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This volume explores the field of transport sector development. Derived from the 2015 TranSopot conference held in Sopot, Poland, it discusses current trends, issues, and research on the topic. Specifically, it aims to explore sustainable development, examines current problems ranging from transport systems to transport enterprises and provides a variety of analytical methods such as economic and econometric analysis.

The three most important fields of current transport research are sustainable transport development, innovation and technological progress and the conditions of transport enterprise growth and survival. Transport is an activity which is supposed to be sustainable, environmentally aware, economically optimal, socially sound and politically responsible. Striving for innovation in transport means looking for organizational and technical solutions which increase the efficiency, effectiveness and safety of transportation. However, the main research issue in the field are strategies for sustainable transport developments in urban and rural areas, instruments of internalization of external transport costs, promotion of environmentally-friendly transport behavior and improvement of transport energy efficiency. Transport infrastructure innovation, intelligent transport systems, innovations in management and finance are some of the main concerns of researchers and policy-makers in the field. Transport enterprises need to adapt to the conditions of the new economic growth perspectives. They need to create unique growth conditions, otherwise they will condemn themselves to struggle for survival. In particular, transport enterprises have to create special functioning systems and programs to diversify economic activity to use funds in the most efficient ways possible.




Transport is undoubtedly an extremely important field of human activity. Its development is a vital part of every political and economic strategy both on a local and on an international level. Achieving transport efficiency enables various economies to unlock their growth potential, create jobs and bring wealth to communities. Thus, it is not only a promising business field but also a crucial matter of scientific research. With that point in mind, ‘TranSopot 2015 Conference: Transport Development Challenges in the Twenty-First Century’ has been held from 25 to 27 May 2015 at the University of Gdańsk, Faculty of Economics. The proceedings of the conference are presented in this book.
Monika Bąk, Michał Suchanek

International Cooperation in the EU Transport Research: Experiences and Barriers

Transport research is crucial for the development of transport policy and solving current and future problems of transport market functioning and its impact on social and economic life as well as on the environment. Transport is global and at present it seems to be more and more important to develop a wider approach in transport research and to support international cooperation in this field. In this paper the relation between transport policy objectives and the EU strategy for international cooperation in the research and innovation (R & I) field has been analyzed. Additionally barriers of international cooperation in transport research are identified at the level of legal, institutional, financial, technological, and social and behavioral aspects. Some solutions to overcome these obstacles are also proposed.
Monika Bąk

Method for Assessing Rail Transport Competitiveness in Poland and the United Kingdom

Both in Poland and the United Kingdom, as well as worldwide, railways have to compete with other modes of transport, and the rail industry seeks possibilities of achieving a competitive advantage over them. Thus, there is a need for methods for assessment of rail transport competitiveness and detection of areas for improvement. This paper presents a method developed for the Polish regional transport market and verified according to the requirements of the British market. A numerical competitiveness evaluation, called Rail Transport Competitiveness Index, considers four criteria: journey duration, ticket price, service frequency and number of changes. Surveys in Poland and the United Kingdom have been carried out in order to assign relevant weights of importance to each criterion. The method has been applied on 18 routes in Pomerania Province, to create a map of rail transport competitiveness in the region. After necessary modifications, considering dynamic fares, it has been used for Milton Keynes–London route. Its universal nature makes it useful also for other countries, possibly after minor modifications.
Piotr Jurewicz, Daniel Kaszubowski

The Impact of Public Procurement System on Concentration of the Rail Freight Market in Poland

The aim of this chapter is to examine the relations between public transport service procurement and the level of concentration of rail freight transport market. This chapter analyses the demand reported by the public sector for the services of rail freight transport in Poland. Procurement notices were characterised with regard to type of load, reported demand for transport activity volume and applied tendering procedure. This chapter presents the share of demand reported in public tenders against the total market demand. Moreover, in order to identify the market concentration level, measurement was performed on the basis of discrete and accumulated measures.
The analysis of the share of the volume of transport services purchased in tenders led to the conclusion that it could play a part in shaping market behaviours of units in the highly concentrated rail freight transport market. Demand executed through public procurement procedure may also have an impact on the market structure.
Grzegorz Krawczyk

Local Government, The Hostage or Playmaker in Competition Between Modes of Transport: Examples from Local Freight Transport in Lower Silesia

The chapter presents the relationship between rights and responsibilities of local government in the planning of the transport system in the subordinate region, and competition between transport modes, especially land transport, road or rail. Rights and responsibilities of local government in the planning of the transport system in the subordinate region stem from laws on local government. Competition between modes of land transport derived from the principles of the Law on freedom of economic activity and the progressive liberalization of access to the transport market of the European Union countries. This gives rise to conflicts of service operators in the region. Local government may then have the choice of how to reconcile sustainable transport strategies in their territory and the desire to shape the transport of environmentally friendly behavior by generating instruments to internalize external costs of transport. This chapter provides examples of the decisions in these cases of the local government from Lower Silesia in Poland.
Krzysztof Lewandowski

EU Transport Policy Failure: The Case of Germany’s Mindestlohngesetz

EU transport policy represents an element of European economic strategy aimed at boosting growth in the single market. Among the goods and services that are traded in the market are international road transport services. The adoption of regulations on minimum wage (MiLoG law) by Germany’s parliament forces transport companies headquartered outside Germany to pay no less than the German minimum wage to their drivers performing work on German territory. This legislation therefore breaches the EU principle of free movement goods and services and compels non-German transport undertakings to align their employees’ pay to German rather than their native country’s economic conditions. Arguably, the very fact that it was possible for a member state to introduce a regulation such as the MiLoG law should be seen as a EU transport policy failure.
Wojciech Paprocki

Costs and Benefits of High Speed Rail Integration in Europe

Undertakings aiming at integration in the high speed rail sector require capital-intensive and time-consuming investments in infrastructure, modern rail traffic managements systems, or ICT technologies supporting the process of booking and selling tickets. It also requires covering the expenses related to the process of preparation and management of contracts and agreements. This chapter attempts to identify and quantify the costs and benefits of integration projects undertaken in the field of high speed passenger transport in Europe. Cost–benefit analysis, including external cost and benefits, is essential for assessing the effectiveness of investment and it is especially important in the case of investments financed with the use of public funds.
Anna Urbanek

Objectives and Strategies of Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning in the City of Krakow

This chapter presents selected aspects of Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning. SUMP is a new concept of transport planning promoted by the European Commission, which in contrast to the traditional approach relies heavily on the involvement of citizens and stakeholders and institutional cooperation between various levels of government and management between neighboring municipalities. The authors provide an overview of the importance of overarching objectives and strategies of Sustainable Urban Mobility Planning for the City of Krakow.
Maciej Michnej, Tomasz Zwoliński

The Significance of Pedestrian Mobility as Shown by the Example of the City of Gdynia

The specificity of the cities and the dynamics of the various processes which occur within them result in conflicts within the urban space, the effect of which is, among others, suburbanisation bearing negative consequences on sustainable transport and urban mobility. The analysis of EU policies has served as a basis for determining the increasing role of pedestrians in shaping of sustainable mobility policies.
The significance of pedestrian mobility in city centres is discussed using the example of the city of Gdynia. The articles present findings of research into the volume and the structure of traffic on one of the main roads in the centre of Gdynia. The challenges which need to be addressed when carrying out of complex research into pedestrian mobility have also been determined.
Marcin Wołek

Cars and Urban Travel

The present article is an attempt to describe the role of cars in the urban transport of inhabitants living in select European cities. It uses information obtained from research into modal split that has been conducted throughout the last 10 years. This allowed for trends of change to be revealed with reference to the cities in which research was conducted on a number of occasions throughout the aforementioned period.
The role of cars in the undertaking of urban travel with regard to the Polish cities was determined on the basis of findings of complex traffic research as well as preferences and travel behaviour research. The research was conducted in select Polish cities. The factors determining the decision to undertake urban travel by car were also established.
Katarzyna Hebel

Comparison of Road Safety Policy Objectives in Poland and in the European Union

The aim of the chapter is to identify main actions undertaken within the Polish road safety policy and to assess its efficacy based on the system approach, as well as to present recommendations for enhancing road safety in Poland. In the first part of the chapter key objectives of the EU road safety policy are elaborated. Then, the situation in Poland related to the number of road fatalities and to the causes of accidents is described, and policy instruments in Poland are presented. In the last part of the text an attempt is made to evaluate the Polish road safety policy. Besides, recommendations for improving road safety performance in Poland are elaborated on. In conclusion, it is stated that—according to the system approach—the efficacy of road safety instruments is determined by many factors and requires an integrated set of different actions.
Monika Paradowska

Public–Private Partnership and the Development of Transport Infrastructure in Poland: The Analysis of Critical Success Factors

Efficient transport is an important determinant of the integration of the EU countries. TEN-T has been created by the European Commission to ensure the mobility of citizens, as well as fast and safe trading. However, the European transport infrastructure is characterized by large variations on the level of development that occurs in the East and West of the EU. In Poland, the infrastructure is technically unadjusted to the current transport needs and preferences. Modernization and development of infrastructure requires large capital expenditures. At the same time the public finance sector is overloaded, and the budget deficit is common. European countries and governments around the world are more likely to engage the private sector to finance infrastructure. The usual form of involvement of private investors is the public–private partnership (PPP). However, not all projects are successful. Achieving tangible benefits of PPP requires the creation of appropriate conditions conducive to its implementation.
The aim of this study is to identify and analyze critical success factors for PPP transport infrastructure projects in Poland. The research literature proves that there are many factors and they relate to various aspects and stages of the PPP implementation. The factors are classified in four groups: financial and economic, political and legal, technical, and social. The ones that have significant impact on transport infrastructure include: stable macroeconomic situation of the country, political support and commitment of the government, legal system, well-organized public consulting agencies, financial market availability, credible and experienced private investors. In Poland, the most important factors that are necessary for success in the implementation of PPP projects are: support of the government and governmental institutions, legal framework and regulations and the existence of adequate public advisory bodies. For the past 20 years, these conditions have not been fully met and formed a barrier to the development of the partnership. The consequence of the lack of public advisory body is limited knowledge on PPP in public administration as well as in banks, which in the case of the latter, limits the availability of the financial market for private partners.
Beata Zagozdzon

Transportation Services as Specific Logistics Projects for Oversized Cargo in Poland

Market observation demonstrates that the transportation-freight forwarding-logistics sector carries out diverse projects based on clients’ orders. The majority of those orders are unique and project related. Recently, the project approach to logistics has gained significance. Logistics project management is a relatively new area of knowledge about logistics and supply chains. The paper presents the essence and characteristics of transportation services as a specific logistics project. The authors characterize the transportation-freight forwarding-logistics sector, with particular focus on the sector of oversized cargo transportation. The demand for such services depends on the industry, energy, infrastructure development, investment projects in particular countries, as well as on economic policies. The paper identifies key factors that need to be taken under consideration when planning oversized cargo transportation services, i.e., specific characteristics, conditions, technology, tools, techniques, and methods, for example, a method of transportation service cost estimations. The proposed method uses fuzzy set theory. It can be implemented into the practice of transportation-freight forwarding-logistics enterprises, facilitating the modeling of uncertainties typical in such undertakings. A practical example of a transportation service is presented.
Iwona Pisz, Iwona Łapuńka

The Impact of Traffic Parameter Assessment on Noise Emission

The study is an experimental attempt to determine the correlation between traffic parameters, meteorological parameters, and sound pollution (noise) created as a result of the traffic. This chapter presents research results of traffic noise level recorded in the street of the transit and distribution function, which is a part of the road system of the city of Bielsko-Biala, Poland. The study was conducted before and after the opening of the expressway S-69, which took over the transit function from the examined street. Measured noise data were compared to the registered traffic flows and the share of heavy vehicles in the traffic flow. The results of research conducted before and after opening of the expressway were also compared. The studies are at the first step towards obtaining general assumptions to the formulation of a semiempirical model of acoustic impact of traffic flow.
Justyna Sordyl

Identification of Behavioral Changes in Transport as a Means for Decarbonisation of the Economy

In the Transport White Paper, the European Commission delivers its transport strategy up to the year 2050. One of the key objectives is defined as the 60 % reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in transport by 2050. In order to achieve this objective, a number of decisive actions need to be undertaken. In comparison to other sectors, the GHG emissions in transport are predicted to increase continuously. The research has shown that behavioural changes may enable considerable energy savings and foster substantial reduction of CO2 emission.
Urszula Motowidlak

Pro-Innovative Systems of Decision-Making in TSL Enterprises: Behavioural Conditions

TSL enterprises are constantly looking for development reserves, which would provide a relatively sustainable competitive advantage to support their development in an increasingly demanding environment. This advantage is possible due to the decision-making systems. The systems foster effective decisions that promote creation and implementation of innovations in the enterprise. Behavioural factors take important role when making such decisions. The recognition of their prominence is a must for an effective way to arrive at these decisions.
Joanna Fryca-Knop

Simulation of Technical and Economical Processes as an Initial Phase of Electric Bus Fleet Implementation to Operation in Urban Public Transport Company

Analysing the possibility of electric, battery-powered bus operation one should take into consideration many factors, e.g. the plan and profile of the bus routes, and technical, operational and economical characteristics of the public transport company. This chapter presents the concept of using .xml format files as a form of writing technical, economic and operational characteristics of battery-powered buses. The purpose of their use is parameterization of the universal model which analyses the possibility of introducing electric buses into service for potential user, e.g. the public transport company or transport organiser. This chapter presents the characteristics of the .xml files relating to the public transport network and timetable, operational and technical characteristics of the enterprise, infrastructure, transport business economics and issues related to the environmental aspects of the use of buses equipped with different types of drives in public transport.
Krzysztof Krawiec

The Impact of Organizational Culture on Bicycle Commuting Frequency: The Research Based on Example of Three IT companies

This chapter describes a study on work-related factors affecting employees’ decision on bicycle commuting. Employees’ transport choices are related to organizational culture. This chapter refers to E. Schein’s definition of organizational culture model. The study was made in order to determine the impact of specific levels of organizational culture on the transport behavior of employees. It is based on a survey performed in three IT companies. The main objective in the selection of companies for the research survey was to eliminate differences in other relevant factors affecting the employees’ choices. The results of the surveys, supported with personal interviews, indicated that in the case of simultaneously displaying opposing behavior at the first and second levels of Schein’s organizational culture model, the values have a stronger impact on the employees’ transport choices than artifacts. The results can be applied to increase the effectiveness of mobility plans if they are being implemented in companies.
Romanika Okraszewska

Risk Factor Classification GEMIO in the Planning Phase of Logistic Project Management

Logistic project management consists of a few phases, which may be generally defined as vision, planning, implementation, control, and project closure. In projects which involve logistic planning, logistic chain management, and physical distribution of goods, risk management issues are supposed to be included. Moreover they are often critical for the safety and security of the project implementation. Precise definition of risk factors is often difficult; however it is essential in the process of logistic project planning. Risk factors are individual for each logistic chain. They should be classified and their significance for the project should be assigned. Risk factors’ classification GEMIO is a tool, which can be used to define risks in logistic processes and to plan the necessary safety and security procedures.
Dorota Książkiewicz

Use of Economic and Econometric Analysis in the Financial Standing Diagnosis of Haulage Enterprises, Case Study: Trans Polonia S.A.

This chapter focuses on the specifics of financial standing in the haulage enterprises. The depreciation cost is the main factor that creates the financial result in such enterprises. While decreasing the value of the net profit, the depreciation cost is strictly correlated with property, plant and equipment of the enterprise and thus with the sales revenue. The analysis uses both the classic method of economic analysis and econometric methods, such as regression analysis, so that it may both facilitate monitoring the behaviour of financial standing of the enterprises and be considered a factor in the decision-making, especially in the investment policy.
Andrzej Letkiewicz, Michał Suchanek

Koleje Śląskie as an Example of H. Mintzberg’s Structural Configuration Theory Application in Designing Organizational Structure of a Railway Operator

In practice, the challenge of transport management lies in the development of organizational structures of enterprises—especially railway companies, which are usually characterized by a kind of hierarchical organizational structures. Meanwhile, rail companies in liberalized markets need to adapt to market conditions. The theoretical achievements in the field of management science and theory of enterprise can be utilized to achieve the abovementioned goals. One of the most interesting models based on practical research of organizational structures is the theory of structural configuration, developed by H. Mintzberg in 1979. This model was used to design the organizational structure of Koleje Śląskie Sp. z o.o. Mintzberg’s model is based on five main parts of organization, five coordination mechanisms, nine design parameters, and four groups of conditions. It is a powerful diagnostic and planning tool. Mintzberg’s model has proven to be useful in the evaluation and design changes to the organizational structure of Koleje Śląskie Sp. z o.o. The company was established as a so-called internal operator with the objective of providing passenger rail service in Silesia. It has been proven that H. Mintzberg’s model can be successfully used in the creation of a flexible organizational structure adapted to the liberalization of transport markets. The proposed model was used in the construction of the organizational structure and organizational regulations that have been adopted by the company in 2014. The next step of the restructuring was a significant change in the corporate strategy of Koleje Śląskie Sp. z o.o. The aim of this chapter is to demonstrate the possibility of a successful application of the theoretical output of Henry Mintzberg in the field of railway transport.
Robert Tomanek
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