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Über dieses Buch

Delivering a sustainable transport system is not just a matter of adopting a number of technological innovations to improve performance in terms of people, planet, and profits. A broader structural and societal transition is needed in technology, as well as in institutions, behavioural patterns, and the economy as a whole. In this broader view, neither the free market nor the public sector will be the unique key player in making this transition happen. Elements of such an approach are presented in this book in a number of domains: integrating transport infrastructure and land use planning, thus connecting fields that are rather unconnected in day-to-day policies; experiments with dynamic transport optimization, including reports on pilot projects to test the viability of transitions; towards reliable transport systems, describing a reversal from supply-driven towards demand-driven approaches; and sustainable logistics and traffic management, from ‘local’ city distribution to global closed supply chain loops.



Chapter 1. Introduction to Transitions Towards Sustainable Mobility

Transport plays a major role in the world economy, both within countries and between countries. Button (2010) mentions several basic reasons why transport is needed. First, the heterogeneity of the earth’s surface means that resources available at one place have to be transported to other places. Second, as already indicated by Adam Smith, specialization strongly contributes to productivity and quality, but inevitably leads to transport flows. This holds even more because of the existence of economies of scale. In addition to these production-related reasons, there are reasons related to personal travel. Trips are needed for social interaction with friends and relatives, for activities such as recreation, culture and sports, and also for work (commuting), given the desire to separate work and residential activities. These reasons make clear that transport demand has become increasingly fragmented in space as well as in time, and that transport serves a broad range of needs of people and companies. Hence, transport is strongly linked to activities in other domains of consumption, production, and land use, implying that solutions of transport problems not only have to be sought in the transport domain itself, but also in these other domains. This need for a broad orientation makes transport such a fascinating field of research.
Jo van Nunen, Paul Huijbregts, Piet Rietveld

Integrating transport infrastructure and land use planning

Chapter 2. A Transition Towards Sustainable Strategy Making: Integrating Land Use and Transport Knowledge Types

As extensively discussed by other scholars, there is a growing awareness that the integration of land use and transport (LUT) planning is a crucial prerequisite for the transition towards more sustainable transport patterns and urban development that foster interaction between people, support a sustainable business climate and reduces negative effects on the environment and climate (see, for example, Banister 2002, 2005; Cervero 1998; Meyer and Miller 2001; TRB 2004). However, in the Netherlands (and in other countries), such integration is scarcely present in daily planning practice (see, for instance, Hull and Tricker 2006). If anything, one can speak of policy coordination rather than ‘integration’; i.e. it is dialogue or information exchange which is geared at avoiding conflicts between projects, but does not seek to establish similar policy goals (Stead et al. 2004). Achieving integration in earlier phases of planning (for example, strategy development, goal orientation or visioning) can potentially produce shared policy goals, which would promote mutually reinforcing (instead of obstructing) land use and transport measures. However, for this to happen, a transition on its own is needed.
Marco te Brömmelstroet, Luca Bertolini

Chapter 3. The Impact of Accessibility on the Value of Offices

Accessibility is becoming an increasingly important issue in the Netherlands, not only for policymakers but also for daily workers on the road and employers, who have to deal with a growing uncertainty of their staff being on time. Not only the access via roads is important; but also the unreliability of public transport (as experienced by passengers), and the lack of parking areas in many places contribute to the importance of accessibility in society.
Ghebreegziabiher Debrezion, Thomas de Graaff, Piet Rietveld

Chapter 4. Funding Transport Infrastructure Development Through Value Capturing: A Game Theoretical Analysis

As already mentioned in Chap. 2 of this book, the development of major transportation infrastructure and location development (i.e. residential areas, industrial estates, office and retail parks) increasingly takes place in an integrated way. An integrated approach may not only contribute to a better, more sustainable spatial outcome of the development process (from the society’s point of view), but it might also be more efficient, although the increased complexity may have an unintended counter effect on efficiency as well (Van der Krabben et al. 2007). Moreover, in financial terms, the integrated approach also provides new opportunities. Traditionally, the public investments in transportation infrastructure are based on tax revenues. Usually, the according budgets available for transportation infrastructure development are limited and – almost by definition – not sufficient to develop all desired infrastructure. In looking for alternative funding for transportation infrastructure development, governments should try to find a way that allows for efficient economic performance, financial justice, and social facility. When transportation infrastructure and location development are combined, value capturing methods may, to a certain extent, offer an opportunity to achieve those goals (Banister and Berechman 2000; Batt 2001). Here, we define value capturing as a process by which all or a portion of increments in land value, that resulted from the installation of special public improvements or any other actions attributed to the ‘public effort’, are recouped by the public sector and used for public purposes (Smolka 2000; Smith and Gihring 2006). In Chap. 3, Debrezion et al. paid attention to the issue of value capturing especially on how to calculate the increment in property values caused by the infrastructure development, or to be specific a train station. However, there are still questions about whether value capturing might be a feasible method to finance infrastructure development projects and also about the explanation of decision-making process with respect to the implementation of value capturing methods.
Ary Samsura, Erwin van der Krabben

Chapter 5. NETLIPSE: Managing Large Infrastructure Projects

Transport networks are needed for modern economies to create wealth and employment. But the current networks of infrastructure are not considered to be sufficient. To meet rising and changing demands for interregional and international mobility, infrastructure projects are being developed, for example, High Speed Links, Rail Freight Lines and motorways. On a European scale, 30 trans-national axes have been identified by the European Commission which cross the borders of the European Union. In 2005, the total remaining investment required to complete the 30 priority projects and axes in 2020 was estimated to be 252 € billion. If all the other projects of so-called common interest are included that are not on the priority list, the total cost of completing and modernising are much higher. Mr Barrot, Vice President of the European Commission, and responsible for transport, wrote in 2005 (European Commission 2005): “In view of growth in traffic between Member States the investment required to complete and modernise a true trans-European network in the enlarged EU amounts to some € 600 billion.”
Marcel Hertogh, Eddy Westerveld

Experiments with dynamic transport optimization

Chapter 6. Rewarding Peak Avoidance: The Dutch ‘Spitsmijden’ Projects

The Dutch road network is becoming increasingly congested. In late 2006, a group of companies, universities and government institutions established the Spitsmijden project. ‘Spitsmijden’ is the Dutch term for ‘avoiding the peak’. This joint initiative aimed to identify and assess a short-term solution that could extend the portfolio of transport policy instruments that may be used to manage temporal peaks in transport demand.
Jasper Knockaert, Jessie Bakens, Dick Ettema, Erik Verhoef

Chapter 7. Managing Supply Chains: Transport Optimization and Chain Synchronization

Transport optimization is part of the broad area of physical distribution and logistics management. Physical distribution involves the handling, movement, and storage of goods from the point of origin to their point of consumption or use, via various channels of distribution. Logistics management involves the management of these operations for efficient and cost effective physical distribution (Ghiani et al. 2004).
Tom Van Woensel, Said Dabia, Ton de Kok

Chapter 8. Real-Time Coordination in Container Trucking – Prototyping and Evaluating a Multi-agent System for Real-Time Container Truck Planning at Post-Kogeko

In a world that is fast becoming “Hot, Flat and Crowded” (Friedman 2008) our society and its systems have to become smarter than they currently are, and are in need of radical innovations. “Instead of avoiding the unmanageable, we have to start managing the unavoidable”, as Friedman formulates it.
Hans Moonen, Jos van Hillegersberg

Chapter 9. Demand Management in Transportation and Logistics

Demand management, or revenue management, is commonplace in many industries. In order to enhance revenues, revenue management aims to exploit differences in product preferences between customers by prioritizing service to customers with a higher willingness-to-pay. The key lesson from revenue management is that a company should try to use its scarce capacity for its most valuable customers. Instead of accepting demand first-come, first-serve, it may be beneficial to reserve capacity for more valuable customers that may still arrive in the future. There is a huge body of literature devoted to quantity control policies and dynamic pricing in revenue management (for a review, see Chiang et al. 2007), Talluri and Van Ryzin (2004) and Boyd and Bilegan (2003). Quantity-based control manages the availability of product classes, while price-based control is concerned with the price of products. Note that pricing refers to the whole range of incentives that are available to manage customer demand, e.g. financial rewards for peak travel avoidance (Knockaert et al., Chap. 6). Airlines, hotels and rental car industries represent the most successful applications of revenue management (Chiang et al. 2007). These industries all share some similar business characteristics. In particular, their products are perishable, the availability of capacity is relatively inflexible in the short run, and the variable costs operating costs are small, relative to the fixed costs.
Niels Agatz, Jo van Nunen

Towards reliable transport systems

Chapter 10. Beyond Punctuality: Appropriate Measures for Unreliability in Rail Passenger Transport

Increasing levels of congestion, a growing awareness of climate change, and the notion of peak oil constitute some of the most important global challenges today. European policy making views the promotion of sustainable mobility as one of the key objectives of transport policy. Railway is the natural backbone of any sustainable transport system, offering efficient transport built on social equity, low carbon emissions, low environmental impacts and positive economic growth. Hence, improving the position of the railways is one of the pillars of the transition towards sustainable mobility. Maintaining rail service quality is safeguarded by policy makers through concessions in which railway operators are typically held accountable for measurable indicators of quality aspects, such as punctuality.
Martijn Brons, Piet Rietveld

Chapter 11. Algorithmic Support for Railway Disruption Management

Increasing the market share of public transport is considered as one of the solutions for the mobility problems in the Netherlands. Moreover, public transport is seen as a green mode of transportation (“Planet”). Thus for achieving more sustainable mobility, travellers will have to be stimulated to use the public transport system instead of their own cars. A higher market share of the public transport system will enable a higher efficiency and profitability of this system (“Profit”). In order to make the public transport system more attractive, an increase in its service quality is needed (“People”). This is especially true for railway systems. Indeed, one of the weak points of railway systems is that disruptions seem to be more or less inevitable, leading to much discomfort for the passengers.
Leo Kroon, Dennis Huisman

Sustainable logistics and traffic management

Chapter 12. Customized Solutions for Sustainable City Logistics: The Viability of Urban Freight Consolidation Centres

The current way of organizing the urban freight transport system is inefficient and generates an unsound basis for sustainable development. Urban freight transport is widely recognized for its unsustainable impacts on the environment. The common perception is that the current urban freight transport system has negative impacts on all three sustainability P’s: people, profit and planet, also known as the social, economic and environmental issues of sustainability.
Hans Quak, Lori Tavasszy

Chapter 13. Closing the Global Supply Chain: The Gateway Towards Sustainability

The majority of the sustainable supply chain management literature focuses on the trade-off between economic (Profit) and ecological (Planet) impacts. The efficient balancing between those two impacts is called eco-efficiency (see e.g. Quariguasi 2008). Moving towards more sustainable practices is generally bounded by increasing costs, but the implementation of new environmentally-friendly practices could ultimately result in increased market share and profits that cover the additional costs (Wu and Dunn 1995). An important trade-off less often found in supply chain management literature, is between economic and social (People) impacts. According to Murphy and Poist (2002), logistics will only reach its full potential, if economic and social targets go hand in hand. Carter and Jennings (2002) specifically focus on the trade-off between People and Profit, introducing the concept of Logistics Social Responsibility (LSR). LSR comprises activities like sustainable purchasing, sustainable transportation and sustainable warehousing, taking into account factors like ethics, human rights, safety and community explicitly. The authors conclude that organizational culture, top management and governmental regulation are drivers for LSR, but there may be barriers as well: company culture, lack of coordination and lack of resources may prohibit the transition towards effective LSR. For example, Bloemhof et al. (2011) recently found that cultural aspects and financing structures may prohibit the transition to more sustainable transport modes.
Erwin van der Laan

Chapter 14. Transitions Towards Sustainable Dynamic Traffic Management: A Living Systems Approach

The Transumo1 theme ‘Transition towards Sustainable Mobility’ asks for inspiration and the dare to come with stimulating, new ideas. The sustainability challenge ahead of us will need such input. Our belief is that several paradigm shifts in the field of traffic management are inevitable and necessary. One of them is to recognize that the traffic system needs to be seen and treated as a ‘living system’. This has far-reaching implications for our thoughts on how a traffic system should be ‘managed and controlled’ and might be of fundamental importance in the search for sustainable mobility. In this contribution, we will explore some of these implications, more specifically, those that deal with the relationship between the degree of complexity and the kind of management and control that should apply.
Ben Immers, Rien van der Knaap

Chapter 15. Advanced Traffic Monitoring (ATMO) for Sustainable Traffic Management

In the traffic management theme within Transumo, to which the ATMO project belongs, the focus is on road traffic networks, which are used for both person and goods movement. Secondly, ATMO focuses on traffic monitoring for (real-time) traffic (and demand) management, resulting in data and information. In turn, these data could also be used for policy evaluation and ex ante research. Figure 15.1 schematically outlines the central role monitoring plays in both demand management (e.g. information provision, pricing) and traffic management (e.g. traffic control). Both must be conceived as dynamic control cycles with a monitoring component, which provides both the input to all sorts of demand and traffic management measures, as well as feedback on the (un)anticipated effects of these measures.
Hans van Lint, Albert Valkenberg, Arjan van Binsbergen

Chapter 16. Dynamic Traffic Management Measures to Optimize Air Quality, Climate, Noise, Traffic Safety and Congestion: Effects of a Single Objective Optimization

Traditionally, traffic problems are treated in isolation in terms of location of the problem and the kind of problem. However, there is a strong correlation between these problems, so clearly solving a traffic problem at one location may result in other problems at other locations. Congestion problems on the main network can, for example, lead to “rat-running” (through-traffic using the secondary road network avoiding these congestion problems) causing liveability problems. Therefore, measures to alleviate traffic problems are nowadays increasingly focussed on the network level. In addition, solutions are sought for the optimization of traffic systems and less emphasis is placed on expanding the infrastructure of the system mainly because of financial considerations and space limitations. This optimization can be achieved using traffic management measures. Traditionally, this type of optimization is focussed on improving accessibility, given particular boundary conditions for traffic safety and liveability (set by law).
Luc Wismans, Eric van Berkum, Michiel Bliemer


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