations and requirements are correctly identified and consistently met and simultaneously that costs are controlled. Special emphasis is placed on internal preparations by the user, on supplier selection or qualification, and on tendering and contract awarding.
Khayakazi Dioka, Bert Wouters
3. Identification of Functional Requirements for Transformers and Shunt Reactors
Abstract
This chapter describes how to identify functional requirements for power transformers and shunt reactors, which can then be included in a specification. It includes material on correct identification of rated quantities, in particular rated voltage and rated power. This chapter includes supporting material on loading, in particular unbalanced and neutral point loading and also harmonics. Special consideration is given to tertiary windings and to autotransformers. This chapter includes supporting material on taps and voltage regulation. This chapter includes supporting material on system requirements, in particular insulation co-ordination and short-circuit withstand capability. This chapter includes supporting material on environmental requirements, in particular temperature rise limits and cooling requirements. This chapter includes supporting material on other functional requirements requiring special design considerations, in particular over-excitation, DC magnetization, and frequent energizations.
Tom Breckenridge, Mike Lamb
4. Specifications for Transformers and Reactors – Design and Construction
Abstract
This chapter describes how to specify design and construction requirements for power transformers and reactors. It includes material on design concepts for both transformers and reactors, cores, windings and connections, solid insulation, liquid insulation, tanks and enclosures, gaskets and seals, and liquid preservation systems. It places special emphasis on clear identification and communication of user or purchaser expectations and requirements.
Tara-Lee MacArthur, Adesh Singh
5. Specifications – Components and Fittings
Abstract
This chapter describes how to specify requirements for components and fittings used on power transformers and reactors. It includes material on coolers, terminations, current transformers, tap-changers, internal surge arrestors, other fittings, and control cabinets. It places special emphasis on clear identification and communication of user purchaser expectations and requirements.
Tara-Lee MacArthur, Adesh Singh
6. Specification of Sound Levels for Transformers and Reactors
Abstract
This chapter briefly describes how transformer and shunt reactor sound can be characterized for specification and measurement purposes. This chapter then describes how transformer and shunt reactor sound levels can be controlled by design or other external measures. Finally, this chapter describes typical sound levels for transformers and shunt reactors for specification purposes.
Gilson M. Bastos, Tom Breckenridge, Mike Lamb, Tara-Lee MacArthur, Simon Ryder
7. Transformer Losses and Efficiency
Abstract
This chapter describes the origin of transformer losses; some of the design considerations that affect the losses; and outlines different methods for specifying transformer losses and efficiency – fixed losses, peak efficiency index, loss capitalization, or combinations of these approaches. The remainder of the chapter focuses on the loss capitalization method, including guidance on the calculation of the loss capitalization values to represent the total cost of ownership for the transformer.
Anthony Walsh
8. Transformer and Reactor Supplier Selection
Abstract
This chapter describes how purchasers can select suitable suppliers for transformers and reactors by making factory capability assessments. A thorough factory capability assessment should take into account the design concept used by the factory, their engineering processes, supply chain management, manufacturing processes and equipment, testing processes and equipment, and where necessary also their transport, installation, pre-commissioning, and service capabilities. It is also important to take into account the strength of the supporting processes, including project management, quality management, environmental management, human resources, and health and safety management.
Khayakazi Dioka
9. Transformer and Reactor Project Management
Abstract
This chapter describes best practices for project management with transformers and reactors, from placing the order to the end of the warranty or defects liability period. Special emphasis is placed on the coordination of project management with quality management and engineering, to ensure that all user or purchaser expectations and requirements are correctly identified and met. This chapter includes detailed recommendations for the formation of project teams, by both the manufacturer and the user, and their interaction during the project. This chapter also includes detailed recommendations for quality plans, design documentation, and approval drawings.
Craig Swinderman
10. Transformer Design Using Advanced Methods
Abstract
This chapter describes best practices for design calculations for engineering of transformers and reactors, in accordance with customer requirements and specifications. It includes detailed guidance on calculation of electrical characteristics; dielectric design; thermal design; short-circuit withstand capability; and mechanical design. It includes detailed guidance on special considerations for transformers for HVDC systems with thyristor convertors. Special emphasis is placed on the use of advanced methods for review and validation. Guidance is also provided on how the accuracy of advanced calculation methods can be verified.
Alvaro Portillo
11. Transformer and Reactor Manufacturing
Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of typical manufacturing processes for power transformers and reactors, with a special emphasis on best practices. It provides guidance on what users should look for on inspecting an unfamiliar transformer factory as part of supplier qualification and development. It also provides guidance on what users should look for when inspecting work-in-progress for power transformers and reactors, to avoid problems and provide additional confirmation that the performance of the transformer or reactor during its life will be in accordance with user expectations and requirements.
Mike Lamb
12. Transformer and Reactor Testing – Introduction and Performance Tests
Abstract
This chapter provides an overview of typical factory acceptance test processes for power transformers and reactors, with a special emphasis on ensuring that user or purchaser expectations and requirements are met. This chapter provides guidance on each test, including the methodology used; the applicability of the test to different transformers and reactors; acceptance criteria; and possible problems arising during the test.
Tom Breckenridge, Santhiago Montenegro
13. Transformer and Reactor Testing: Temperature Rise
Abstract
This chapter provides a detailed description of temperature rise and related tests for power transformers and reactors, with a special emphasis on ensuring that user or purchaser expectations and requirements are met. This chapter provides guidance on the test, including the methodology used, the applicability of the test to different transformers and reactors, acceptance criteria, and possible problems arising during the test. It also provides an insight into some possible methods of making temperature rise tests on multi-winding transformers and autotransformers which are not specifically addressed in the relevant standard.
Tom Breckenridge, Santhiago Montenegro
14. Transformer and Reactor Testing – Dielectric Tests
Abstract
This chapter provides a detailed overview of the dielectric tests carried out during factory acceptance test processes for power transformers and reactors. Following on from the concept introduced in Chap.​ 12, this chapter provides guidance on each dielectric test, including the methodology used, the applicability of the test to different transformers and reactors, acceptance criteria, and possible problems arising during the test.
Tom Breckenridge
15. Transformer and Reactor Transport
Abstract
This chapter describes the transport process for transformers and reactors from the factory to the installation site. This chapter includes details of various different possible delivery terms as well as their advantages and disadvantages for different parties. This chapter also describes different transport modes and their characteristics. It includes material on design for transport, transport planning, drawings, documentation, markings, and inspection on receipt.
Asgeir Mjelve
16. Transformer and Reactor Storage
Abstract
Power transformers and reactors may need to be stored to accommodate constraints in manufacturing, transport, or installation. This storage may take place at the factory, the installation site, or alternative storage facilities. In some cases, transformers and reactors are purchased for use as spares and may need to be stored for indefinite periods. This chapter describes best practices for both short-term and long-term storage.
Khayakazi Dioka, Tara-Lee MacArthur
17. Transformer and Reactor Installation
Abstract
This chapter describes the installation process, which takes place on site following delivery. Site installation usually involves assembly and filling the transformer or reactor with liquid to prepare for service. The chapter includes background information on the preparation of the necessary documentation; guidance on environmental, health, and safety management; checking the installation site; and ensuring the availability of appropriate workers and work equipment. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of each stage of the site assembly process, including filling with liquid and repairs to the painting system.
Mike Lamb, Ross Willoughby
18. Transformer and Reactor Pre-Commissioning
Abstract
This chapter described the pre-commissioning process, i.e., all those checks and tests which take place after installation and before first energization. The chapter includes background information on the aims of pre-commissioning, and especially its possible impact on safety. This chapter includes detailed descriptions of visual inspection after installation; functional checks on the transformer or reactor, coolers, tap-changer, control cabinet, and other associated equipment. This chapter includes a detailed description of various electrical tests made after installation, excluding high voltage tests requiring special equipment which are the subject of a separate short chapter. This chapter also includes a detailed description of liquid tests required after filling at site, and before first energization.
John Lapworth
19. Trial Operation for Transformers and Reactors
Abstract
This chapter describes trial operation, i.e., operation during the period following first energization where additional checks and tests are made to ensure that the transformer is in good condition and performing as expected. In most cases, this is equivalent to the warranty or defects liability period. However, this is not necessarily the case, e.g., for transformers or reactors which have been in storage for a prolonged period and are no longer under warranty. This chapter includes background information on the length and scope of the warranty. This chapter includes a description of functional checks on the transformer or reactor, coolers, control cabinet, and other associated equipment around the time of first energization and first loading. This chapter also includes a detail description of additional checks and tests made on the transformer or reactor through the warranty or defects liability, and especially before the end of the warranty or defects liability period.
John Lapworth
Metadaten
Titel
Transformer and Reactor Procurement
herausgegeben von
Gilson M. Bastos
Tom Breckenridge
Mike Lamb
Tara-Lee MacArthur
Simon Ryder
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-030-80469-5
Print ISBN
978-3-030-80468-8
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-80469-5