Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health. The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions and its contribution to climate change. In addition, this chapter presents the basics of environmental policy measures. In that context, we describe a way to measure the cost-effectiveness of various measures through the so-called Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC). Finally, the chapter deals with the topic of the energy efficiency gap and examines why governments and companies may forego cost-effective investments in energy efficiency, even though they could significantly reduce energy consumption at a lower cost.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Ackerman, F., & Heinzerling, L. (2004). Priceless: On knowing the price of everything and the value of nothing. New York: The New Press.
Asafu-Adjaye, J. (2005). Environmental economics for non-economists: Techniques and policies for sustainable development (2nd ed.). Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. CrossRef
Brealey, & Meyers. (2003). Principles of corporate finance. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Brown, M. (2001). Market failures and barriers as a basis for clean energy policies. Energy Policy, 29, 1197–1207. CrossRef
Buhaug, Ø., Corbett, J. J., Endresen, Ø., Eyring, V., Faber, J., Hanayama, S., et al. (2009). Second IMO GHG study 2009, International Maritime Organization (IMO) London, UK, April 2009.
CEN. (2012), Standard EN 16258 “Methodology for calculation and declaration of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of transport services”, European Committee for Standardization.
DeCanio, S. J., & Watkins, W. E. (1998). Investment in energy efficiency: Do the characteristics of firms matter? Review of Economics and Statistics, 80, 95–107. CrossRef
Defra. (2013). Greenhouse gas conversion factors for company reporting 2013: Methodology paper for emission factors. UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).
Ekins, P., Kesicki, F., & Smith, A. Z. (2011). Marginal abatement cost curves: A call for caution. London: UCL Energy Institute.
EMEP/CORINAIR. (2002, October). The Core Inventory of Air Emissions in Europe (CORINAIR), Atmospheric Emission Inventory Guidebook, EMEP Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (3rd ed.).
EMEP/EEA. (2013). EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook 2013. European Environment Agency. Retrieved from http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2013
Enkvist, P., Nauclér, T., & Rosander, J. (2007). A cost curve for greenhouse gas reduction. Then McKinsey Quarterly, 1, 35–45.
EPA. (2010). EPA and NHTSA to propose greenhouse gas and fuel efficiency standards for heavy-duty trucks; begin process for further light-duty standards: Regulatory announcement. US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/regulations/420f10038.htm
EPA. (2014a). MOVES (Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator). Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ), US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/otaq/models/moves/index.htm
EPA. (2014b). NONROAD Model (nonroad engines, equipment, and vehicles). US Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/otaq/nonrdmdl.htm
European Parliament. (2009). Reduction of CO 2 emissions from light-duty vehicles: emission performance standards for new passenger cars (1753/2000/EC). Final legislative act, European Parliament. Retrieved from http://www.europarl.europa.eu/oeil/file.jsp?id=5582632
European Commission. (2010). Mayors’ sustainable energy action plan (SEAP). Retrieved from http://www.covenantofmayors.eu/IMG/pdf/seap_guidelines_en-2.pdf
Eyring, V., Isaksen, I. S. A., Terje, B., Collins, W. J., Corbett, J., Endresen, O., et al. (2010). Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Shipping. Atmospheric Environment, 44(34), 4735–4771. CrossRef
Field, B. C., & Field, M. K. (2009). Environmental Economics (5th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
FOEI. (2008). The price of carbon: What should it be and why? Friends of the Earth seminar, Mercer Suite, Royal Society, 8th July 2008.
Fuglestvedt, J., Berntsen, T., Myhre, G., Rypdal, K., & Skeie, R. B. (2008). Climate forcing from the transport sectors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 454–458. CrossRef
Golove, W. H., & Eto, J. H. (1996). Market barriers to energy efficiency: A critical reappraisal of the rationale for public policies to promote energy efficiency. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. LBL-38059. CrossRef
Hanley, N., Shogren, J., & White, B. (2006). Environmental economics: In theory and practice (2nd ed.). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Hirst, E., & Brown, M. (1990). Closing the efficiency gap: Barriers to the efficient use of energy. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 3, 267–281. CrossRef
Huntington, H. G., Schipper, L., & Sanstad, A. H. (1994). Editor’s introduction. Energy Policy, 22(10), 795–797. CrossRef
IEA. (2009). Energy technology transitions for industry: Strategies for the next industrial revolution. Paris: International Energy Agency.
IPCC. (2007). Climate change 2007: The physical science basis—Contribution of Working Group I to the fourth assessment, report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
IPCC. (2014). Climate change 2014: Mitigation of climate change. In O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, E. Farahani, S. Kadner, K. Seyboth, A. Adler, I. Baum, S. Brunner, P. Eickemeier, B. Kriemann, J. Savolainen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow, T. Zwickel, & J. C. Minx (Eds.), Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
Jaffe, A., Newell, R., & Stavins, R. (2004). The economics of energy efficiency. In C. Cleveland (Ed.), Encyclopedia of energy (pp. 79–90). Amsterdam: Elsevier. CrossRef
Jaffe, A. B., & Stavins, R. N. (1994). The energy-efficiency gap: What does it mean. Energy Policy, 22(10), 804–810. CrossRef
Mankiw, G. N. (2006). Brief principles of microeconomics. Mason, OH: Thomson South-Western.
Nichols, A. L. (1994). Demand-side management: Overcoming market barriers or obscuring real costs? Energy Policy, 22(10), 840–847. CrossRef
Pigou, A. C. (1920). The economics of welfare (4th ed.). London: Macmillan.
Psaraftis, H. N., & Kontovas, C. A. (2009). CO2 emissions statistics for the world commercial fleet. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 8(1), 1–25. CrossRef
Psaraftis, H. N., & Kontovas, C. A. (2010). Balancing the economic and environmental performance of maritime transportation. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 15(8), 458–462. CrossRef
Psaraftis, H. N., & Kontovas, C. A. (2013). Speed models for energy-efficient maritime transportation: A taxomomy and survey. Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, 26, 331–351. CrossRef
Schelling, T. (2007). Climate change: the uncertainties, the certainties and what they imply about action. The Economists’ Voice, 4(3), Article 3.
Schleich, J. (2009). Barriers to energy efficiency: A comparison across the German commercial and services sector. Ecological Economics, 68, 7.
Smith, T. W. P., Jalkanen, J. P., Anderson, B. A., Corbett, J. J., Faber, J., Hanayama, S., et al. (2014). Third IMO GHG Study 2014. London: International Maritime Organization (IMO).
Smokers, R., Buck, A., & van Valkengoed, M. (2009). GHG reduction in transport: An expensive option? Marginal abatement costs for greenhouse gas emission reduction in transport compared with other sectors. Delft, The Netherlands: CE Delft.
Sorrell, S., Mallett, A., & Nye, S. (2011, October). Barriers to industrial energy efficiency: A literature review (Working Paper). United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO): Development policy, statistics, and research branch.
Sorrell, S., O’Malley, E., Schleich, J., & Scott, S. (2004). The economics of energy efficiency—Barriers to cost-effective investment. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.
Stern, N. (2006). Stern review on the economics of climate change. Executive summary. London: HM Treasury.
Stiglitz, J. (2006). A new agenda for global warming. The Economists’ Voice, 3(7), Article 3.
Sutherland, R. J. (1991). Market barriers to energy efficiency investments. The Energy Journal, 12(3), 15–34. CrossRef
Ubbels, B., Rietveld, P., & Peeters, P. (2002). Environmental effects of a kilometre charge in road transport: An investigation for the Netherlands. Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 7, 255–264. CrossRef
UNFCCC. (1997). Kyoto protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved from http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/kpeng.htm
Weber, L. (1997). Some reflections on barriers to the efficient use of energy. Energy Policy, 25(10), 833–835. CrossRef
Woodward, R., & Bishop, R. (1997). How to decide when experts disagree: Uncertainty-based choice rules in environmental policy. Land Economics, 73, 492–507. CrossRef
- Transportation Emissions: Some Basics
Christos A. Kontovas
Harilaos N. Psaraftis
- Chapter 2
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, digitale Transformation/© Maksym Yemelyanov | Fotolia