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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the proceedings of three International Conferences, NeCoM 2011, on Networks & Communications, WeST 2011, on Web and Semantic Technology, and WiMoN 2011, on Wireless and Mobile Networks, jointly held in Chennai, India, in July 2011. The 74 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers address all technical and practical aspects of networks and communications in wireless and mobile networks dealing with issues such as network protocols and wireless networks, data communication technologies, and network security; they present knowledge and results in theory, methodology and applications of the Web and semantic technologies; as well as current research on wireless and mobile communications, networks, protocols and on wireless and mobile security.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Networks and Communications

Adaptation of MAC Layer for QoS in WSN

In this paper, we propose QoS aware MAC protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks. In WSNs, there can be two types of traffic one is event driven traffic which requires immediate attention and another is periodic reporting. Event driven traffic is classified as Class I(delay sensitive) traffic and periodic reporting is classified as Class II(Best Effort) Traffic. MAC layer adaptation can take place in terms of (i) Dynamic contention window adjustment per class, (ii) Reducing the delay suffered by difference in Sleep schedules(DSS) of communicating nodes by dynamically adjusting Duty Cycle based on Utilization and DSS delay of class I traffic, (iii) Different DIFS (DCF Inter Frame Spacing) per class, (iv) Adjusting all the three schemes proposed above simultaneously.

Sukumar Nandi, Aditya Yadav

Audio Steganography Using Modified LSB and PVD

In Audio Steganography we find a way so that an audio file can be used as a host media to hide textual message without affecting the file structure and content of the audio file. In this system a novel high bit rate LSB audio data hiding and another method known as Pixel value differencing is proposed. This scheme reduces embedding distortion of the host audio. The hidden bits are embedded into the higher LSB layers resulting in increased robustness against noise addition. To avoid major differences from the cover audio and the embedded audio this algorithm helps in modifying the rest of the bits. To enlarge the capacity of the hidden secret information and to provide an imperceptible stego-audio for human perception, a pixel-value differencing (PVD) is used for embedding. The difference value of audio samples is replaced by a new value to embed the value of a sub-stream of the secret message. The method is designed in such a way that the modification is never out of the range interval. This method provides an easy way to produce a more imperceptible result than those yielded by simple least-significant-bit replacement methods. The SNR value is good for LSB scheme and the capacity is high for PVD scheme.

R. Darsana, Asha Vijayan

An Adaptive Cross Layer Design to Enhance Throughput for Multimedia Streaming over Mobile Adhoc Networks

The main objective of this paper is to propose a novel method for enhancing the Quality of Service (QoS) of multimedia applications in wireless adhoc networks. The enhancement is achieved by implementing a cross layer mapping algorithm, between application layer and Medium Access Layer where Connectionless Light Weight Protocol (UDPLite) is used in transport layer that supports multimedia applications. The Proposed method achieves 16% improvement in reduction of delay and 12.5% improvement in PSNR as compared to the conventional UDP Protocol under heavy traffic conditions.

N. Gomathi, P. Seethalakshmi, A. Govardhan

Implementation of Fault Secure Encoder and Decoder for Memory Application

Memory cells have been protected from soft errors for more than a decade; due to the increase in soft error rate in logic circuits, the encoder and decoder circuitry around the memory blocks have become susceptible to soft errors as well and must also be protected. An attempt is made to implement the FPGA based fault-tolerant memory architecture whichtolerates transient faults both in the storageunit and in the supporting logic (i.e., encoder, corrector,and detector circuitries) by using the Euclidean Geometry Low-Density Parity-Check(EG-LDPC) code. This architecture is authorized in Verilog, behavior simulation using the ISE simulator and synthesis by using the synthesis Xilinx ISE 9.1. This is a new approach to design fault-secure encoder and decoder circuitry for memory designs and to identify and define a new class of error correcting codes whose redundancy makes the design of fault-secure detectors (FSD) particularly simple.

K. RajaSekhar, B. K. V. Prasad, T. Madhu, P. SatishKumar, B. Stephen Charles

Performance Analysis of Energy Efficient Routing Protocol for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Network

Wireless Sensor Networks, are made of low-cost, low-power, small insize, and multifunctional sensor nodes. The efficient energy utilization is one of the important performance factors for wireless sensor networks survivability be-cause nodes operate with limited battery power. In this paper we propose and analyze a new approach of zone based clustering head selection algorithm for wireless sensor network of homogeneous nodes. Nodes in the network are uniformly distributed. In this clustering algorithm, network performance is improved by selecting cluster heads on the basis of the residual energy of existing cluster heads, and nearest hop distance of the node. In this paper we evaluate various performance metrics like energy consumption, network life time, number of channel heads metrics in each round and compare these with respect to random algorithm i.e. LEACH. We conclude that proposed protocol effectively extends the network lifetime without degrading the other critical overheads and performance metrics.

S. Taruna, Jain Kusum Lata, G. N. Purohit

Mobile Communication Implementation Techniques to Improve Last Mile High Speed FSO Communication

As an affordable alternative solution for the current generation last mile wireless communication network access, the FSO – Free Space Optical Communication has vast development in supporting of FSO communication. The primary advantages of FSO system are the license free optical nodes, higher data rates, easy to install with less expensive setup. However, obtaining the reliable communication link and higher bandwidth rate still having some difficulties due to environmental interferences. These difficulties plays important role in designing of a strong and high efficient FSO network. In this paper, we propose new approaches based on mixed Integer Programming formulations to design optimized FSO network structure to improve the link availability and high data rate, and also considered the allocation of limited bandwidth. In our analyses result provide right directions to design high efficient reconfigurable FSO network design.

R. Srinivasan, A. Vijayaraj

Binary Tree Based Cluster Key Management Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

Many applications of wireless sensor networks are used to achieve energy efficiency and require secure data communications. To achieve security in wireless sensor networks, it is important to be able to encrypt the messages sent between sensor nodes. The key management task is challenging due to resource constrained nature of wireless sensor networks. We are introducing two key management methods for wireless sensor networks, which can handle events like node addition, node compromise and key refresh at regular intervals. The first one is

Binary Tree Based Method

, used to generate Cluster Key

CK

, for intra cluster communication and Common Cluster Key

CCK

, for inter cluster communication. The second one is

DH Key Exchange Method

performs key management with minimum communication and storage at each node which ensures the security from eavesdropping and internal attacks. Our Key management methods avoid the usage of public key in communications.

Rajender Dharavath, K. Bhima, K. Sri Vidya Shankari, A. Jagan

A Hierarchical Mobile Agent Monitoring Mechanism with XML-Based Mobile Agents

Mobility management is a necessity in highly dynamic and large-scale Mobile Agent (MA) networks, especially in a multi-region environment, in order to control and communicate with agents after launching. In this paper, we have proposed a hierarchical mobile agent monitoring mechanism using Mobile Monitor Agents (MMA’s). The mobile agent system is implemented in XML. This XML based system provides a system independent, standardized, effective and customized solution for application development. Distributing MMA dynamically solves the scalability issue of Centralized monitoring mechanism, and still has the advantages of Hierarchical monitoring mechanism to decrease the information processing bottleneck issue at centralized server. The MMA takes care of a certain number of agent servers and it reduces the traffic in the centralized server by bypassing queries from the agent servers under its control. XML helps to decrease the amount of data transferred and the processing part with the Java parsers is not transferred in network. There is less transfer of data because only data representation is migrated.

C. Valliyammai, S. Thamarai Selvi

Mutual Authentication for Mobile Communication Using Symmetric and Asymmetric Key Cryptography

The Global System for mobile communication (GSM) is widely used for mobile communication where the mobile users can make and receive call when they are moving independent of time, location, and network access. The wireless mobile systems are more vulnerable to deceitful access and eaves dropping. Though the authentication process on GSM is giving a reasonable security level but have some drawbacks such as: 1. overloading the network traffic and increasing the call set up time 2. Not support the mutual authentication 3. Storage overhead of visitor location registers (VLR) 4. Overload on home location registers (HLR) with authentication of mobile station. There are many protocol already proposed to overcome the above drawback but they can not overcome all the point. In this paper we are going to propose a authentication to overcome the drawback of GSM security process by using the combination the symmetric and asymmetric key cryptographic method.

Tumpa Roy, Kamlesh Dutta

Optimization of Prefetching in Peer-to-Peer Video on Demand Systems

In Peer-to-Peer Video on Demand System like Video Cassette Recording (VCR) various operations (i.e. forward, backward, resume) are found to be used very frequently. The uncertainty of frequent VCR operations makes it difficult to provide services like play as download. To address this problem, there exist algorithms like random prefetching, distributed prefetching, etc. But each such algorithm has its own advantage and disadvantages. So to overcome the problem of prefetching we propose optimize prefetching for Peer-to-Peer(P2P) Video on Demand systems.The simulation result proves that the proposed prefetching algorithm significantly reduces the seeking delay as compared with the random prefetching scheme.

Parag Bafna, B. Annappa

Testing Resilience of Router against Denial of Service Attacks

Provisioning data security and integrity in an IP network requires a detailed understanding of both the architecture and the performance of devices that are used within the network. A router interconnects two or more computer networks, and it becomes most common target for attackers to carry out Denial of Service Attacks. Thus it is necessary to study the effect of resource exhaustion attack on router with respect to its performance and security. In this paper, the proposed framework provides an effective method to evaluate router performance and its resilience against denial of service attacks. The feasibility of the framework has been demonstrated by carrying out different resource exhaustion attacks on device under test (DUT) i.e. router, and the resilience against the attacks is measured using a defined set of performance metrics.

Vishal Maruti Karande, Sandeep Nair Narayanan, Alwyn Roshan Pais, N. Balakrishnan

NetALM: Network Based Application Layer Multicast for Multiparty Video Conference in OverLay Networks

The purpose of this work is to maintain efficient backup routes for reconstructing overlay trees quickly. In most conventional methods, after a nodes leaves the trees, its children start searching for a new parent. In real time applications, this kind of reactive approach is not suited because this approach takes a lot of time to find a new parent. We propose a NetALM: Network based Application Layer Multicast protocol, which is used to form a multicast tree in a hierarchical order. In this proactive approach allows a node to finds its new parent immediately and switch to the backup smoothly. In our proposal, the structure of the overlay tree is resource aware. The higher capability resource nodes will be in the higher level of the tree. This tree structure is used to do smooth data distribution for our multiparty video conference application. In this application, we are dividing the users into two categories are Participants and Spectators. Participants can send both audio and video packets to other ends. However, Spectators can not send any audio and video packets; they can only receive the audio and video packets. Using these two methods we can utilize the internet bandwidth.

T. Ruso, C. Chellappan

Transmit Diversity Technique for Wireless Communication over Rayleigh Channels Using 16 QAM Modulation Schemes

The increasing demand for higher data rates and higher quality in wireless communications has motivated the use of multiple antenna elements at the transmitter and single antenna at the receiver in a wireless link. Space-time block coding over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas was introduced. In this work Data is encoded using a space-time block code and the encoded data is split into n streams which are simultaneously transmitted using n transmit antennas. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the n transmitted signals perturbed by noise. Maximum likelihood decoding is carried out by dividing the signals transmitted from different antennas. This uses the orthogonal structure of the space-time block code and gives a maximum-likelihood decoding algorithm, which is based only on linear processing at the receiver. Space-time block codes are designed to achieve the maximum diversity order for a given number of transmit and receive antennas subject to the constrain of having a simple decoding algorithm. This paper presents a simple two-branch transmit diversity scheme. Using two transmit antennas and one receive antenna using QAM modulation technique the performance of OSTBC with Alamouti is compared with no STBC scheme at lower as well as higher SNRs. This paper evaluates the performance of the system by increasing data lengths in terms of blocks.

N. S. Murthy, S. Sri Gowri, J. N. V. Saileela

T-RAP: (TCP Reply Acknowledgement Packet) a Resilient Filtering Model for DDoS Attack with Spoofed IP Address

A Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attack is a strenuous attack to defend, mainly due to a server’s inability to control the amount and the origin of requests. It is easily performed by utilizing the weakness of the network protocol. DDoS attack is considered to be a major threat among security problems in today’s Internet. TCP/IP protocol suite is the most widely used protocol suite for data communication. While SYN flooding exploits the TCP three-way handshake process by sending many connection requests using spoofed source IP addresses to a victim server. The IP protocol specifies no method for validating the authenticity of the packet’s source. This implies that an attacker can forge the source address to their desire. These kinds of attack are potentially severe. They bring down business of company drastically. DDoS attack can easily exhaust the computing and communication resources of its victim within a short period of time. This paper deals on attacks that consume all the bandwidth available to the victim machine. The TCP SYN flood works by exhausting the TCP connection queue of the host and thus denying legitimate connection requests. There are various methods used to detect and prevent this attack, one of which is to block the packet based on SYN flag count from the same IP address. This kind of prevention methods becomes unsuitable when the attackers use the Spoofed IP address. For the prevention of this kind of attacks, the TCP specific probing is used in the proposed scheme where the client is requested to change the windows size/ cause packet retransmission while sending the ACK in the three way hand shake. We also use the DHCP to statically assign the IP address based on the MAC address in a private environment. This is very useful to find the Spoofed IP Packets/TCP SYN flood and preventing them.

L. Kavisankar, C. Chellappan

Transmit Precoding for Time Varying Channel by Considering Channel Prediction Error

Transmit precoding techniques used at the base station(B.S) greatly reduces inter symbol interference(ISI) and inter channel interference(ICI), and allows the receiver to be complete simplified. These techniques needs full channel state information(CSI) at the B.S. But the CSI at the B.S is often outdated because of time varying nature of the channel. Hence, to adapt the transmit precoding technique, it is necessary to update the CSI at the transmitter. For reliable adaptive transmission, it is required to have the prediction of future CSI. In this paper we consider the kalman filter to predict the future channel, then the prediction error is corrected by the proposed technique. Then the prediction error corrected channel is used to construct the linear precoding matrix. Our simulation results show that the Bit error rate(BER) perfomance is improved if the prediction error is corrected to construct linear precoding matrix.

V. Kejalakshmi, S. Arivazhagan

Design and Implementation CAM Architecture Memory Cell Using DMLSA Technique

A low-power content-addressable memory (CAM) using a differential match line (DMLSA) sense amplifier is proposed in this work. The proposed self-disabled sensing technique can choke the charge current fed into the ML right after the matching comparison is generated. Instead of using typical NOR/NAND-type CAM cells with the single-ended ML, the proposed novel NAND CAM cell with the differential ML design can boost the speed of comparison without sacrificing power consumption. In addition, the 9-T CAM cell provides the complete write, read, and comparison functions to refresh the data and verify its correctness before searching. The CAM with the proposed technique is implemented on silicon to justify the performance by using a standard 90-nm complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor process.

I. Sreenivasa Rao, B. S. N. S. P. Kumar, S. Raghavendra, V. Malleswara Rao

Header Compression Scheme over Hybrid Satellite-WiMAX Network

Today the interest for global broadband access has led to the integration of hybrid networks that can provide wide area coverage and new services. Although satellite network plays a vital role in providing coverage over the surface of the earth, Line-Of-Sight (LOS) is still an obstacle in satellite communications. Thus a hybrid network between satellite and terrestrial wireless systems (IEEE802.16 WiMAX) will be the key to affordable services that can provide broadband connectivity to rural and remote areas. In this paper, a header compression scheme is proposed over hybrid satellite-WiMAX network. The proposed header compression scheme (Hybrid-ROHC or in short H-ROHC) will enable the saving of resources over the hybrid network where bandwidth is a premium.

Yung-Wey Chong, Imad J. Mohamad, Tat-Chee Wan

Comparing the Performance Parameters of Network on Chip with Regular and Irregular Topologies

Scalability and reusability are the critical issues concerning any application. As far as Network on Chip is concerned the above said issues are addressed through generating application specific topologies. Application specific topologies are irregular in structure and take into account certain factors like communication weight, area and energy constraints while building up the topology. Regular topologies like 2D mesh, spidergon etc are more structured and are built not considering much about the system characteristics and other requirements. Consequently the throughput and power utilizations vary depending on the topology. Our aim is to provide a comparative analysis on the performance measures of irregular application specific networks against the regular topological structures.

S. Umamaheswari, J. Rajapaul Perinbam, K. Monisha, J. Jahir Ali

A New Graph Model for Heterogeneous WSN

Random Geometric Graphs have been a very influential and well-studied model of large networks, such as sensor networks, where the network nodes are represented by the vertices of the RGG, and the direct connectivity between nodes is represented by the edges. In random geometric graph the n nodes locations are chosen uniformly and independently at random and two points are connected by an edge if they are within a distance less then a certain value r. This assumes homogeneous wireless nodes with uniform transmission ranges. The assumption of homogeneous nodes does not always hold in practice since even devices of the same type may have slightly different transmission power. Therefore, the standard RGG model is not suitable to represent real time heterogeneous WSN. In this paper, we propose a non uniform radii disk RGG model based on a new metric NSM for heterogeneous WSN.

Jasmine Norman, Paulraj Joseph

Extending the Principles of Cloud Computing in Mobile Domain

This paper outlines key considerations in extending cloud computing principles to mobile domain and platforms along with business challenges and obstacles faced in deploying over the mobile devices. This paper enlightens the benefits offered by Mobile Cloud Computing and also illustrate, how usinesses can utilizes Mobile Cloud services to get virtually infinite computing apabilities and resources on-demand.

This paper would also address the current challenges ith Mobile Cloud computing. And, it is intended for all business domains rrespective of application portfolios.

Jitendra Maan

Wireless and Mobile Networks

Hybrid Miniaturized Tri-band Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA)

With the recent meteoric spread of wireless communication

PIFA antenna has been one of the major concept that is being implemented in various wireless communication systems.

the need for constant reduction in the size of wireless devices requires corresponding compactness in the antenna supporting the wireless devices. In this proposed work

PIFA antenna with slotted and meandered radiating patch is introduced. Paper research shows the effect of meandering in a dual band PIFA by performing double functions- tune the resonance frequency with increased band width (at a higher frequency) and to provide tri band controlled resonant frequency. Development of proposed antenna covers IEEE802.11, wireless local area network (WLAN), worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMax) applications for wireless communications. The antenna occupied a very compact size of (9.5mmX14.5mmX8mm). The main radiating Patch is injected with slots and meandering, to generate and control the three resonant frequencies covers 3.3, 3.7 and 5.7 GHz. The simulated result of antenna shows a gain of 1.58dBi, 1.5dBi, 4.12dBi respectively and radiation efficiency of 74%, 78.5% and 78% for three bands respectively. Proposed antenna possesses the properties of good performance, compact size (50% of typical antenna). 2D electromagnetic simulation IE3D version 12.22 is used in the design of simulation of proposed PIFA that includes the simulation and comparison within the parameters return loss, VSWR, efficiency and Radiation pattern to prove the advantage of meandered patch.

Mukta Jukaria, R. P. S. Gangwar

A Novel Distributed Clustered Approach towards Building an Agent Based Routing Topology for MANET

The problem of routing is a complex one in case of mobile ad hoc networks due to the dynamic topology. Clusterization is an efficient means of increasing the efficiency of a MANET. A study of several clustering algorithms has lead to the observation that stable, secure cluster head selection increases lifespan and security of the network. The current state of art also relies heavily on ant colony optimization technique for finding the optimum shortest route in case of MANET. This paper proposes an agent based routing protocol for routing packets in a cluster based MANET. The algorithm is proposed to work in a distributed manner, using the concept of dominating set of mobile nodes. The selection of cluster head is determined on the basis of parameters such as connectivity, stability and residual battery power.

Ditipriya Sinha, Uma Bhattacharya, Rituparna Chaki

New Paradigms in Checkpoint Processing and Recovery Techniques for Distributed Mobile Systems

A distributed application involving Mobile hosts consists of a set of cooperating processes in which some of them run on MHs. An MH is connected to the wired network through

mobile support stations

(MSS). Distributed systems are not fault-tolerant and the vast computing potential of these systems is often hampered by their susceptibility to failures. Many techniques have been developed to add reliability and high availability to distributed systems. These techniques have different tradeoffs and focus. The paper surveys a literature survey on the modern check pointing techniques in distributed and mobile environments. We have classified the various check pointing schemes and then discussed the related works in that category. The paper also presents a comparative study of the protocols/schemes with relative advantages and disadvantages and finally the features which make the checkpointing techniques to be suitable in a particular application scenario are also discussed.

Ruchi Tuli, Parveen Kumar

A-Star Algorithm for Energy Efficient Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

Various routing protocols have been designed and developed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). They face various challenges. Sensor nodes are strongly energy and storage constrained and failure rate of sensor node is very high. While sending data to the Base station some routing mechanisms which consider all these parameters, are needed to extend life of the network.

There are several techniques for routing in WSN for data gathering with aggregation and for data gathering without aggregation. Using Minimum transmission energy model and Minimum hop routing model techniques it may happen that the same path is used for more times and nodes on this route gets drain from energy. This leads to network partition and routing algorithm failure. In this paper, we have presented routing algorithm based on informed search. We have used A-Star algorithm to search optimal route from source to the destination in such a way that overall life of network is extended. We have used a pre-defined minimum energy level (

Level1

) for sensor nodes so that sensor node don’t participate in routing if its residual energy level is below this level and other better path is available. If there exist no such path, then this node can be part of routing.

Keyur Rana, Mukesh Zaveri

Congestion Control Protocol for Traffic Control in Multimedia Applications Using WSN

TCP/IP is reliable, connection oriented protocol for data transmission. It performs very well in wired network but in case of wireless sensor network it is not performing with good throughput. Congestion control is a major problem of TCP/IP performance. A sensor is congested if it receives more traffic than its maximum forwarding rate. The nature of sensor deployment leads to unpredictable patterns of connectivity and varied node density. This causes uneven bandwidth provisioning on the forwarding paths. The data sources are often clustered at sensitive areas under scrutiny. They may take similar paths to the base stations. When data converge toward a base station, congestion may occur at sensors that receive more data than they can forward. Similarly for multimedia applications UDP is unreliable. So Datagram Congestion Control Protocol is suggested for timely, reliable delivery in multimedia applications. It is a general purpose transport protocol for establishment, maintenance and teardown of an unreliable packet flow, and Congestion control of packet. For multimedia applications timely performance of TCP/IP is very important. So Extended Datagram Congestion Control Protocol is suggested for multiple flows. This protocol will reduce congestion in Wireless Sensor Network.

Sushama Suryawanshi, S. R. Hiray

Influence of Urban Coastal Region on WiMAX Propagation at 2.3 GHz

This paper presents the results of measurements taken at 2.3 GHz using WiMAX transmissions in urban, coastal region environments of western India. Coverage predictions using various models and their comparison with observed data have been carried out. Measured path loss is compared with the theoretical path loss values estimated by COST-231 Hata model, the SUI model, the ECC model, ITU-R(NLOS) model. This investigation is essential to provide last mile Broadband wireless access, before deploying WiMAX. Path loss exponents, mean errors and standard deviations of all the prediction methods have been deduced and suitable models have been identified. The cdf values of prediction errors have also been compared. Different statistical parameters are deduced and the best fit distribution for the cdf curves is found.

Chhaya Dalela, M. V. S. N. Prasad, P. K. Dalela, Rajeev Saraf

Cognitive Handoff Avoidance and QoS Improvement in WLAN

With the development of wireless communication technologies, IEEE 802.11 standard (Wi-Fi) has undergone a rapid growth, thanks to low cost and high-speed connectivity. Hence effective mechanisms need to be developed to exploit the diversity across a multiple access points and to provide a uniform load distribution in order to improve the QoS of users and to improve the overall composite capacity. In this paper, we propose a handoff scheme considering the current active application in use rather than a single fixed threshold value and dynamically changing the threshold value depending upon the currently active applications. In addition to it, we also propose a pro-active Load Balancing scheme which completely avoids unnecessary overloading of access points by considering the load at the target access point before associating with it.

V. Berlin Hency, S. Aravind Prasad, Y. RA. Kannan, D. Sridharan

Triangulation Based Clustering for Improving Network Lifetime in Wireless Sensor Networks

Recent advances in wireless communication have led to rapid development of wireless sensor networks. The power management and power efficiency of the network are the biggest challenges that are to be addressed in this field. One of the most important areas to be concentrated in this field is, the way the sensors communicate with each other such that the energy consumption is reduced. The energy consumption can be reduced by restricting the computation and communication by all the nodes in the network. Clustering of the nodes is one such method used for selection of only specific nodes for communication in the network. In this paper we propose a new clustering protocol which improves the lifetime of the sensor network as compared to the conventional communication protocol used for transmitting directly to the base station. We employ triangulationto cluster the sensor nodes and elect a head node to communicate with base station. The simulation results of our protocol and the conventional protocol shows that our protocol is energy efficient and gives a longer lifetime to the network. Also we give an application of the protocol in the reprogramming of network.

Anita Kanavalli, G. P. Bharath, P. Deepa Shenoy, K. R. Venugopal, L. M. Patnaik

A Novel Dynamic Cache Invalidation Algorithm for Efficient Data Dissemination in MANET

A mobile ad-hoc network (MANET) is a kind of wireless ad-hoc network, and is a self-configuring network of mobile routers (and associated hosts) connected by wireless links – the union of which form an arbitrary topology. Caching the frequently accessed data provides efficient communication in a mobile environment The main objective is to avoid the stale data using invalidation policy based on TTL. This paper discusses Time to Live (TTL) based invalidation. Here we propose an Enhanced Adaptive TTL based invalidation algorithm for maintaining data consistency in MANET. Each 1-hop distance node’s to data cache node maintain a hash table for cache invalidation. TTL of the data item is taken as the key factor for invalidation. used as its value. Simulations are carried out in NS-2 to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, also it is compared with fixed TTL and Adaptive TTL approaches.

N. Sabiyath Fatima, P. Sheik Abdul Khader

Retracted: TinyDB2: Porting a Query Driven Data Extraction System to TinyOS2.x

In query driven extraction of data from Wireless Sensor Network (WSNs), application developers can get readings from sensor nodes by using SQL like queries. In normal WSN applications, users need to program the application in WSN specific platform, which not only requires large programming efforts but also makes it difficult to change the application parameters once deployed. SQL like queries present much simplified approach of data collection and changing parameters of application on the air. In this paper, we study one of query driven system – TinyDB. TinyDB was used in TinyOS1.x but due to changes in architecture of TinyOS from TinyOS1.x to TinyOS2.x, TinyDB needed to be ported to newer version of TinyOS. This paper describes the architecture of newer TinyDB system, ported to work with TinyOS2.x, in detail and also presents the major porting changes that were required to make it compatible with TinyOS2.x.

Bhaskar Biswas, Himanshu Singh

Convolutional Coded Selected Mapping Technique for Reducing the PAPR of OFDM Signal

OFDM is a promising broadband technique. However, the implementation disadvantage of OFDM is high peak to average power ratio (PAPR). Selective Mapping (SLM) is an effective method for reducing PAPR in OFDM. The main drawback of this technique is that, it requires side information to be transmitted, which results in some data rate loss. A new modified technique based on SLM using convolution code without side information is presented in this paper. By considering, the example of OFDM with BPSK modulation, simulation results shows that this method performs well in reducing PAPR without the need of any side information.

Seema Verma, Pawan Sharma, Neha Garg, Richa Aggarwal

Energy Efficient Time Synchronization in WSN for Critical Infrastructure Monitoring

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is becoming popular in analyzing the life of critical infrastructure such as bridges on a continuous basis. For most of the applications, data aggregation requires high sampling rate. A need for accurate time synchronization in the order of 0.6 − 9

μ

s every few minutes is necessary for data collection and analysis. Two-stage energy-efficient time synchronization is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the network is divided into clusters and a head node is elected using Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy based algorithm. Later, multiple packets of different lengths are used to estimate the delay between the elected head and the entire network hierarchically at different levels. Algorithmic scheme limits error to 3-hop worst case synchronization error. Unlike earlier energy-efficient time synchronization schemes, the achieved results increase the lifetime of the network.

Aravinda S. Rao, Jayavardhana Gubbi, Tuan Ngo, James Nguyen, Marimuthu Palaniswami

Agent Based Congestion Control Routing for Mobile Ad-hoc Network

In Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) congestion occurs due to the packet loss and it can be effectively reduced by involving congestion control scheme which includes routing algorithm and a flow control at the network layer. In this paper, we propose to design and develop an agent based congestion control technique for MANETs. In our technique, the information about network congestion is collected and distributed by mobile agents (MA). The nodes are classified into four categories based on its traffic class. The MA measures the queue length of the various traffic classes and the channel contention and estimates the total congestion metric to find the minimum congestion level in the network. The congestion metric is applied in the routing protocol to select the minimum congested route. By simulation results, we show that our proposed technique attains high delivery ratio and throughput with reduced delay when compared with the existing technique.

Vishnu Kumar Sharma, Sarita Singh Bhadauria

VANET Routing Protocols and Mobility Models: A Survey

During the last decade, tremendous progress has been reported in providing network to mobile users. Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) is one of the networks that do not require any administrator involvement during the communication. MANET can be deployed in the places, where it is not feasible to install an infrastructure, such as in military area. Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is an emerging sub-class of MANET. VANET is deployed on the road, where vehicles constitute mobile nodes. Active security and intelligent transportation are important applications of VANET, which need suitable vehicle-to-vehicle communication technology, especially routing technology. Routing protocol needs to design, to address challenges of VANET such as, high mobility of nodes, random topology, and heterogeneous networks. Mobility models reflect the movement pattern of nodes on the road. The mobility models are used during the simulation/implementation of protocols. They should generate movement pattern in such way that, the generated pattern should reflects real world behavior of vehicles on the roads. This paper provides a detailed survey of routing protocols and mobility models in VANET.

Dhananjay Sudhakar Gaikwad, Mukesh Zaveri

Efficient Key Distribution Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks Using LDU′ Composition of Symmetric Matrices

Wireless sensor network (WSNs) is highly vulnerable to attacks because it consists of various resource-constrained sensor nodes which communicates among themselves via wireless links. Establishment of pairwise keys between sensor nodes is used to realize many of the security services for wireless sensor networks. Hence, securely distributing keys among sensor nodes is a fundamental challenge for providing security services in WSNs. Even though the random key pre-distribution approach is suitable for low power and resource constrained sensor nodes, a shared key between a pair of nodes is not guaranteed and thus, they may not be able to communicate with each other. Matrix based scheme for key pre-distribution essentially use

LU

decomposition of matrix which can provide keys between any pair of nodes but are quite vulnerable to attack. This paper proposes a new robust key pre-distribution schemes based on

LDU

′ composition of matrices. In the first scheme, we use integer as elements of symmetric matrices and in the second scheme we use polynomials over finite fields as elements of the symmetric matrices. The existing approach use decomposition of matrices which is compute intensive but our proposed scheme uses composition of matrices. The analysis shows that the proposed scheme allows almost 100% connectivity regardless of the number of keys and provides 100% resilience against node capture.

Sanjay Kumar, Deepti Dohare

Energy Efficient Multi Channel MAC Protocols for Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Wireless ad-hoc networks are expected to support a variety of services with diverse Quality-of-service (QoS) requirements. For example, a mixture of delay-sensitive applications and delay-tolerant ones must be supported. Given that the two principal wireless network resources, i.e., bandwidth and energy, are scarce, the main challenge in designing wireless networks is to use network resources as efficiently as possible while providing the QoS required by the users. This paper presents an overview of energy efficient Multi channel MAC protocols and summarizes them in a technical way.

B. Nithya, Ashok Kumar Alluri, C. Mala

A Decentralized Approach towards Location Tracking of Mobile Users in Opportunistic Networks

In existing models of opportunistic networks, nodes are not usually topology-aware. In this paper, we have developed a distributed mechanism in order to make each node in the network topology aware, i.e. aware of the approximate location-related GPS information of other nodes. The mechanism proposed in this paper is primarily developed on mobile agent based framework. It is assumed that each node has a dedicated

satellite agent.

Task of this agent is to help exchanging GPS information between its host node and its neighboring nodes only. This nearest neighbor interaction rule will eventually enable each node to have approximate location information about other nodes. As a direct consequence of topology-awareness, data forwarding schemes becomes far more efficient. We have introduced a parameter W (degree of disconnectedness) and show that our system is robust against wide variation of W. The performance evaluation results establish the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Sudipa Batabyal, Apratim Mukherjee, Somprakash Bandyopadhyay

A Novel VLSI Implementation of K-Best LSD for 3GPP LTE

In this paper, Distributed Arithmetic (DA) based K-best List Sphere Detector (LSD) for a 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) receiver is proposed. The K-best LSD block implemented with the use of DA, reduces the size of the parallel hardware multiply-accumulate. These DA based blocks are compared with conventional multiplier based blocks and found that the proposed design has an improvement in terms of area. This design has minimal hardware and computational complexity to meet the requirements of LTE standard. The VHDL coding for K-best LSD using DA for LTE is downloaded onto Xilinx xc3s100e-4vq100 and results were verified.

K. Kalyani, R. Raghuram, V. Raghunandhan, S. Rajaram

Design of Unified Scrambler for IEEE 802.11a and 802.16a

IEEE 802.11a and 802.16a PHY specifications are used in WiFi and WiMAX technologies and are based on OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) technology. The PHY layers contains scrambler block with different hardware parameters for both the technologies. In this paper we developed a scrambler design compatible to both PHY specifications. This design saves hardware and proposes a way to unify the OFDM hardware blocks in similar manner, finally which can be a part of unified physical layer controlled by SDR (Software Defined Radio) combining both the technologies.

Devashish Raval, Nilesh Ranpura, Ekata Mehul, Rachana Jani, Zuber Saiyed

Retracted: Secure Conversation Using Cryptographic Algorithms in 3G Mobile Communication

Cryptographic algorithms used by Mobile Subscribers to protect the privacy of their cellular voice and data communication. Mobile network is the shared media. When media are shared, privacy and authentication are lost unless some method is established to regain it. Ciphering provides the mean to regain control over privacy and authentication. A5/x are the encryption algorithms used in order to ensure privacy of conversations on mobile phones. The strong version A5/1 is used in most countries. A5/2 is weaker version used in countries on which export restrictions apply. A5/3 encryption algorithm used for 3G and GEA3 encryption algorithm used for GPRS. f8 is confidentiality algorithms developed by 3GPP, bringing out the commonality between A5/3 and GEA3 algorithms. The following paper is based on simulation of A5/1, A5/3 and f8 algorithms.

Alpesh R. Sankaliya, V. Mishra, Abhilash Mandloi

Performance Evaluation of Transport Layer VPN on IEEE 802.11g WLAN

With the increasing popularity of Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) in various sectors, security has become a primary concern. This has been necessitated by the fact that free-space radio transmission in wireless networks makes eavesdropping easy and consequently a security breach may result in unauthorized access, information theft, interference and service degradation. Virtual Private Networks (VPNs) have emerged as an important solution to security threats surrounding the use of public networks for private communications. While VPNs for wired line networks have matured in both research and commercial environments, the design and deployment of VPNs for WLAN is still an evolving field. This paper consist a brief description of OpenVPN, a transport layer tunneling VPN solution, used for securing IEEE 802.11g WLAN. In this paper we have presented experimental evaluation of OpenVPN with an analysis of its impact on performance of IEEE 802.11g.

Praveen Likhar, Ravi Shankar Yadav, M. Keshava Rao

Implementation of Hierarchical Model in Ptolemy for Wireless Sensor Networks

With the complexity of developing embedded Systems and sensor networks, modeling is essential. Modeling before implementation enables designers to explore ideas and verify the correctness of their design early in the design cycle thus reducing iterations during the final stage. This paper deals with implementation of hierarchical model using open source modeling tool Ptolemy. Different directors available with Ptolemy for implementation of sensor networks and embedded systems such as wireless director, discrete event director, and finite state machine director are used. Hierarchical modeling is used for implementing entire system which is combination of different subsystems already implemented with different directors. Wireless director is used as system level director to provide communication between nodes and in turn finite state machine and discrete event directors are used for realizing different modes of system.

Stuti T. Shah, Ekata Mehul

Power and Crosstalk Reduction Using Bus Encoding Technique for RLC Modeled VLSI Interconnect

This paper uses bus-invert method to reduce power dissipation, crosstalk and delay for

RLC

modeled VLSI Interconnect. The previously used encoding schemes based on

RC

models worsen crosstalk and delay parameters when the inductive effects become dominant. The proposed method focuses on reducing Type-0 and Type-1 couplings. The results obtained using proposed design of encoder and decoder demonstrates overall reduction in power, crosstalk and delay by reducing switching activity by 40.7%. Furthermore, the chip area and complexity of the circuit is also reduced by more than 25%.

G. Nagendra Babu, Deepika Agarwal, B. K. Kaushik, S. K. Manhas

Novel Bus Encoding Scheme for RC Coupled VLSI Interconnects

For System on-chip (SoC) designs in current Deep Submicron (DSM) era, the performance factors such as propagation delay, power dissipation and crosstalk in

RC

modeled interconnects are the major design concerns. The crosstalk effect is a consequence of coupling and switching activities that is encountered when there is a transition in previous state of wire as well as when there are transitions in adjacent wires. Therefore, minimization or elimination of switching and coupling activities is crucial in enhancing the performance of SoC designs. This paper proposes encoding schemes to achieve overall reduction in transitions. The reduction in transition improves the performance in terms of reduced power dissipation, coupling activity and delay in on-chip buses.

S. K. Verma, B. K. Kaushik

Performance Driven VLSI Floorplanning with B*Tree Representation Using Differential Evolutionary Algorithm

In this paper, we present a floorplanning algorithm based on B *Tree representation. Our floorplanner has explicitly designed for fixed-frame floorplanning, which is different from traditional minarea floorplanning. Moreover, we also show that it can be adapted to minimize total area. It addresses the problem of handling alignment constraint which arises in bus structure. It deals with performance constraint such as bounded net delay, while many existing floorplanners just minimize total wire length. More importantly, even with all these constraints the Differential evolutionary algorithm (DE) is very fast in the sense that it can quickly produce optimal solutions.Experimental results based on MCNC benchmark with constraints show that Differential Evolutionary (DE) can quickly produce optimal solutions.

D. Gracia Nirmala Rani, S. Rajaram

Power Reduction Techniques Applied to FSM Architecture Using Different Technologies

As in today’s date fuel consumption is important in everything from scooters to oil tankers, power consumption is a key parameter in most electronics applications. The most obvious applications for which power consumption is critical are battery-powered applications, such as home thermostats and security systems, in which the battery must last for years. Low power also leads to smaller power supplies, less expensive batteries, and enables products to be powered by signal lines (such as fire alarm wires) lowering the cost of the end-product. As a result, low power consumption has become a key parameter of microcontroller designs. The purpose of this paper is to summarize, mainly by way of examples,what in our experience are the most trustful approaches to lowpower design. In other words, our contribution should not be intended as an exhaustive survey of the existing literature on low-power esign; rather, we would like to provide insights a designer can rely upon when power consumption is a critical constraint. We will focus on the reduction of power consumption on different technologies for different values of capacitance and also compare power saving in technologies.

Himani Mittal, Dinesh Chandra, Sampath Kumar

Effect of Temperature and Gate Stack on the Linearity and Analog Performance of Double Gate Tunnel FET

The linearity and analog performance of a Silicon Double Gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistor (DG-TFET) is investigated and the impact of elevated temperature on the device performance degradation has been studied. The impact on the device performance due to the rise in temperature has also been investigated for the case of Silicon DG-MOSFET and a comparison with DG-TFET is made. The parameters governing the analog performance and linearity has been studied and the impact of a gate stack (GS) architecture has also been investigated for the same.

Rakhi Narang, Manoj Saxena, R. S. Gupta, Mridula Gupta

Channel Material Engineered Nanoscale Cylindrical Surrounding Gate MOSFET with Interface Fixed Charges

The paper presents a simulation study of effect of interface fixed charges on the performance of the nanoscale cylindrical surrounding gate (SRG)MOSFET for different channel materials (Si, GaAs and Ge). The objective of the present work is to study the effect of hot carrier induced fixed charges at the semiconductor-oxide interface of the nanoscale cylindrical surrounding gate (SRG) MOSFET. Also the circuit reliability issues of the device are discussed in terms of the performance degradation due to interface fixed interface charges and the performance has been compared for the three materials.

Rajni Gautam, Manoj Saxena, R. S. Gupta, Mridula Gupta

FPGA Implementation of Braun’s Multiplier Using Spartan-3E, Virtex – 4, Virtex-5 and Virtex-6

The developing an Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) will cost very high, the circuits should be proved and then it would be optimized before implementation. Multiplication which is the basic building block for several DSP processors, Image processing and many other. The Braun multipliers can easily be implemented using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. This research presented the comparative study of Spartan-3E, Virtex-4, Virtex-5 and Virtex-6 Low Power FPGA devices. The implementation of Braun multipliers and its bypassing techniques is done using Verilog HDL. We are proposing that adder block which we implemented our design (fast addition) and we compared the results of that so that our proposed method is effective when compare to the conventional design. There is the reduction in the resources like delay LUTs, number of slices used. Results are showed and it is verified using the Spartan-3E, Virtex-4 and Virtex-5 devices. The Virtex-5 FPGA has shown the good performance as compared to Spartan-3E and Virtex-4 FPGA devices.

R. Anitha, V. Bagyaveereswaran

A Novel Approach towards BDD Generation and CNF Conversion for Half Adder

We have proposed a method for generation of Binary Decision Diagram (BDD). This approach follows Depth First Search (DFS) which is based upon the traversal of data structure. This approach is applied on data structure which is actually stored in the form of bits. To analyze results of the program for generating BDD, we have traversed BDD in the form of DFS. Conjunctive Normal Form (CNF) summarizes the logic function of the circuit which tells about how much literals are needed and by these literals understanding of circuit will be obtained. CNF also controls that out of all literals which one(s) will be enough for finding the true output. Our result revealed that it is a better approach for generating BDD from the implementation done for half adder. While for CNF that is obtained through conventional approach, the results are satisfactory.

Deepak Kumar Verma, Pankaj Srivastava

Floating Gate Wilson Current Mirror for Low Power Applications

The paper discusses the application of floating gate techniques to Wilson current mirror to reduce power dissipation. With floating gate technique, it is possible to modify the effective threshold voltage of the MOSFET. This will be helpful in reducing the leakage current. This technique is also useful in reducing the power supply voltage required for a MOSFET to operate in a saturation region, which in turn minimizes the dynamic power dissipation. The proposed circuit is simulated using HSPICE for 0.18um CMOS technology and the results are compared with those obtained for simple Wilson current mirror circuit.

M. Madhushankara, Prashanth Kumar Shetty

Power Aware Physical Design for 3D Chips

In this work we have proposed a geometric model that is employed to devise a scheme for identifying the hotspots and zones in a chip. These spots or zone need to be guarded thermally to ensure performance and reliability of the chip. The model namely continuous unit sphere model has been presented taking into account that the 3D region of the chip is uniform, thereby reflecting on the possible locations of heat sources and the target observation points. The experimental results for the – continuous domain establish that a region which does not contain any heat sources may become hotter than the regions containing the thermal sources. Thus a hotspot may appear away from the active sources, and placing heat sinks on the active thermal sources alone may not suffice to tackle thermal imbalance. Power management techniques aid in obtaining a uniform power profile throughout the chip, but we propose an algorithm using minimum bipartite matching where we try to move the sources minimally (with minimum perturbation in the chip floor plan) near cooler points (blocks) to obtain a uniform power profile due to diffusion of heat from hotter point to cooler ones.

Yasmeen Hasan

Universal Crypting-Decrypting Algorithm

This paper presents the universal algorithm for the generation of cyclic code for an n bit binary word. As well as it also provides the algorithm for decrypting the code generated. It is important for the built in self test (BIST) and for memory ROM testing. They are extensively used for encoding and decoding communication channel burst errors.

Geetesh More

Design of 8-Bit Programmable Crossbar Switch for Network-on-Chip Router

The Network-on-Chip (NoC) uses multiple processors, usually targeted for embedded applications. This is widely accepted that NoC represents a promising solution for forthcoming complex embedded systems. The current SoC Solutions are built from heterogeneous hardware and Software components integrated around a complex communication infrastructure. The crossbar is a vital component of in any NoC router. The crossbar allocates requested output channel. Hence, switches must include an efficient arbiter that allocates crossbar’s resources(channel). In this paper, we present a novel 8-bit wide 8 x 8 crossbar that is implemented on FPGA. This high performance crossbar is coined with Diagonal Propagation Arbiter (DPA). The presented crossbar requires a two-dimensional arbitration that incorporates a diagonally rotated priority to provide fair arbitration. The arbiter is capable of performing arbitration in 1ns on Vertex 6 FPGA technology for an 8 x 8 crossbar. The proposed architecture of crossbar is implemented in RTL model using verilog language.

Mohammad Ayoub Khan, Abdul Quaiyum Ansari

Energy Management for Energy Harvesting Real Time System with Dynamic Voltage Scaling

Energy harvesting has recently emerged as a feasible option to increase the operating time of battery based real time embedded systems. In this paper, we propose a scheduling algorithm that offers lesser energy consumption for battery powered dynamic real time system modeled with aperiodic tasks and energy harvesting constraints. As the harvested energy is highly dependent on the environment thus, available power/energy of storage changes over the time. The proposed approach has to decide which speed or voltage level is to be to select leading to reduction in energy overhead as well as timing overhead due to the speed switching. We further, improve the quality of service to accept more number of aperiodic tasks and improve the system performance in terms of remaining energy. Theorem is being derived to show the effectiveness our approach having lesser energy consumption as compared to existing one. The simulation results and examples illustrate that our approach can effectively reduce the overall system energy consumption and improve the system performance in terms of remaining energy as well as reduce the rejection ratio of aperiodic tasks.

Ranvijay, Rama Shankar Yadav, Arvind Kumar, Smriti Agrawal

Web and Semantic Technology

A Natural Language Interface Based on Machine Learning Approach

This paper deals with natural language interface which accepts a query in natural language and provide answers in the textual form. The paper presents an interface module that converts user’s query given in natural language into a corresponding database command. The idea of using natural language instead of SQL has prompted the development of new type of processing method called Natural Language Interface to Database systems (NLIDB). This paper proposes a machine learning approach that replaces previously used approaches based mainly on semantic analysis. The learning interface learns the correct mapping of user’s query to corresponding database command based on past data collected.

Himanshu Sharma, Neeraj Kumar, Govind K. Jha, K. G. Sharma

Analyzing Various Social Networking Approaches for Covert Networks

The world we live in is a complex socio-technical system and systematically thinking about, representing, modeling and analyzing these systems has been made possible by social network analysis approach. A lot of groups or communities do exist in the society but the terrorist network has been taken for study in this paper because they consist of networks of individuals that span countries, continents, the economic status, and form around specific ideology. In this paper we present a survey to study the terrorist network using the criminal network analysis which is based on dynamic network analysis, destabilizing covert networks, counter terrorism, key player, subgroup detection and criminal network analysis in homeland security. This paper will also discuss various open problems in this area.

S. Karthika, S. Bose

Semantic Data Integration and Querying Using SWRL

The semantic Web technology enables users to represent, share and discover heterogeneous data through formal ontologies. Semantic Web technologies also allow to link information thus moving from document centric idea of current Web to more fine grained semantic structures. The biological community requires more sophisticated methods to store, integrate and query their knowledge. This paper is focusing on Ontology construction of Natural Food Resources, Chemicals and Diseases. Semantics should be formally specified to provide a shared understanding of the implied relationships. Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) based on Description Logic (DL) is very useful for this formal specification of the ontologies. This enables the retrieval of user-specific semantic querying for topics of interest. This paper describes the works carried out on ontology-driven knowledge base and semantic querying of implicitly related sources from different domain.

Vadivu Ganesan, S. Waheeta Hopper, G. BharatRam

Annotation Based Collective Opinion Analysis

We present a tool which analyzes annotations on a document to infer collective sentiments of annotators. Annotations may include comments, notes, observation, explanation or question, help etc. Comments are used for evaluative purpose where as others are used either for summarization or for expansion. Further, these comments may be on another annotation, not on the original document and referred as meta-annotations. Collective sentiments of annotators are classified as positive, negative or neutral based on sentiments of words found in annotations. All annotations may not get equal weightage. If an annotation has higher number of meta-annotations on it, it is assigned higher weight. If a comment is on another annotation and negates the sentiments of previous annotator, then the weightage of that annotation is either reduced or annotation is excluded from inference. Our tool computes collective sentiments of annotators in two steps. In first step, it computes sentiment scores of all annotations. In second steps, it computes weighted average of sentiment scores of annotation to obtain the collective sentiments. We demonstrate the use of tool on research papers.

Archana Shukla, B. D. Chaudhary

A Novel Social Network Model for Research Collaboration

Recent studies on social networks are based on a characteristic which includes assortative mixing, high clustering, short average path lengths, broad degree distributions and the existence of community structure. Here, an application has been developed in the domain of ‘research collaboration’ which satisfies all the above characteristics, based on some existing social network models. In addition, this application facilitates interaction between various communities (research groups). This application gives very high clustering coefficient by retaining the asymptotically scale-free degree distribution. Here the community structure is raised from a mixture of random attachment and implicit preferential attachment. In addition to earlier works which only considered Neighbor of Initial Contact (NIC) as implicit preferential contact, we have considered Neighbor of Neighbor of Initial Contact (NNIC) also. This application supports the occurrence of a contact between two Initial contacts if the new vertex chooses more than one initial contacts. This ultimately will develop a complex research social network rather than the one that was taken as basic reference.

Sreedhar Bhukya

An Effective Approach for Student Evaluation in E-Learning Based on Semantic Web

The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation. E-learning is network-enabled transfer of skills and knowledge. E-learning refers to using electronic application and processes to learn. E-learning applications and processes include web-based learning, computer-based learning, virtual classrooms and digital collaboration. E-learning offer obvious advantages for learners by making access to educational resources very fast, just-in- time and relevance, at any time or place. The Semantic Web technology has enabled by a set of suitable agents, which seems to be powerful enough to satisfy the e-learning requirements like fast, just- in-time and relevant learning. A new class of approach inspired by multi agent system and semantic web has been developed that can solve various problem of feedback between student and tutor. It includes personal agents of students and course tutors. Agents of students and tutors don’t communicate directly. They send ontological information to informational agent that analyses them and returns the results to students and tutor. In this paper we derive a new approach, by building reference ontology and student domain ontology of physical layer and apply ontology comparison algorithm on them for evaluation of student. Comparison algorithm compares reference ontology and student ontology. By comparing reference ontology and student domain ontology student mistake can be analyzed. Analysis of student mistakes allows proposing them personalized recommendations.

Amit Chauhan, Nidhi B. Shah

Capturing Popular Opinionated Words with Patterns for Efficient Opinion Detection

In this paper we present an approach that will identify opinion of webusers popularly expressed using short words or sms words. These words are pretty popular with diverse web users and are popular means for expressing their opinion on the web. The study of opinion from web arises to know the diversity of web users. The opinion expressed by web users may be on diverse topics such as politics, sports, products, movies etc. These opinions will be very useful to others such as, leaders of political parties, selection committees of various sports, business analysts and other stake holders of products, directors and producers of movies as well as to the other concerned web users. We use semantic based approach to find users opinion from short words or sms words apart of regular opinionated phrases. Our approach efficiently detects opinion from opinionated texts using extraction patterns and is found to be better than the other approaches on different data sets.

K. M. Anil Kumar, Suresha

A Review on the Variants of Information Retrieval

In this paper we investigate some of the most important variants of information retrieval. They are Cross-lingual Information Retrieval (CLIR) and Multilingual Information Retrieval (MLIR). CLIR deals with submitting queries in one language and retrieving documents in some other language other than query language. MLIR deals with submitting questions in one or more languages and retrieving documents in one or more diverse languages. With increasing globalized economy, the knack to find information in other languages is becoming a necessity. In short the paper tries to encapsulate the overall review of the research works in Indian and Foreign languages.

Pothula Sujatha, P. Dhavachelvan

Web Service Suitability Assessment for Cloud Computing

Cloud offers its services with the help of web services. This paper addresses the problem of suitability assessment of a particular web service (WS) for cloud, that is whether a particular web service can be deployable over cloud or not. If not what are the requirements it needs to meet so that it can be effectively deployable over cloud. We address this problem with the help of a mathematical model Turing machine with multiple tracks. Here turing machine with three tracks are considered each for SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS. The properties of web services and cloud services are considered as evaluation criteria for suitability assessment. Based on the acceptance of the input the deployment decision of web service over cloud is decided. If input is accepted, web service can be effectively deployed over cloud, otherwise it has to meet certain requirements to be effectively deployed over cloud, and those requirements are also identified.

M. S. Nanda Kishore, S. K. V. Jayakumar, G. Satya Reddy, P. Dhavachelvan, D. Chandramohan, N. P. Soumya Reddy

Computability and Traceability Analysis for Dynamic Web Service Integration

The Service Integration has become a critical issue as organizations find a greater need to consistently interact with their partners and share their business logics to carry out the necessities. To accurately and efficiently extract and integrate the required service logic from the rapidly expanding Business Services, developers need to empathize the whole service and must decide on proper approach to merge them which are complex and time-consuming tasks. So the present focus is to have a mechanized system which analyzes the business logics and conveys proper mode to integrate them. One such a model proposed in this paper examines the business logics individually and suggests proper structure to integrate them. One of the innovative concepts of proposed model is Property Evaluation System which scrutinizes the service logics and generates Business Logic Property Schema (BLPS) for the required services. BLPS holds necessary information to recognize the correct structure for integrating the service logics. At the time of integration, System consumes this BLPS schema and suggests the feasible ways to integrate the service logics. Also if the service logics are attempted to integrate in invalid structure, system will throw exception with necessary information. This helps developers to ascertain the efficient structure to integrate the services with least effort.

M. Thirumaran, P. Dhavachelvan, G. Aranganayagi, S. Abarna

Business Logic Evaluation Model for Web Service Reliability Analysis

The business logic of a system plays a major role in this ever changing age defined by global competition, rampant change, faster flow of information and communication, increasing business complexity Business parties have to react to several different competitors by promoting the business process management to the standard level by incorporating the higher-end technology solution such as service oriented business communication and business rule management automation. They realize that it is important to react to the changes faster since the reaction time needs are decreasing every moment. Business Logic Evaluation Model (BLEM) are the proposed solution targeting business logic automation and facilitating business experts to write sophisticated business rules and complex calculations without costly custom programming. BLEM is powerful enough to handle service manageability issues by analyzing and evaluating the computability and traceability and other criteria of modified business logic at run time. The web service and QOS grows expensively based on the reliability of the service. Hence the service provider of today things that reliability is the major factor and any problem in the reliability of the service should overcome then and there in order to achieve the expected level of reliability. In our paper we propose business logic evaluation model for web service reliability analysis using Finite State Machine (FSM). If any change occurs in the business logic the FSM will automatically measure the reliability.

M. Thirumaran, P. Dhavachelvan, S. Abarna, P. Lakshmi

Selection Based Comparative Summarization of Search Results Using Concept Based segmentation

Search result summarization aims at providing the users with the summary of the contents of single or multiple web pages based on the search query. This paper proposes a novel idea of generating a comparative summary from a set of URLs from the search result. User selects a set of web page links from the search result produced by search engine. Comparative summary of these selected web sites is generated. This method makes use of HTML/XML DOM tree structure of these web pages. HTML documents are segmented into different concept blocks. Sentence score of each concept block is computed according to the query keywords. As per the required compression ratio, the important sentences from the concept blocks of different web pages are extracted to compose the comparative summary on the fly. The comparative summary of the contents of a set of web pages would help the users in quick decision making.

Chitra Pasupathi, Baskaran Ramachandran, Sarukesi Karunakaran

A Novel Way of Invoking Web Services and RESTful Web Services Using Aspect Oriented Programming

The need for adaptability in software is growing, driven in part by the emergence of autonomic computing. In many cases, it is desirable to enhance existing programs with adaptive behavior, enabling them to execute effectively in dynamic environments. Existing web service invocation and adaptation mechanisms are limited only to the scope of web service choreography in terms of web service selection. Such a scope hardly leaves ground for a participating service in a choreographed flow to re-adjust itself in terms of changed non functional expectations. In this paper we used Aspect oriented programming (AOP) to invoke Web Services (WS) and Representational State Transfer (REST) web services and to enable dynamic adaptation in existing programs. We propose an approach to implement dynamic adaptability especially in Aspect weaving at the time invoking web services and REST web service. We have used AspectJ; Java based language to create aspects in Eclipse supported framework.

Vishnuvardhan Mannava, T. Ramesh

A Novel Way of Invoking Agent Services Using Aspect Oriented Programming via Web Service Integration Gateway

Web services have gained popularity today for enabling universal interoperability among applications. In many scenarios, allowing software agents to access and control Web Services is important and hence the integration between these two platforms. In this paper, we focus on technical aspects of an integration framework of Web Services and Jade agent platform using Aspect Oriented Programming. Agent creates a service and publishes their services in UDDI as Web service. We are communicating with agents using Aspect Oriented Programming to access their services via Web Service Integration Gateway (WSIG). We propose an approach that Aspect weaving during invocation of Agent services using AOP. We have used AspectJ; Java based language to create aspects in Eclipse supported framework, and JADE: is a frame work to create and publish Agent services as web services using WSIG.

Vishnuvardhan Mannava, T. Ramesh

The Goal of Existing Security Mechanisms in 3G

Security has become one major concern in wireless networking, with the risk of hampering or delaying the migration of value-critical services towards wireless platforms (e.g., ecommerce, e-banking). Securing wireless networks poses unique research challenge. In this paper, we survey the state-of-the-art approach to providing security for wireless networking paradigm, namely 3G Cellular WWAN. We identify the security threats as well as examine the current solutions. We further discuss open issues and identify future directions.

Najiya Sultana, S. S. Sarangdevat

Extracting Concepts for Software Components

Ontologies enhance searching information on the Web since they provide relationships and semantics among them. Ontology is required to describe the semantics of concepts and properties used in a web document. It is needed to describe products, services, processes and practices for any software components. Software components are essential part of software development process. Using component is essential in nowadays software development. This paper demonstrates several experiments to extract concepts to build ontologies that improve the description process for software components embedded in a web document. In this paper we built ontology (mainly concepts) for some software components then used them to solve some semantic problems. We collected many documents that describe components in .Net and Java from several and different resources. Concepts were extracted and used to decide which domain of any given description (semantic) is close or belong to.

Ahmad Kayed, Nael Hirzalla, Hadeel Ahmad, Enas Al Faisal

A Review on Web Pages Clustering Techniques

World Wide Web (WWW) has become largest source of information. This abundance of information with dynamic and heterogeneous nature of the web makes information retrieval a difficult process for the average user. A technique is required that can help the users to organize, summarize and browse the available information from web with the goal of satisfying their information need effectively. Clustering process organizes the collection of objects into related groups. Web page clustering is the key concept for getting desired information quickly from the massive storage of web pages on WWW. Many researchers have proposed various web document clustering techniques. In this paper, we present detail survey on existing web document clustering techniques along with document representation techniques. We have also described some evaluation measures to evaluate the cluster qualities.

Dipak Patel, Mukesh Zaveri

Application of Latent Semantic Indexing for Hindi-English CLIR Irrespective of Context Similarity

Retrieving information from different languages may lead to many problems like polysemy and synonymy, which can be resolved by Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) techniques. This paper uses the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of LSI technique to achieve effective indexing for English and Hindi languages. Parallel corpus consisting of both Hindi and English documents is created and is used for training and testing the system. Removing stop words from the documents is performed followed by stemming and normalization in order to reduce the feature space and to get language relations. Then, cosine similarity method is applied on query document and target document. Based on our experimental results it is proved that LSI based CLIR gets over the non-LSI based retrieval which have retrieval successes of 67% and 9% respectively.

A. P. SivaKumar, P. Premchand, A. Govardhan

COCA: Combining Speedup Techniques Based on Containers and Arc-Flags

The Dijkstra’s algorithm [1] is applied on many real world network problems like mobile routing, road maps, railway networks, etc,. There are many techniques available to speedup the algorithm while guaranteeing the optimality of the solution. The main focus of this work is to implement the combined speedup technique which is based on containers and arc flags(COCA). The technique is experimented with two different types of LEDA generated graphs namely random graphs, planar graphs and road networks. The performance metric speedup was measured with respect to runtime of the technique and vertex visited during shortest path computation. The COCA technique proves to give best results in planar graphs. Road networks can be effectively processed with shortest path containers

Kalpana Ramanujam, Thambidurai Perumal

Erratum: TinyDB2: Porting a Query Driven Data Extraction System to TinyOS2.x

Due to a serious case of plagiarism this paper has been retracted.

Bhaskar Biswas, Himanshu Singh

Erratum: Secure Conversation Using Cryptographic Algorithms in 3G Mobile Communication

Due to a serious case of plagiarism this paper has been retracted.

The paper ”Secure Conversation Using Cryptographic Algorithms in 3G Mobile Communication” authored by Alpesh R. Sankaliya, V. Mishra, and Abhilash Mandloi, DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-22543-7_40, appearing on pages 396-406 of this publication has been retracted due to a severe case of plagiarism. It is a plagiarized version of the paper ”Implementation of Cryptographic Algorithms for GSM Cellular Standard”, authored by Alpesh R. Sankaliya, V.Mishra and Abhilash Mandloi, published in Ganpat University Journal of Engineering & Technology, vol. 1, issue 1 at

http://academicpublishingplatforms.com/search-article.php?journal=GNUJET&number=1&article=696

Alpesh R. Sankaliya, V. Mishra, Abhilash Mandloi

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