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Über dieses Buch

The work presented here is generally intended for engineers, educators at all levels, industrialists, managers, researchers and political representatives. Offering a snapshot of various types of research conducted within the field of TRIZ in France, it represents a unique resource.

​It has been two decades since the TRIZ theory originating in Russia spread across the world. Every continent adopted it in a different manner – sometimes by glorifying its potential and its perspectives (the American way); sometimes by viewing it with mistrust and suspicion (the European way); and sometimes by adopting it as-is, without questioning it further (the Asian way). However, none of these models of adoption truly succeeded.

Today, an assessment of TRIZ practices in education, industry and research is necessary. TRIZ has expanded to many different scientific disciplines and has allowed young researchers to reexamine the state of research in their field. To this end, a call was sent out to all known francophone research laboratories producing regular research about TRIZ. Eleven of them agreed to send one or more of their postdoctoral researchers to present their work during a seminar, regardless of the maturity or completeness of their efforts. It was followed by this book project, presenting one chapter for every current thesis in order to reveal the breadth, the richness and the perspectives that research about the TRIZ theory could offer our society. The topics dealt with e.g. the development of new methods inspired by TRIZ, educational practices, and measuring team impact.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Finding Innovative Technical Solutions in Patents Through Improved Evolution Trends

Abstract
Patents represent a reservoir richly endowed with exploitable technical information, where a structured exploration of inventions can unveil essential knowledge for solving industrial problems. Several authors exploit patents using the evolution laws of the TRIZ theory to anticipate technological leaps, categorize patents in a TRIZ perspective, forecast technology, etc. TRIZ laws can be completed with Polovinkin’s rules, design rules, better known as “design heuristics,” and the rules of the art of engineering (engineering best practices). In this chapter, we propose evolution trends composed of all these elements and presented in the form of cards to assist users. After selecting pertinent patents, they can be classified into discovery matrices and analyzed in a timeline classification structured according to their technological branches. The evolution trends enable us to decipher the evolution in inventions being followed or to be followed by each technological branch. An in-depth analysis of several technological branches linked to the technical problem in question allows us to inspire users with original ideas, identify opportunities for innovation, and propose hybrid solutions. To illustrate our approach, we look for possible evolutions of current, deep offshore biphasic separation systems.
Ulises Valverde, Jean-Pierre Nadeau, Dominique Scaravetti

Chapter 2. Automated Extraction of Knowledge Useful to Populate Inventive Design Ontology from Patents

Abstract
This chapter proposes an approach to extract and manage knowledge from patent documents for use by design engineers within the framework of the inventive design method (IDM). IDM is an extension of TRIZ, the theory of inventive problem solving, and is meant for complex situations. It uses generic linguistic markers to locate and extract IDM-related knowledge, such as problems, partial solutions, and parameters, to automatically populate IDM ontology.
Achille Souili, Denis Cavallucci

Chapter 3. Modelling Industrial Design Contribution to Innovative Product or Service Design Process in a Highly Constrained Environment

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to build an enhanced design model applied to the conception of an innovative product in an SME environment. This approach includes C-K theory in the context of innovation.
In general, the industrial design process consists of four major steps:
  • The ego-design phase, where the designer conceptualises a user need
  • The techno-design phase, where the designer and engineer find solutions to materialise the concept
  • The eco-design phase, where the social actors involved authorise it and then
  • The ergo-design phase, where the user adopts the final product
A methodological reflection leads to the modelling of innovative enhanced design reasoning (where major actors are replaced by a bunch of various stakeholders).
The specific SME’s case was successful. Using the model, the enhanced design project management was efficient. But some more complex application cases would help secure it. Using this approach, with appropriate information, should guide the SME design project manager in the general innovation process.
Philippe Blanchard, Pascal Crubleau, Hervé Christofol, Simon Richir

Chapter 4. Teaching Competence for Organising Problem-Centred Teaching-Learning Process

Abstract
Problem-centred education (PCE) is a teaching-learning process which includes meta-subject tools as part of its content. The given tools, which find their origin in OTSM-TRIZ theories, allow to structure and reorganise information with the aim of identifying, analysing and solving problems in various domains. In the framework of PCE, students develop not only their subject-matter skills (language, maths, etc.) but also their problem-solving competence or inventive thinking skills. While research has shown that PCE has had a positive impact on learners, the empirical experience of helping regular school teachers learn to organise problem-centred teaching-learning process showed that while some teachers succeeded in introducing some changes in their classrooms, the majority of them failed to do so. This situation has brought to the foreground the problem of teaching competence required from a teacher for organising problem-centred teaching-learning process. This chapter will define PCE, highlighting the features which make it distinct from the existing problem-based and teaching for thinking approaches and will present the first results of the study on teaching competence required for organising problem-centred teaching-learning process.
Renata Jonina, David Oget, Jacques Audran

Chapter 5. Problem Graph for Warehousing Design

Abstract
Warehousing plays a key role in supply chain performance (reactivity, flexibility, quality). In order to be competitive, reorganization of the warehouse is often required. The reorganization generally occurs via a design process based on two main stages. First, the designers have to precisely identify the design problems. Second, they have to design solutions to solve the problems. Academic researchers in warehousing design are used to studying all the different operations (receiving, storage, order picking, shipping) one by one while the warehouse design problems are linked together. As far as we know, the literature does not propose any model that capitalizes and links all the operations-related problems and solutions needed for warehouse designing. In this chapter, we propose a reference model as a graph including both the problems and the solutions advocated by a French third-party logistics (3PL) provider and quoted in the literature. The creation of such a model has been suggested in the state of the art in the literature. This model has been designed using a semantic and a syntax inspired by the TRIZ problem graph and with a taxonomy standardizing the vocabulary. The problem-solution graph is made up of 31 problems assessed by 31 evaluation parameters and 49 solutions defined by 73 action parameters. An industrial case study, in a French 3PL warehouse of 35,000 m2 and 45,805 locations, proves the value of such a graph.
David Damand, Marc Barth, Elvia Lepori

Chapter 6. Key Indicators of Inventive Performance for Characterizing Design Activities in R&Ds: Application in Technological Design

Abstract
This chapter is a synthesis of the contributions made by scientific authors about the evaluation of creativity and inventive activities, which aims to establish a baseline for measuring inventive performance. Although some lessons of this work have been published in a Ph.D. thesis, journals, and proceedings of international conferences, it provides an overall view of our findings during recent years in the form of a framework, namely, inventive design performance measurement system (IDPMS). The chapter introduces some new observations, citing related discussions for defining the key indicators of inventive performance. The purpose is to give a better understanding about the evaluation of creativity that leads to revising the research roadmap.
Ali Taheri, Denis Cavallucci, David Oget

Chapter 7. Optimization Methods for Inventive Design

Abstract
The work presented in this chapter deals with problems of invention where solutions of optimization methods do not meet the objectives of problems to solve. The problems previously defined exploit, for their resolution, a problem extending the model of classical TRIZ in a canonical form called “generalized system of contradictions.” This research draws up a resolution process based on the simulation-optimization-invention loop using both solving methods of optimization and invention. More precisely, it models the extraction of generalized contractions from simulation data as combinatorial optimization problems and offers algorithms that provide all the solutions to these problems. In addition, it provides heuristics to select variables and their relevant values involved in generalized contradictions and/or useful for optimization. The contributions concern theory and practice of the inventive design. The work also explores cross-fertilization between optimization and TRIZ.
Lei Lin, Ivana Rasovska, Roland De Guio, Sébastien Dubois

Chapter 8. Contribution to Formalizing Links Between Invention and Optimization in the Inventive Design Method

Abstract
A link between invention and optimization applied to the inventive design method (IDM) framework is presented in this chapter. Optimization is considered here to be a step in the simulation-based design approach, and it is applied to enhance the problem formulation in the IDM framework. A set of contradictions are identified from the explored characteristics of the system. Thus, design concepts are generated after a model of solutions from a TRIZ knowledge base is applied. Furthermore, the role of design parameters (action parameter or evaluation parameters) are discussed. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the proposed approach. This chapter closes with a discussion, conclusion, and indications of future research work.
Thongchai Chinkatham, Dominique Knittel, Denis Cavallucci

Chapter 9. Collaboration Framework for TRIZ-Based Open Computer-Aided Innovation

Abstract
In the current industrial context, there is an increasing interest in the collective resolution of creative problems during the conceptual design phase. With collaboration, companies can expect to facilitate aggregation of multi-intelligence and knowledge for the proposal of new inventive solutions. Recent advances in theoretical approaches to innovation management as well as in information and communication technologies provide a more structured knowledge-driven environment for inventors, designers, and engineers. As a result, a new category of tools known as computer-aided innovation (CAI) is emerging, with the goal of assisting designers in their creative performance and of effectively implementing a complete innovation process. This chapter proposes a next evolutionary step for CAI, arising from two major recent developments: one coming from the advances in information and communication technology possibilities commonly referred to as “Web 2.0” and the other coming from a strategic paradigm shift from closed to open innovation. To go further, in this work we introduce an information-based software framework to collaborate for inventive problem solving. This framework proposes the implementation of techniques from the collective intelligence research field in combination with the systematic methods provided by the TRIZ theory. While collective intelligence focuses on the intelligent behavior that emerges in collaborative work, the TRIZ theory concentrates its attention in the individual capacity to solve problems systematically. The framework’s objective is to improve the individual creativity provided by the TRIZ methods and tools, with the value created by the collective contributions. This contribution highlights the importance of knowledge acquisition, capitalization, and reuse as well as the problem formulation and resolution in collaboration.
René Lopez Flores, Jean Pierre Belaud, Stéphane Negny, Jean Marc Le Lann, Guillermo Cortes Robles

Chapter 10. System Dynamics Modeling and TRIZ: A Practical Approach for Inventive Problem Solving

Abstract
The application of the theory of inventive problem solving (TRIZ) to face complex problems in the current scientific and industrial environment is an active research field. The TRIZ capacity to produce valuable technological solutions is an attractive resource to impel the innovation process and technical performance. The intensification of the research effort has unveiled new paths for proposing more efficient problem-solving tools and techniques. Among these opportunities, two are crucial in this chapter: the TRIZ limitation to observe the progression of an inventive problem in time and the difficulty that any solver faces when the system under analysis contains several interrelated problems. Nonetheless, there is an approach that analyzes a system through time and that offers some tools for modeling and simulating the different system states: system dynamics modeling. The system dynamics (SD) approach analyzes the nonlinear behavior of complex systems over time. SD is a computer-aided approach with a large extent of application domains, practically in any complex system—social, managerial, economic, or natural—defined by a set of interdependence relationships, a flow of information, and effects of causality. Hence, SD can produce useful information within a problem network and create, in combination with TRIZ, a synergy to solve inventive problems.
Jesús Delgado-Maciel, Guillermo Cortes-Robles, Cuauhtémoc Sánchez-Ramírez, Giner Alor-Hernández, Jorge García-Alcaraz, Stéphane Negny

Chapter 11. Conceptual Framework of an Intelligent System to Support Creative Workshops

Abstract
In today’s highly competitive economic context, companies are forced to be innovative in order to stay on track. This mandate to innovate requires companies to set up various tools to evaluate the capacity to innovate and implement innovative dynamics. Before purporting to generate innovation, we need ideas. Thus, creativity is in some way the upstream component of innovation. Creativity implies the production of ideas. This production of ideas can be supported by many techniques that can be classified into two categories: systematic and structured methods (TRIZ) and explorative approaches (brainstorming, mind mapping, personas, affinity diagram, etc.). The fact is that these creative techniques can be necessary but are not enough to produce unobvious ideas. The many factors that influence the creation of a creative dynamic lead to a complex situation which is difficult to manage optimally. From among the various ways to establish a creative dynamic in organisations, this work considers the creative workshop, which is a collaborative way of solving problems by maximising the proposition of unusual ideas. In this chapter, we will discuss the need to structure activities before, during and after the workshop itself and how a support system could allow an optimal organisation of the workshop throughout the entire creative process. The components of the creative support system will be described and the potential impacts on the creativity process discussed.
Alex Gabriel, Davy Monticolo, Mauricio Camargo, Mario Bourgault
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