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Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health. The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions and its contribution to climate change. In addition, this chapter presents the basics of environmental policy measures. In that context, we describe a way to measure the cost-effectiveness of various measures through the so-called Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC). Finally, the chapter deals with the topic of the energy efficiency gap and examines why governments and companies may forego cost-effective investments in energy efficiency, even though they could significantly reduce energy consumption at a lower cost.
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- Transportation Emissions: Some Basics
Christos A. Kontovas
Harilaos N. Psaraftis
- Chapter 2
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