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Über dieses Buch

The aim of this book is to present an overview of the state of the art with regard to the function, application and design of TWSs in order to better protect surface water from contamination. Accordingly, it also presents applications of constructed wetlands with regard to climatic and cultural aspects.

The use of artificial and natural treatment wetland systems (TWSs) for wastewater treatment is an approach that has been developed over the last thirty years. Europe is currently home to roughly 10,000 constructed wetland treatment systems (CWTSs), which simulate the aquatic habitat conditions of natural marsh ecosystems; roughly 3,500 systems are in operation in Germany alone. TWSs can also be found in many other European countries, for example 200 – 400 in Denmark, 400 – 600 in Great Britain, and ca. 1,000 in Poland. Most of the existing systems serve as local or individual household treatment systems. CWTSs are easy to operate and do not require specialized maintenance; further, no biological sewage sludge is formed during treatment processes. As TWSs are resistant to fluctuations in hydraulic loads, they are primarily used in rural areas as well as in urbanized areas with dispersed habitats, where conventional sewer systems and central conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) cannot be applied due to the high costs they would entail. TWSs are usually applied at the 2nd stage of domestic wastewater treatment, after mechanical treatment, and/or at the 3rd stage of treatment in order to ensure purification of effluent from conventional biological reactors and re-naturalization. New applications of TWSs include rainwater treatment as well as industrial and landfill leachate treatment. TWSs are well suited to these fields, as they can potentially remove not only organic matter and nitrogen compounds but also trace metals and traces of persistent organic pollutants and pathogens. Based on the practical experience gathered to date, and on new research regarding the processes and mechanisms of pollutant removal and advances in the systems properties and design, TWSs continue to evolve.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
In Poland, there is a considerable interest in natural methods of wastewater treatment. The explanation is simple: constructing sewer systems in rural areas is not justified from the economical point of view.
Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Magdalena Gajewska, Ewa Wojciechowska, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 2. Characteristics of the Hydrophytes Method

Abstract
Hydrophyte wastewater treatment plants are designed on the basis of the systems known as “treatment wetland”, introduced in western and North Europe, North America and Australia.
Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Magdalena Gajewska, Ewa Wojciechowska, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 3. Types of Treatment Wetlands

Abstract
The removal of pollutants in treatment wetland systems is the result of the sorption of biochemical pollutants, redox reactions, and a biological activity of microorganisms as well as hydrophytes plants.
Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Magdalena Gajewska, Ewa Wojciechowska, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 4. Domestic Wastewater Treatment

Abstract
SSF systems are usually applied at the 2nd stage of domestic wastewater treatment, after mechanical treatment. The number of such installations working at the moment in Europe is estimated to be 100,000. In Germany about 10,000 systems are in operation.
Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Magdalena Gajewska, Ewa Wojciechowska, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 5. The Quality of the Outflow from Conventional WWTPs and Treatment Wetlands

Abstract
Until recently the humic substances were considered to have no negative impact on human health. Therefore elimination of these substances from potable water was only performed due to aesthetic reasons. In the recent years, however, it was found out that humic substances may cause unacceptable smell of water or cumulate toxic substances by complexing metal ions and adsorption of persistent organic pollutants such as pesticides, PCB or phthalanes.
Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Magdalena Gajewska, Ewa Wojciechowska, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 6. Storm Water Treatment in TWs

Abstract
Storm water runoff usually carries quite large load of different pollutants. In the urbanized areas storm water runoff contains suspended solids, oils, PAHs and heavy metals from petroleum spills, de-freezing salts, detergents, pesticides and herbicides as well as organic matter. Field runoff outside the cities washes out fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides and may also be polluted with leaking manure or domestic wastewater. Another problem is associated with peaking flows of storm water during serious rain events that result in floods, especially in the urbanized or lowland areas.
Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Magdalena Gajewska, Ewa Wojciechowska, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 7. Reject Water from Digested Sludge Centrifugation Treatment in HTW

Abstract
Since EU Directive imposed the limit on total nitrogen concentration in treated outflow, not more than 10 mg TN/l, at WWTPs above 100,000 pe in the year 2010, local authorities and WWTP operators are still trying to improve the treatment processes towards minimizing concentration of pollutants in the inflow.
Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Magdalena Gajewska, Ewa Wojciechowska, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 8. Landfill Leachate Treatment in Treatment Wetlands

Abstract
Landfill leachate is formed when rainwater percolates through the landfilled wastes, washing out organic and mineral pollutants. The leachate volume fluctuates depending on rainfall type and intensity.
Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Magdalena Gajewska, Ewa Wojciechowska, Janusz Pempkowiak

Chapter 9. Dewatering of Sewage Sludge Dewatering in Reed Systems

Abstract
Within the last several years new methods of sewage sludge utilisation have been introduced.
Hanna Obarska-Pempkowiak, Magdalena Gajewska, Ewa Wojciechowska, Janusz Pempkowiak
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