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This book introduces ongoing reflections within the research community on established information systems development topics and emerging concepts, approaches and ideas in the field of healthcare information systems. By promoting research on theoretical and methodological issues related to both information systems development in general and healthcare information systems in particular, it presents current research in order to promote improved practice. It comprises a selection of the best papers presented at the 24th International Conference on Information Systems Development (ISD) held in Harbin, China, August 25 – 27, 2015.



A Method for Systematic Adaptation and Synchronization of Healthcare Processes

International organizations, as the World Health Organization (WHO), are constantly defining new healthcare protocols and procedures, as well as modifying previously adopted ones. As a result, most health institutions have to adapt continuously their workflows and information systems in order to be aligned with international standards. This problem, called Hierarchical Adaptation Problem, is common in hierarchical domains that use administrative workflows. It also implies establishing the change propagation methods to maintain the consistency among the different levels when the original workflow is changed. To solve this problem, this work introduces the Hierarchical Adaptation Method. A method based on ontologies to define the rules that must be satisfied by a generic workflow to be considered adaptable to different application cases and the rules that must be satisfied by its adapted versions. Moreover, it provides the operations to facilitate both adaptation of workflows and propagation of changes.
Álvaro E. Prieto, Adolfo Lozano-Tello, Roberto Rodríguez-Echeverría, Fernando Sánchez-Figueroa

A Monitoring Infrastructure for the Quality Assessment of Cloud Services

Service Level Agreements (SLAs) specify the strict terms under which cloud services must be provided. The assessment of the quality of services being provided is critical for both clients and service providers. In this context, stakeholders must be capable of monitoring services delivered as Software as a Service (SaaS) at runtime and of reporting any eventual non-compliance with SLAs in a comprehensive and flexible manner. In this paper, we present the definition of an SLA compliance monitoring infrastructure, which is based on the use of models@run.time, its main components and artifacts, and the interactions among them. We place emphasis on the configuration of the artifacts that will enable the monitoring, and we present a prototype that can be used to perform this monitoring. The feasibility of our proposal is illustrated by means of a case study, which shows the use of the components and artifacts in the infrastructure and the configuration of a specific plan with which to monitor the services deployed on the Microsoft Azure© platform.
Priscila Cedillo, Javier Gonzalez-Huerta, Silvia Abrahao, Emilio Insfran

A Motivation-Oriented Architecture Modelling for e-Healthcare Prosumption

The enterprise architecture (EA) is a coherent and consistent set of principles and rules that guide system design. Enterprise architecture is considered as strategic information assets, which determine the business mission and the business processes, in which the Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) are implemented. The EA acts as a basis to communicate the system knowledge to its stakeholders. In this paper, stakeholders’ roles are emphasized as well as the motivation orientation in the enterprise architecture development is discussed. The following questions are formulated: who is the stakeholder of the EA, who is accountable and responsible for EA development, and what goals, constraints, and values are realized in the stakeholder activities’ processes for the organization mission and vision by example of e-healthcare prosumption system.
Malgorzata Pankowska

A Proposed Framework for Examining Information Systems Security Research: A Multilevel Perspective

As information security becomes increasingly important, more research is being conducted in this area. In an attempt to better understand current research activities in Information Systems Security (ISsec) and to guide future explorations, a number of authors have made tentative attempts to survey/review the existing literature. However the criteria employed in these reviews are neither consistent nor complete which weakens their validity. Drawing on previous research and Multilevel Theory, we propose an improved examination framework for systematically investigating ISsec research. This framework will allow researchers to gain a more thorough understanding of what has been done so far and to target future research efforts more effectively.
Ruilin Zhu, Lech Janczewski

An Agile Enterprise Architecture-Driven Model for Geographically Distributed Agile Development

Agile development is a highly collaborative environment, which requires active communication (i.e., effective and efficient communication) among stakeholders. Active communication in the geographically distributed agile development (GDAD) environment is difficult to achieve due to many challenges. Literature has reported that active communication plays a critical role in enhancing GDAD performance through reducing the cost and time of a project. However, little empirical evidence is known about how to study and establish active communication construct in GDAD in terms of its dimensions, determinants and effects on GDAD performance. To address this knowledge gap, this paper describes an enterprise architecture (EA) driven research model to identify and empirically examine the GDAD active communication construct. This model can be used by researchers and practitioners to examine the relationships among two dimensions of GDAD active communication (effectiveness and efficiency), one antecedent that can be controlled (agile EA), and four dimensions of GDAD performance (on-time completion, on-budget completion, software functionality and software quality).
Yehia Ibrahim Alzoubi, Asif Qumer Gill

Community-Based Message Opportunistic Transmission

A Mobile Social Networks (MSN) is a kind of opportunistic network, which is composed of numerous mobile nodes with social characteristic. By now, the prevalent community-based routing algorithms mainly choose the optimal social characteristic node to forward messages, however they rarely consider the effects of community distribution on mobile nodes and time-varying characteristics of network. These algorithms usually lead to a high consumption of network resources and a low successful delivery ratio if they are used directly in mobile social networks. In order to solve this problem, we build a time-varying community-based network model, and propose a community-aware message opportunistic transmission algorithm (CMOT) in this paper. For inter-community messages transmission, the CMOT chooses an optimal community path by comparing the community transmission probability. In local communities, messages are forwarded according to the encounter probability between nodes. The simulation results show that, in comparison with classical routing algorithms, such as PRoPHET, MaxProp, Spray and Wait, and CMTS, the CMOT can improve the successful delivery ratio of messages and reduce network overhead obviously.
Sheng Zhang, Pengliu Tan, Xiaoling Bao, William Wei Song, Xiaodong Liu

Educational Artefacts as a Foundation for Development of Remote Speech-Language Therapies

Telehealth refers to the delivery of health care services at a distance by the use of information and communication technologies (ICT). Due to numerous advantages such as the enhancement of the treatment or reaching remotely located people who need treatment at affordable cost, telehealth is nowadays widely used in speech-language pathology (SLP) services. This paper presents the results of two empirical studies carried out among SLP stakeholders. The objective of the first study was to determine the state-of-the-art in using ICT among speech-language professionals and their clients in Croatia. The objective of the second study was to examine content validity and relevance of the introduced set of attributes meant for evaluating quality of educational artefacts employed in SLP therapies. Findings of both studies can be employed as a foundation for the design and implementation of the telerehabilitation systems aimed to assist in the delivery of remote speech-language therapies.
Tihomir Orehovački, Dijana Plantak Vukovac, Tatjana Novosel-Herceg

Framing or Gaming? Constructing a Study to Explore the Impact of Option Presentation on Consumers

The manner in which choice is framed influences individuals’ decision-making. This research examines the impact of different decision constructs on decision-making by focusing on the more problematic decision constructs: the un-selected and pre-selected opt-out. The study employs eye-tracking with cued retrospective think-aloud (RTA) to combine quantitative and qualitative data. Eye-tracking will determine how long a user focuses on a decision construct before taking action. Cued RTA where the user will be shown a playback of their interaction will be used to explore their attitudes towards a decision construct and identify problematic designs. This pilot begins the second of a three phase study, which ultimately aims to develop a research model containing the theoretical constructs along with hypothesized causal associations between the constructs to reveal the impact of measures such as decision construct type, default value type and question framing have on the perceived value of the website and loyalty intentions.
Chris Barry, Mairéad Hogan, Ann M. Torres

How Mentorship Improves Reverse Transfer of Tacit Knowledge in Chinese Multinational Companies (MNCs)

Knowledge transfer has long been a major focus of research in the literature on MNCs in developed countries. However, reverse knowledge transfer in MNCs in developing countries (e.g., China) has received limited attention. By integrating mentorship, social capital and international adjustment theories, this study develop a theoretical model to demonstrate when and how mentoring improves reverse transfer of tacit knowledge in Chinese MNCs. In particular, we propose that (1) mentoring functions (i.e., vocational support, psychological support and role modelling) should have positive effects on three dimensions of social capital (i.e., ties strength; trust; shared language and vision), which in turn, should improve reverse transfer of tacit knowledge from foreign mentors to Chinese mentees. (2) International adjustment of mentors (i.e., work adjustment, interaction adjustment and general adjustment) is expected to moderate the relationships of mentoring with ties strength, trust, shared language and vision. This is a research-in-progress paper and a survey should be conducted to test the theoretical model. This research should provide theoretical and practical implications.
Zhenjiao Chen, Doug Vogel

Optimal Requirements—Dependent Model-Driven Agent Development

The Belief-Desire-Intention (BDI) agent architecture is a favored agent development architecture known for its distinct abstraction between components and flexibility in determining its actions. This determination is handled through a plan selection function which determines the most appropriate plan or action. Recent years have seen various forms of extensions to this architecture, including a model-driven creation approach based around the Extended Non-functional requirements framework (ENFR). Non-functional requirements illustrate parts of a system which must be satisfied to an appropriate extent. The model-driven approach within this paper uses components from this framework to formulate plans governed by their contribution to these requirements. This is done in an optimized manner to ensure the selected plan is optimal with regards to the systems attainment. This paper presents our optimized model-driven agent development approach, demonstrating its conversion from the initial ENFR model into a completely optimized agent. The approach is verified through empirical analysis.
Joshua Z. Goncalves, Aneesh Krishna

Supporting People to Age-in-Place: Prototyping a Multi-sided Health and Wellbeing Platform in a Living Lab Setting

A key challenge elderly people face is the ability to live independently. Losing their everyday independence is a major concern for the elderly, partly because they fear this could lead to an involuntary move to an assisted living facility instead of living independently. Since 2015, the Dutch government encourages their citizens to age-in-place, but at the same time struggles with how to implement new healthcare regulations. To support both government and citizens, we propose a digital platform to match supply and demand in the health and wellbeing domain. Such a platform should not only enable end-users to enhance self-management, but also support them to find solutions for everyday problems related to aging-in-place. To illustrate our Action Design Research we established a Living Lab in a metropolitan area in the Netherlands, and developed a prototype of the proposed platform in a real-life setting.
Wally J.W. Keijzer-Broers, Lucas Florez-Atehortua, Mark de Reuver

The Perceived Impact of the Agile Development and Project Management Method Scrum on Team Leadership in Information Systems Development

This research contributes to the body of knowledge in information systems development (ISD) with an empirical investigation in the form of a case study that demonstrates the positive impact of the agile development and project management method Scrum on team leadership in information systems and software development projects. It also provides a useful operationalization of the concept through six identified indicators for team leadership. Despite the fact that the case unit had challenges with the use of Scrum, the indicators identified the areas where the company had managed to exploit the potential of Scrum and its practices with regard to increasing team leadership. The research results are discussed with regard to the existing Scrum literature and briefly related to complex adaptive systems (CAS) as a foundation for ISD and agile development.
Karlheinz Kautz, Thomas Heide Johansen, Andreas Uldahl

The Roles of Complementary and Supplementary Fit in Predicting Online Brand Community Users’ Willingness to Contribute

Recently, we have witnessed a shift in the form of brand communities from firm-centric to customer-centric. In particular, the customer-centric approach allows value co-creation in brand communities by involving customers in various activities that bring a product to the market. It is thus interesting and necessary to examine customers’ motivations in helping brands and communities grow and succeed. Based on the person-environment fit framework, this study presents an attempt to investigate community users’ knowledge contribution in one of the largest brand communities in Mainland China. The results demonstrate that both complementary fit and supplementary fit significantly predict consumers’ satisfaction with and their commitment to the community, which in turn leads to willingness to contribute. The findings will contribute to both research and practice by offering a better understanding of the roles of complementary and supplementary fit in promoting online brand community users’ knowledge sharing and contribution.
Xiao-Liang Shen, Yang-Jun Li, Yongqiang Sun

Understanding Digital Inequality: Studying the Use of Mobile Business Supporting Features in China

Today, the Internet has become an essential part of peoples’ daily lives. With the advance of Internet technology, the phenomenon of digital inequality has received substantial attention. This study extended research on digital inequality to the field of mobile business. The paper aimed to understand the impact of digital inequality in the use of mobile business supporting features in China. To address this, an empirical study with 258 subjects was carried out. The results indicated that perceived ease of use had a significant positive effect on the use of mobile business supporting features, while perceived risk had a significant negative effect on the use of mobile business supporting features. Furthermore, this study also revealed that socio-economically disadvantaged individuals were more likely to be influenced by perceived risks, while socio-economically advantaged individuals were more likely to be influenced by the utilitarian motivations.
Shang Gao, Xuemei Zhang

Understanding Problematic Smartphone Use and Its Characteristics: A Perspective on Behavioral Addiction

The problematic use of smartphones has drawn increasing attention because of harmful and disturbing outcomes. However, there has been little comprehensive research concerning the mechanism of problematic behavior in the use of smartphones, particularly for behavioral addiction. Given the specific characteristics of smartphones (e.g., high mobility, instant connection, and ubiquitous access), it is highlighted that smartphone addiction is a behavior that differs from traditional addiction behavior. However, in previous research, there is a lack of comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and the underlying mechanisms of smartphone addiction. Motivated to systematically theorize this issue, we primarily define addiction in the smartphone context and comprehend the characteristics of smartphone addiction, followed by developing the measures for smartphone addiction. On this conceptual foundation, future empirical research should be able to explain, predict, and test addiction behavior in the use of smartphones.
Chuang Wang, Matthew K. O. Lee, Chen Yang, Xiaodong Li
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