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2023 | Buch

Trends in Environmental Sustainability and Green Energy

Proceedings of 2022 5th International Conference on Green Energy and Environment Engineering

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Über dieses Buch

This book consists of selected and peer-reviewed papers of 2022 5th International Conference on Green Energy and Environment Engineering (CGEEE 2022), held in Jeju Island, Korea during July 28-30, 2022. CGEEE 2022 provides a forum for researchers and practitioners in the field of green energy and environment engineering to share ideas, designs, and experiments results. Various topics are covered in this book, such as carbon capture and storage, solar energy, biomass, biofuel, geothermal, sustainable cities, energy savings for vehicular technology, solid waste management, waste minimization, water treatment and reclamation, environmental restoration, and ecological engineering. This book will be beneficial to researchers, educators, practitioners, and policymakers working in the related fields.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Environmental Pollution Analysis and Pollution Treatment

Frontmatter
A Study of Arsenic Extraction Efficiency from Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils
Abstract
Timely on-site detection of heavy metal contaminations in soil and ground water is crucial for environmental monitoring and minimizing the risk to human health. In this study, a single extractant based method for the extraction of arsenic ions from soils has been developed and evaluated. The designed protocol has been modified by adjusting the acid mixing volume and digestion time, and the efficiency has been evaluated with three different types of soils (standard, spiked, and field soils). Comparisons have been made between the proposed method and the standard laboratory based protocol using aqua regia extraction. The proposed method has shown reduced processing steps and time, allowing a simple and rapid on-site sample pre-processing for soil monitoring.
H. Jeon, S. Park
Design of a Rushton Turbine for the Improvement of the Bioreactor in the Wastewater Treatment Plant in the City of Morococha (Carhuacoto)-Peru
Abstract
The study is carried out in a domestic wastewater treatment plant (DWWTP) in the city of Morococha in Peru, with a population of 9 thousand inhabitants, at an altitude of 4200 m.a.s.l., has a processing capacity of 1620 m3/day with a flow that is not constant, focuses on secondary treatment consisting of a sequential biological reactor (SBR) of aerobic technology. The problem is the excess flow in certain periods of time and the incoming wastewater was not processed in an optimal way, as an objective a redesign of the bioreactor was proposed, incorporating a Rushton Turbine of 6 horsepower (H.P.) of power with 6 propellers and dimensioned according to mathematical models, the results were the improvement of effluent quality for turbidity, dissolved oxygen, pH and residual chlorine, improving the reaction speed, and controlling the treatment flow, providing a better quality effluent to the receiving body which is a nearby river in this way the negative environmental impacts are reduced for the population.
Anieval Peña, Steve Camargo, Frando Condor, Angela Tunque, Ashley Verano
Numerical Analysis of Ferro-Alumino-Zirconium Particle Sedimentation Under Passive Waste Pre-treatment Scenario
Abstract
Computational Fluid Dynamics-Discrete Element Method (CFD-DEM) coupling algorithm was used in this study to assess the sedimentation and coolability of stainless steel, aluminum, and zirconium solid particles in a liquid pool. This phenomenon is associated with the micro-to-nanosized multi-particle cooling phase encountered in metal powder and hazardous solid waste sedimentation pre-treatment facility. To determine the effect of fluid as simulant, a sedimentation scenario was simulated with multicomponent particle system (500 K) entered in a cylindrical pool, and cylindrical and cylindrical-trapezoidal configuration. All the computational frameworks involve two pool simulants: air and water. This numerical analysis focused on the characteristics of particle falling (i.e. falling time and average velocity) and of particle agglomeration (i.e. bed height distribution and melt spreading distance). Numerical results in cylindrical configuration showed good agreements with other computational data from previous studies using simulant of water. The new cylindrical-trapezoidal configuration shows promising results, where spreading dominates over agglomeration.
Ralph Carlo Evidente, Michelle Almendrala, Zhane Ann Tizon, Bonifacio Doma, Marc Jazer Esguerra
Mining Environmental Liability and Its in Situ Treatment with Calcium Oxide for Zinc Removal
Abstract
Mining environmental liabilities have negative effects on human health, the ecosystem and property. This study was conducted at the Cercapuquio Mining Environmental Liability (MEL) in the district of Chongos Alto. The wastewater analysis was conducted at Universidad Continental and data were obtained on metal content and hydrogen potential. This investigation revealed that the Cercapuquio MEL wastewater had a higher concentration of zinc, 9,916 mg/L, and the pH level was 7.53 (alkaline), which is why this effluent exceeds the maximum permissible limit of the annual average. A neutralizing reagent was also prepared by recycling eggshells, calcined at 1000 ℃ for 40 min, obtaining quicklime with 61.30% calcium oxide (CaO). For wastewater treatment, the quicklime obtained in neutralizing solution was used, which, when applied to the effluent, had the effect of lowering the zinc concentration from 9.916 mg/L to 0.051 mg/L and the pH from 7.53 to 10.36. The average zinc removal achieved in the effluent is 96%.
A. A. Campos-Llantoy, J. M. Huanay-Condor, A. A. Muñoz-Navarro, P. C. Espinoza-Tumialán, N. Tantavilca-Martinez

Ecological Environment Protection and Sustainable Development

Frontmatter
The Dalcahue Fire Risk Prevention Plan as a Restorer of the Landscape and Degradation
Abstract
The present research aims to explore how the implementation of a risk prevention plan for the commune of Dalcahue can facilitate habitat reconstruction, landscape degradation and restoration.
The commune of Dalcahue is selected as a case study because (1) it contextualizes Dalcahue as one of the most fire-prone communes in the region (country) due to interests related to agricultural activities (2) most of the buildings in this area are made of wood, a highly flammable material, (3) among these buildings are churches declared World Heritage by UNESCO (4) the commune is located within the ecoregion of Chiloé, protected by its native fauna and vegetation. (5) Dalcahue does not have a forest fire prevention plan in place at the communal level.
The methodology is carried out through the analysis of the regional prevention plan of Los Lagos and the work of title Plan of Territorial Protection against Forest Fires for the commune of Dalcahue, together with secondary sources, followed by an analysis of 15 headlines of the year 2021, because it was a peak period of fires in the area.
It is concluded that the prompt implementation of an institutional fire prevention plan for the commune of Dalcahue is necessary, since it facilitates habitat reconstruction, landscape degradation and restoration, as has occurred in the safeguarding of the commune of Dalcahue in Chiloé.
Vicente Valdebenito, Stefania Pareti, Loreto Rudolph, David Flores
The Vulnerability of the Environmental Resources of the Arganeraie Biosphere Reserve - Souss Massa and Its Resilience for Sustainable Development
Abstract
The Arganeraie Biosphere Reserve (ABR) is an ecosystem whose goal is to reconcile the conservation of natural resources and sustainable socioeconomic development. However, the tendencies of overexploitation of natural resources, the continuous degradation of ecosystems are facts from which the ABR suffers and which threaten its cultural, heritage and natural wealth at different territorial levels. This work aims to produce a vulnerability model adapted to the ABR of Souss-Massa, which constitutes 74% of the total surface of the ABR, through the State-Pressure-Result (SPR) method developed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). This method will be applied to the water, soil and biodiversity sectors. This article exposes, in the first place, the state of these three predicted sectors. Secondly, it studies the pressure exerted on these said sectors to frame the vulnerability of the study area. Finally, the article highlights the different measures undertaken by stakeholders to mitigate the pressure on the previous sectors. However, an acceptable level of resilience hasn’t been achieved and this paper will discuss the reason why.
Hala Idrassen, Said Boujrouf, Noureddine Ait Mensour
Promote Green Mobility as a Mechanism for the Development of Sustainable Cities and Environmental Sustainability. The Case of the ValparaÍSo Trolley as a Green Means of Transport, Chile
Abstract
The main objective of this study is to explore whether the promotion of green mobility turns out to be a mechanism for the development of sustainable cities and environmental sustainability. The Valparaíso trolleybus is selected as a case study, since (1) it is a green means of transportation, (2) it facilitates the urban mobility of the inhabitants, (3) it decongests traffic and pollutes the place, (4) they are part of the city's industrial heritage legacy, (5) in addition to being a green means of transport, they are a reminder of the city's heritage-tourism heritage. The methodology is carried out through an analysis of the historical route of the trolleybus in Valparaíso, followed by an analysis of the energy efficiency of this means of transport compared to other options. It is concluded that promoting green mobility does turn out to be a mechanism for the development of sustainable cities and environmental sustainability, as observed in the case of the Valparaíso tram.
Stefania Pareti, Vicente Valdebenito, Ignacio Tampe, Claudia Bustamante

Renewable Energy and Clean Energy Technology

Frontmatter
Solar Rooftop PV Power Generation for a Commercial Building in Thailand
Abstract
Solar energy is significant potential for power and heat production. The Alternative Energy Development Plan 2018–2037 (AEDP2018) developing by Thailand’s Ministry of Energy demonstrates that solar energy is a key role in renewable energy utilization, especially for power generation. In general, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is the most common type of solar power generation technology. This paper presented a potential of using grid-connected solar PV power generation system for the rooftop of a commercial building. The design and simulation of the solar rooftop PV power generation system and the economic analysis were accomplished. The installation of 1.85 MWp grid-connected solar PV power generation system on the rooftop area required 3,440 pieces of 540 Wp solar panels. By using PVsyst version 7.2, the solar panel configuration was connected in 20 pieces/string in series and 172 strings in parallel, with 80 kWac string inverters of 18 units. The simulated results of produced energy, specific production, and performance ratio were 2,678 MWh/year, 1,442 kWh/kWp/year, and 80% respectively. As a result, the energy cost saving was 269,317 USD with payback period (PB), net present value (NPV), and internal rate of return (IRR) of 6.37 years, 1,062,430 USD, and 15%, respectively. In conclusion, the installation of 1.85 MWp solar rooftop PV power generation system is technically feasible for the investment.
Piyanart Sommani, Jiraporn Nookwan, Anchaleeporn Waritswat Lothongkum
A Perspective on the Influencing Factors in the Use of Antioxidants for Biodiesel Oxidation Stability Enhancement
Abstract
Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to diesel which is used in transportation and industrial sectors. However, it is more susceptible to oxidation compared to diesel hence the use of antioxidants is proposed to enhance its oxidation stability. This paper aims to provide a concise perspective on the influencing factors in the use of commonly reported antioxidants for biodiesel oxidation stability enhancement. The scope here covers the type of antioxidant, concentration of antioxidant, biodiesel blend, storage time and temperature, with focus on the implications on palm biodiesel oxidation stability over an extended period. Data analysis suggests the order of effectiveness of synthetic antioxidants to be TBHQ > PY > PG > BHT ≥ BHA while for natural antioxidants, the order is quercetin ≥ curcumin > α-tocopherol. A higher applied antioxidant concentration generally results in higher IP extension though the relationship is not directly proportional. Further work can investigate the threshold of antioxidation activity with increasing concentration. Increasing the blend ratio enable the possibility of reducing antioxidant cost, but this would not be a major influencing factor unless the practice of adding antioxidant first prior to blending changes. The storage time is a major influencing factor in the context of stored biodiesel used as a backup energy source. At least 6 months to 1 year is recommended for such tests. Temperature affects the thermodynamics and kinetics of antioxidants performance. More studies on this for palm biodiesel are recommended for comparison and elucidation of the underlying mechanisms.
Chi Hou Lau, Suyin Gan, Harrison Lik Nang Lau, Lai Yee Lee, Suchithra Thangalazhy-Gopakumar
Techno-Economic and Environmental Analysis of a Hybrid Renewable Energy System: Al Qurayyat City, KSA
Abstract
Hybrid renewable energy systems (HRESs) are becoming more prevalent as they are viewed as economic off-grid sources of clean energy that could help reduce rural electrification and global warming problems. This paper aims to provide a techno-economic feasibility and environmental analysis of a HRES to be designed for meeting a daily load requirement of 389.4 kWh/day with a peak load of 82.71 kW, represented by the energy demand of thirty houses located in Al-Qurayyat city, Al Jouf Province, KSA. Thus, the aim of this paper coincides with the KSA’s “Vision 2030” and also with the “Net Zero Plan”, which promote sustainable energy solutions and net zero CO2 emissions, respectively. Moreover, the objective is achieved by designing a HRES consisting of PV, WT, a DG, converter and lead-acid BSS after taking into account the weather and operating conditions of Al Qurayyat city, which represents the novelty of this paper. Simulation of the system is achieved by HOMER to obtain the optimum configuration. After considering six arrangements, the results reveal that the ideal arrangement is indeed the PV/WT/DG//BSS with an optimized NPC and COE of $358,616, and $0.166/kWh while attaining a RF percentage of 92.8%. An alternative configuration, consisting of PV/WT//BSS would yield a 100% RF but with a NPC of $475,374 and COE of $0.22/kWh. The technical results show that the proposed HRES produces a total annual energy of 285,750 kWh/year with the PV, WT, and DG contributing 91.2%, 5.21%, and 3.58%, correspondingly. Regarding the environmental assessment, the optimized HRES annually saves a total of 206,678 kg of greenhouse gases.
Hazem Abdulrahim Atlam, Aziza I. Hussein
On-Site Stacking Efficiency Performance of a Novel Full-3D-Printed Plant Microbial Fuel Cell Electrode Assembly
Abstract
Plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs), a derivative of microbial fuel cells, are a clean and renewable energy source that utilizes plants and bacteria to generate bioelectricity. The electrodes utilize the electrons generated by the bacteria for a redox reaction to occur. In this study, the 3D-printed PMFC stake was designed and tested, which paved the way an accessible, convenient, and inexpensive electrodes while maintaining the ability to compete with other electrodes in terms of electricity generation. Series and parallel connections were significant due to the increase of the power output, from the average individual power of 1.06 × 10–9 W, the average power increased up to an output of 5.47 × 10–7 W provided by three-stack cells connected in series, and the highest obtained value was at 1.62 × 10–4 W from a nine-stack parallel connection. The highest power density obtained was 9.18 mW/m2 for the output setting, and it is obtained from the nine cells connected in parallel. These results proved that PMFC could be utilized for simultaneous electricity generation and food production. Additionally, the output power and power densities showed the potential of large-scale applications of PMFCs.
Miguel Angelo M. Chua, Abby Joy T. De Los Santos, Kristopher Ray S. Pamintuan
Investigation into the Temperature Effect on the Performance of CZTS(Se) Thin Film Solar Cells
Abstract
The objective of this study is to examine the effect of temperature on the performance parameters of the kieserite quaternary semiconductor compounds CZTS, CZTSe, and CZTSSe. For the purpose of this study, a SCAPS-1D model has been used. P-MoS(Se)2 is positioned between the Mo back contact and the absorber layer, acting as an interfacial layer. From the results of this study, it is clear that the p-MoS(Se)2 interfacial layer facilitates the quasi-ohmic contact between the CZTS(Se) heterojunctions and the Mo heterojunctions. Consequently, the J-V characteristic is steeper as a result of this finding. We examined all structures from 250 K to 450 K in terms of the temperature dependence of open-circuit voltage (Voc), short-circuit current (Jsc), fill factor (FF), and power conversion efficiency (PCE). CZTSe-based solar cells have been found to perform best at high operating temperatures, according to a comparative study. Based on the voltage variation to temperature ΔVoc/ΔT coefficients of the CZTS and CZTSe-based solar cells, it was found that the voltage variation to temperature coefficients were respectively −2.15 and −1.4 mV/K as a result of temperature changes.
Mohamed Moustafa, Tariq AlZoubi
Research on Output Characteristics of Cooling, Heating and Electricity of Adiabatic Compressed Air Energy Storage System
Abstract
Advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage (AA-CAES) technology has the advantages of zero emissions, which can meet the demand of combined storage and supply of various forms energy in integrated energy system. However, considering the coordination and unity of various energy outputs, there are still gaps in the research on the characteristics of cooling, heating and electricity energy output of AA-CAES. In view of the above problems, this paper used Gatecycle to establish an AA-CAES system model. By changing key operating parameters such as compression heat return ratio, turbine inlet air flow rate and turbine inlet air pressure, the output characteristics and round trip efficiency RTE of the system are analyzed. The results show that by adjusting the compression heat return ratio, the RTE varies from 52% to 75%, the output ratio of cooling, heating and electricity varies from 32% to 44%, 0 to 24% and 32% to 60%, respectively. By adjusting the air flow rate of turbine inlet, the RTE keep at about 70%, the output ratio of cooling, heating and electricity varies between 31%–42%, 23%–24% and 36%–45%, respectively. By adjusting the inlet air pressure of the turbine, the RTE varies from 67% to 83%, and the output ratio of cooling, heating and electricity varies from 37% to 42%, 20% to 24% and 38% to 39%, respectively. This study can provide theoretical basis for the design of AA-CAES multi-energy supply system structure, provide guidance for adjusting the output power of AA-CAES system and improve the coordination of multi-energy output.
Shuting Kong, Yanqiang Di, Yanyi Li, Xiaona Li, Yu Weng
Modelling the Permeate Flux in Ultrafiltration of Xanthan Gum
Abstract
Using MATLAB, this study develops an empirical and semi-empirical model for determining the initial flux in the ultrafiltration of xanthan solution as an alternative separating process in concentrating xanthan gum. The literature of reference uses hollow fiber membrane of A/G Technology Corporation, which the authors in this current study utilized to gather data for developing the permeate flux equation. In this research, the empirical model incorporates viscosity by replacing the concentration term from the original model based in the referenced literature. The pH parameter was tested if it had any significant effect to the permeate flux. Consequently, multiple empirical and semi-empirical models were developed in such a way that the authors selected the one with the lowest absolute relative error and high R-squared for optimization purposes. The modified model was found to have higher accuracy with an absolute relative error of 5.91% as compared to 11.42% with the old model, whereas the semi-empirical model had an average percent error of 7.69%. The optimal parameters found were 73 kPa for transmembrane pressure (TMP), 30.2 cm−1s−1 for γw/L, 50 ℃ for temperature, and 159.3 cP for viscosity.
Michelle C. Almendrala, David Joshua G. Barangan, Jomari C. Gutierrez, Zhane Ann M. Tizon, Ralph Carlo T. Evidente, Bonifacio T. Doma
Backmatter
Metadaten
Titel
Trends in Environmental Sustainability and Green Energy
herausgegeben von
Jinkeun Kim
Zhe Chen
Copyright-Jahr
2023
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-27803-7
Print ISBN
978-3-031-27802-0
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-27803-7