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Über dieses Buch

This book provides the first comprehensive state-of-the-art research on tree (dendritic) fluid flow and heat transfer. It covers theory, numerical simulations and applications. It can serve as extra reading for graduate-level courses in engineering and biotechnology.
Tree flow networks, also known as dendritic flow networks, are ubiquitous in nature and engineering applications. Tree-shaped design is prevalent when the tendency of the flow (fluid, energy, matter and information) is to move more easily between a volume (or area) and a point, and vice versa. From the geophysical trees to animals and plants, we can observe numerous systems that exhibit tree architectures: river basins and deltas, lungs, circulatory systems, kidneys, vascularized tissues, roots, stems, and leaves, among others.
Tree design is also prevalent in man-made flow systems, both in macro- and microfluidic devices. A vast array of tree-shaped design is available and still emerging in chemical engineering, electronics cooling, bioengineering, chemical and bioreactors, lab-on-a-chip systems, and smart materials with volumetric functionalities, such as self-healing and self-cooling. This book also addresses the basic design patterns and solutions for cooling bodies where there is heat generation. Several shapes of fin as well as assemblies of fins are addressed. An up-to-date review of cavities, i.e., inverted or negative fins, for facilitating the flow of heat is also presented. Heat trees using high thermal conductivity material can be used in the cooling of heat-generating bodies, and can also be applied to the cooling of electronics.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Tree-Shaped Flow Networks in Nature and Engineered Systems

Abstract
Our world is made up of things that have shapes. The apparently endless diversity of shapes can be ranked and compared. Similar patterns and forms in natural systems abound, from the honeycomb configuration in living tissue and cell aggregates to the tree-shape configuration in lightning, neurons, plant roots and branches, blood distribution systems, and river basins. Tree architecture is ubiquitous, both in small- and large-scale systems, in systems that have nothing in common apart from the purpose of allowing something to flow.
António F. Miguel, Luiz A. O. Rocha

Chapter 2. Tree-Shaped Flow Networks Fundamentals

Abstract
The size of the offspring vessels and airways in circulatory and respiratory trees can be predicted by theory. We first review the relationship connecting a parent tube to daughter tubes based on the application of optimization principles, such as minimizing energy expenditure, minimizing the total flow resistance.
António F. Miguel, Luiz A. O. Rocha

Chapter 3. Transport and Deposition of Particles in Airway Trees

Abstract
Atmospheric exposure to ambient particulate matter may affect pulmonary function, resulting in adverse health effects. Aerosol particles are also widely used in treatment of obstructive airway diseases, such as asthma. This chapter is completely devoted to particle transport through airways. It covers the physical characteristics of particles, the deposition mechanisms, and physiological factors (breathing patterns) with relevance to particle deposition in the respiratory tree.
António F. Miguel, Luiz A. O. Rocha

Chapter 4. Constructal Design of the Assembly of Fins

Abstract
Performance is the measure of how the system achieves its aims. This chapter and the next apply the constructal law (see Chap. 2) to the design of high-performance man-made systems. The so-called constructal design is a method that guides the designer toward flow configurations (architectures) that provide maximum global performance. On the other side, among the engineering problems, the field of heat transfer has demonstrated for many years how the principle of generating flow geometry works. The oldest and clearest illustrations are the optimization of solid wall features known as extended surfaces or fins (Chen 2012).
António F. Miguel, Luiz A. O. Rocha

Chapter 5. The Assembly of the Fins and the Shape of the Body

Abstract
This chapter intends to address these questions, studying different shapes of bodies and simultaneously optimizing both the assembly of fins and the body.
António F. Miguel, Luiz A. O. Rocha

Chapter 6. Tree-Shaped Cavities

Abstract
This chapter illustrates how to discover the shape of open cavities that intrude into a solid conducting wall. The cavity can also be seen as a “negative fin” or “inverted fin,” because its shape would be generated if a fin were to be inserted into the body and its volume removed from the solid body. Open cavities can also be understood as the region between adjacent fins.
António F. Miguel, Luiz A. O. Rocha

Chapter 7. Tree-Shaped High Thermal Conductivity Pathways

Abstract
Constructal design has also been applied successfully to the cooling of electronics through conductive heat transfer on different thermal tree constructs (Ledesma et al. in J Appl Phys 82(1):89–100, 1997; Almogbel and Bejan in Int J Heat Mass Transf 42:3739–3756, 1999; Alebrahim and Bejan in Int J Heat Mass Transf 42:3585–3597, 1999; Almogbel and Bejan in Int J Heat Mass Transf 43:4285–4297, 2000; Rocha et al. in Int J Heat Mass Transf 45(8):1643–1652, 2002; Ghodoossi and Egrican in Energy Convers Manage 45:811–828, 2004; da Silva et al. in Int J Heat Mass Transf 47:4257–4263, 2004; Rocha et al. in Int J Heat Mass Transf 49:2626–2635, 2006; Kuddusi and Denton in Energy Convers Manage 48:1089–1105, 2007).
António F. Miguel, Luiz A. O. Rocha
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