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Über dieses Buch

As corroborated by the never-sagging and even increasing interest within the last decade, the intuitive attraction of "True 3D" in geodata presentation is well worth covering its current status and recent developments in a compendium like the present one. It covers most aspects of (auto-) stereoscopic representation techniques of both topographic and thematic geodata, be they haptic or not. Theory is treated as well as are many fields of concrete applications. Displays for big audiences and special single-user applications are presented, well-established technologies like classical manual fabrication of landscape reliefs contrast with cutting-edge developments

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Perspectives on 3-D Visualization of Spatial Geodata and Future Prospects

Abstract
For more than a century spatial scientists have sought to mathematically describe, illuminate, and visualize various forms of spatial surfaces, and other 3-D and higher dimensional spatial data. In the early years these were mostly physical terrain surfaces illustrated under the rubric of hill shading. In the first half of the 20th century rapid developments in 3-D visualization occurred largely in air photo and analogue photogrammetry. Beginning in the 1960s it became feasible to implement quantitative formulations in computing machines. This provided the opportunity to operationalize the mathematical theory in a digital virtual environment that was much more flexible than before. At about that time the use of homogeneous coordinate transformations provided a major breakthrough for digital 3-D object visualization. The involvement of interactive control and visualization techniques soon followed. Spatial surfaces, and especially topographic surfaces, were among the more popular objects. Since that time the theory of spatial surfaces and objects, spatial data structure designs, and the technology of display hardware have continued to develop and enhance the 3-D spatial visualization processes. This presentation will reflect on these conceptual and technical developments in spatial 3-D visualization from the perspective of four decades of involvement in the field. Comments and suggestions will be offered for suggestions of future developments.
Harold Moellering

Data and Techniques for True 3D Visualization

Frontmatter

How true is true-3D? – Geometry between Single Image Stereograms and Lenticular Foil Displays

Abstract
3D visualization has a long tradition and it starts when people made 3D models of objects of their interest. Besides the symbolic or religious content of 3D “models” known from early Stone Age already in the Ancient World there occurs the need for technical visualizations, plans and models in architecture, mechanical engineering and even cartography. Our interest aims at these technical visualizations and their modern versions, e.g. anaglyphs, single image stereograms and lenticular foil displays. We will distinguish between visualizations showing 3D effects, like perspective drawings and photographs, visualizations showing 3D objects, like anaglyphes and lenticular foil displays, and visualizations showing “true” 3D objects, like 3D models. The main goal of this paper is an analysis of what kind of object can be seen in technical visualization.
Gunter Weiss, Manfred F. Buchroithner

Survey of True 3D and Raster Level of Detail Support in GIS Software

Abstract
Principles of stereoscopic vision have long been used in geographic data processing and visualization. In recent years, a number of mainstream digital devices and systems with stereoscopic capabilities are marketed to public, making True 3D visualizations more accessible. This trend may potentially impact how spatial data is visualized in everyday life. In low-bandwidth environments, however, level of detail (LOD) management approaches have to be applied for efficient processing of large -True 3D-spatial datasets. In order to outline future research needs in True 3D visualizations, this paper presents a survey on current support provided in common Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The survey is designed to document whether the visualization modules of the selected systems a) can display 3D b) can display stereoscopic 3D c) can manage different levels of detail when displaying raster graphics. We document the names of visualization modules and report the types of stereoscopic operations, stereoscopic viewing methods and raster LOD management approaches in surveyed software. The analysis shows that all surveyed GIS support non-stereoscopic or stereoscopic 3D visualizations and a form of raster LOD management. Present raster LOD techniques in the surveyed systems are efficient for level switching when scale changes, however, unlike in other graphics processing software, none of them utilize human visual system inspired approaches. We hope that findings from this study will allow both researchers and practitioners to assess the current state of True 3D and raster LOD management support in widely used GIS software.
Kenan Bektaş, Arzu Çöltekin, Ralph K. Straumann

Think Differently: a New Method to Create Lenticular- and Integral-Pictures

Abstract
The lenticular technique is an autostereoscopic presentation technique based on two cooperating components - a lenticular plate and a lenticular base picture underneath it. Both have to be adjusted very precisely in order to reconstruct a visible picture with a spatial impact on the observer. In the middle of the 1970s the interlace-method was established as a standard procedure for the generation of lenticular base pictures. During the past 15 to 20 years complementary methods have been developed based on the advance in computer technology. The traditional concept of handling the half images, as used with basically every other stereoscopic presentation technique, was given up: all of the half cylinder lenses on a lenticular plate are supplied with individually adjusted base images. This new approach and methodical changes permits in the further development a great potential for the improvement of the visible quality of spatial images and of the lenticular hardware itself. The up to now well-defined and uniform surfaces of the lenticular plates may now be diversified for more flexibility. This paper will present different techniques regarding this development. The focus will be put on the VLR method (virtual lenticular rendering-method), which creates new spatial image attributes an qualities, e.g. a considerably expanded viewing area in front of the autostereogram, the improved display of outlines of the objects and the automated coding of motion parallaxes.
Dirk Stendel

Truly modelling reality...? - Let’s improve our cognitive maps with a bastard mix of algorithms to “undo” pictures, isometric mapping, high-density diagrams and comic culture as integral sign posts for software development in cartography

Abstract
Throughout the history of man, a distinction has been made between 2d drawings and 3d models. The rift extends into art forms and software families. Prospective cartographic tools will have to provide fluent navigation between two- and three-dimensional data on top of their native software branches. The tools will have to use a bastard mix of projection forms, information displays and customization features. I suggest a revival of isometric projection to provide a bridge between maps and models, the cultivation of high-density diagrams to convey complex data and the rediscovery of the comic art to narrate complex stories in relation to the “augmented reality” cartography always has constituted.
Niels-Christian Fritsche

Planar Stereoscopic Hardcopies and Screens

Frontmatter

Autostereoscopic Maps on the Basis of Lenticular Foils

Abstract
The availability of high quality 3D-data sets, both geometry and texture, opens the door to produce high quality 3-dimensional displays. Most of the principles of 3D-displaying are based on viewing aids or special illumination and are therefore combined with tiredness by intensive using. One method is different in this case and additional the colour is also useful to transport content: Lenticular foil displays - consisting of small micro-lenses - offer the production of flat transportable displays which can be viewed in 3D without any viewing aids. These micro-lenses on a transparent plastic foil allow the map user to view the integral of two or more interlaced strips of stereo-mates through this foil with the left and right eye respectively. The calculation of both the strip width and the interlacing is done by means of commercially available software. The mbmSystems GmbH based in Dresden is the world-leading company in production of lenticular foil maps. The central parts of the map production are the modelling, rendering and interlacing of well-defined stereomates for the lenticluar foil displays. The print process runs in quality managed systems to assure the necessary accuracies. So a lot of possibilities for displaying are available, like changing letterings for different contents or multi-lingual maps, hovering lettering for the minimal covering of image content and flip images. Due to the interlacing of the sub-millimetre strips of the stereo-mates and the resulting decomposition in x-direction the integration of well-designed and easily legible signatures and letterings represent a challenge. The presentation describes the lenticular lens principle, the image map generation and, in particular, the challenges of further research.
Thomas Gründemann, Klaus Habermann

True-3D Visualization of Glacier Retreat in the Dachstein Massif, Austria: Hard- and Softcopy Displays

Abstract
Glacier recession is a global phenomenon subject to climate change. This also applies to the Dachstein Massif in die Eastern Alps of Austria. Based on historical and recent maps, and moraine mapping the glacier states from the years 1850, 1915 and 2002 were used as input for for photorealistic reconstructions and visualizations of the respective glacier states. A detailed digital terrain model and aerial photographs (2003–2006) were provided by the Government of Styria and Joanneum Research Graz. By means of the software packages ERDAS Imagine 9.1, ESRI ArcGIS 9.2, 3D Nature Visual Nature Studio 3 (VNS), Digi-Art 3DZ Extreme and Avaron Tucan 7.2 the glacier conditions during the “Little Ice Age” (+/− 1850) and the following two dates were reconstructed. Subsequently, several derivates of these data sets were generated. First, three individual overflight simulations were computed, permitting to obtain a realistic impression of the Dachstein Massif and its glaciers in 1850, 1915 and 2002. As a second embodiment product, a fast-motion dynamic visualization of the glacier recession was generated which illustrates their decrease in thickness. Third, combining both the flip effect and the true-3D effect achievable by lenticular foils, were applied to produce a multitemporal autostereoscopic hardcopy display. Fourth, the overflight simulation data sets were used to generate stereo-films which could then be displayed on back-projection facilities using either passive polarization glasses or active shutter glasses.
Katharina Bruhm, Manfred F. Buchroithner, Bernd Hetze, Matthias Gindele

Physical Terrain Models

Frontmatter

Creating Physical 3D Maps Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

Abstract
To build multicoloured physical models of three-dimensional cartographic objects computer-controlled devices can be used which were developed for the fast and inexpensive production of mechanical parts. Such objects can be a landscape with relief, a city model, or a continuous surface interpolated from statistical data. The main groups of rapid prototyping technology – aggregation, removal and, transformation – are presented, including the machinery to build physical models, and a new relative, laser subsurface engraving. Examples of surface models built by a 3D multicolour printer demonstrate the capabilities of the technology. A new WWWbased service is described which enables the production of 3D relief models covered by satellite imagery, topographic maps and user-supplied GPS tracks.
Wolf-Dieter Rase

Tactile Maps

Frontmatter

State of the Art of Tactile Maps for Visually Impaired People

Abstract
Beside cartographers computer scientists, blind persons pedagogues, and psychologists work worldwide in the field of tactile cartographic media. In the last decades this interdisciplinary research led to significant results. Within the last years new methods, technologies, and devices have been developed. Nevertheless traditional (classical) and new tactile media exist side by side. New media are characterized by the application of computers, GIS, multimediality, internet integration, real and virtual displays. In the widest sense also navigation systems with and without GPS application can be included. The current level of development should be characterized according to the following aspects: mediaforms, symbols and map design, production methods. Today the classical hand maps (single maps), atlases (map series) and globes are still produced. Tactile wall maps are rare. With the new tactile cartographic media the audio-tactile dialogue systems have fully matured and are used practically. Virtual displays and virtual maps are further perfected. A comprehensive standardization of the tactile symbols and the use of symbols has not been reached. A system of general design rules was accepted. Extensive theoretical investigations have led to partly new knowledge. Vasconcellos (1996) adapted the system of visual variable (J. Bertin) for the field of tactile maps. Geiger (2001, 2008) studied the possibilities and limits of the use of cartographic representation methods for thematic tactile maps. First connections und dependencies on structure and function were extensively examinated by Geiger (2008). Presently in principle all maps for blind and visually impaired people can be automatically or partially automatically produced. Therefore the following technologies are used (with different frequency): Thermoform (vacuum forming), Microcapsul (-paper) and Fuser, Embossing, Tactile Print, other. Today with the help of novel technologies the internet can also be used. Particularly since 2007 many new results were published. Also the practical use of these technologies is in its initial state. The number of the new systems is very big. The chairman of the ICA Commission on Maps and Graphics for Blind and Partially Sighted People, Dan Jacobson, sees (2007) the future of tactile cartography in the use of multimodal dynamic computer interfaces.
Wolf Günther Koch

Hypsometry in Tactile Maps

Abstract
People either perceive geospace directly through their senses or their perception is mediated via geo-information. Those who are blind or visually impaired have to fight difficulties in perceiving geospace. It is one of the tasks of cartography to provide these people with suitable devices to perceive and study geospace. Modern tactile maps enable perception of geospace in a highly illustrative way. The hypsometric map of Europe created at the Palacký University in Olomouc as part of a development programme can serve as an example. These maps are unique three-dimensional tactile maps that enable people with visual impairment make use of residual vision and blind people use Braille. Three-dimensional imaging represents a revolutionary approach to tangible geospace representation. The resulting product is a three-dimensional model with discrete hypsometric layers, with Braille writings and with contrasting colours that distinguish it for people with visual impairment. The hypsometric map of Europe is unique thanks to its processing technique. Its illustrative character provides more information to people with visual impairment than what had been possible to date.
Vit Voženílek, Veronika Růžičková, Dita Finková, Libuše Ludíková, Zuzana Nĕmcová, Jan Doležal, Alena Vondráková, Magdaléna Kozáková, Vojtĕch Regec

Physical 3D models from LIDAR data as tactile maps for visually impaired persons

Abstract
The paper describes the creation of a physical 3D model representing the Solvalla recreation area in South Finland. The data processing part includes the extraction of elevation models and other topographic features from LIDAR data and aerial photographs as well as steps to stack up the separate layers to the digital model suitable for the 3D printing. The present prototype is directed at the special needs of visually impaired persons. This influences the design of topographic objects such as roads and paths, the representation of certain areas such as water bodies and the choice of the colours in the model. The printed 3D model is used in a small user test with visually impaired persons.
Friederike Schwarzbach, Tapani Sarjakoski, Juha Oksanen, L. Tiina Sarjakoski, Suvi Weckman

Globes

Frontmatter

Blurring Boundaries Between Real and Digital/Virtual Globes – Creating virtual globes from real ones and vice versa

Abstract
The recently opened Virtual Globes Museum publishes three dimensional virtual models of old globes on the Internet. The main purpose of the museum is to preserve these artifacts of old cartographers and at the same time to make them available for anyone who wants to study their content without the risk of making any harm to them. In this project, the authors established a bi-directional passageway between the world of virtual/digital and real globes. The developed technologies enable the easy creation of digital globes from handmade originals as well as the reverse process: the (re)creation of handmade globes from digital ones. The “heart” of the system is the Virtual Globes Museum, in which the globes are stored in an appropriate digital format. The images of the globe surface are archived in Platte-Carée, while those of the polar regions are archived in azimuthal equidistant maps. This “globe database” is fed from various input channels. The sources can be photo sets of globes or scanned images of printed segments transformed into a uniform image. This transforming process – especially when dealing with photographs – involves the problem of georeferencing, for which a special programme was developed. This programme calculates the projection parameters of a globe photo using control points marked on it. Another possible source is a newly compiled globe, when the globe map is created in the format that will be stored in the Museum, i.e. in Platte-Carée and azimuthal equidistant projection. This means that no further projection transformation is necessary. A current research project is trying to define the major guidelines of editing a globe map of this type. The possible output channels are the various digital visualizing forms of the globes: VRML models or KML globe layers for Google Earth, and a “down-to-earth” version: handmade globes based on the material stored in the museum. This latter procedure makes it possible to produce “facsimile” versions of old globes even without any original printed material by using a photo series of the globe. This paper intends to show a total cross-sectional view of globe digitizing by presenting examples of each procedure: digital globes made from photos or prints; globes designed to be virtual ones; and facsimile reproduction of the processed globes.
Mátyás Gede, Zsuzsanna Ungvári

The Digital True-3D Globe from Willem Janszoon Blaeu

Abstract
The importance of digital globes is increasing, not least because of their advantages in comparison to the analogue globes. In the project described below for the first time the seminal 3D display technology was used to generate a true-3D model of a historical globe for the renowned Globe Collection in the Mathematical-Physical Salon at the Dresden Zwinger Palace, Germany. The result is a true-3D film about this globe, which can spontaneously be perceived three-dimensionally with unaided eyes. With the help of this film the visitors are supposed to learn more about the content and the graphic design of the globe.
Claudia Knust, Manfred F. Buchroithner, Wolfram Dolz

State-of-the-art of Tactile Hyperglobes

Abstract
This article focuses on the successor of virtual globes namely tactile hyperglobes. These tactile hyperglobes allow – as opposed to the two dimensional representation of Geo-Browsers (e.g. Google Earth, Virtual Earth,…) – the earth’s presentation in her natural and three-dimensional appearance. This makes it easier for the user to link the information on the globe to the reality that the globe is representing. The Department of Geography and Regional Research of the University of Vienna invested in the beginning of 2005 in a tactile hyperglobe. Therefore this department is the first European research facility which focused research activities on the visualization of global topics under the use of spherical displays. On the one hand this paper will give insight in advantages and disadvantages of different types of tactile hyperglobes from a technical perspective and on the other hand introduces the functionality of OmniSuite, software dedicated to tactile hyperglobes.
Andreas Riedl

True 3D in Geophysics and Geology

Frontmatter

Explanation of the BGS Subsurface Viewer

Abstract
The BGS Subsurface Viewer is a standalone software package that allows viewing of pre-defined and incorporated 3D geological models that can also contain many other varying properties of the geological structure. This report summarizes the key technological aspects of the software and gives an outline of the flexibility of, and methodologies involved in, its operation.
Robert W. Armstrong

Three-Dimensional Visualisation of the Tectonic movement over Mexico by means of the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements

Abstract
This paper presents the design of a computer system for visualizing in three dimensions the movement of the Earth's crust by means of the information gathered and processed from the Global Positioning System (GPS). Several existing products, display information corresponding to the movement of each GPS component (latitude, longitude and altitude) using a set of static two-dimensional graphics. These techniques are useful and understandable to scientists on the topic of study, however, the needs to analyze the information from a different perspective and create a presentation system that achieves the understanding of the phenomenon in a wider audience, are the motivation of this work. The system presented here, has been built to be used by the Department of Geography and Territorial Planning from the University of Guadalajara in the field of motion studies of the Earth's crust in Mexico.
Bertha Márquez Azúa, Ismael Luis Ledesma Tello, Javier González Sánchez, Maria Guadalupe Ascencio Escamilla

Virtual Urban and Rural Landscape Visualization

Frontmatter

Terrestrial Laser Scan Application in Urban Planning

Abstract
Terrestrial Laser Scan technology was highly developed in the last decade and the application of this technology has been used in different sectors. The aim of this paper is to focus on the strength and weakness of Terrestrial Laser Scan technology especially in the urban planning field. The advantage of such tools based on real application will be presented in addition to data acquisition, processing and visualization. The presentation of the project “Scanning a Road” will give life application too and demonstrate as well the limit of such technology in urban planning applications. The paper will discuss if Terrestrial Laser scan is developed already so far that it can be applied successfully in urban planning.
Khaled El Nabbout

3D Terrain Visualisation for GIS: A Comparison of Different Techniques

Abstract
Geographic Information System (GIS) applications are now moving towards 3D as it has a better representation of the real world. Most GIS applications now can be visualised not only in 2D but also in 3D. Currently most of the applications are capable of operating in an online environment such as Google Earth, Microsoft Virtual Earth and World Wind. Recently, many people use these online applications for their daily work and also for decision making. Terrain visualisation is an important aspect for these three applications, in visualizing the world in 3D. The quality of terrain visualisation depends on the techniques used by the developer. The research for generating good quality terrain visualisation for depicting the real world is ongoing and faces big challenges. There are many techniques available that can be used to visualize the terrain in 3D such as photorealistic and non-photorealistic rendering (NPR). The aim of this paper is to compare different techniques of terrain visualisation in GIS environment. The techniques involved in this experiment are colour shading, terrain overlaid with satellite image and silhouette rendering algorithm for NPR. The comparison is based on the quality of terrain visualisation, representation of object on terrain, representation of slope, and error in terrain. Three different areas in the Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) were chosen for this experiment; grid Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from R2V software was used as topographic data and Quick Bird satellite image of UPM for satellite data. Each of the areas was tested by the three different techniques of terrain visualisation. The results from these different techniques of terrain visualisation are discussed in detail. The results of this paper will be of help to the users in identifying the best technique of terrain visualisation suitable for GIS data.
Che Mat Ruzínoor, Abdul Rashid Mohamed Shariff, Ahmad Rodzi Mahmud, Biswajeet Pradhan

Non-Planar Optical Projections

Frontmatter

Cartographic Representation of Dresden’s Historical Development by Projecting a Movie onto a Solid Terrain Model

Abstract
On the occasion of the 800th anniversary of the first mention of the city of Dresden (Germany) a new exhibition for the local City Museum was designed. The intention of the exhibition's concept was to use modern and innovative exhibits to attract a broad audience. A key element of the exposition is a 2.00 m by 1.50 m solid terrain model of the Dresden Elbe valley. A film, which shows the development of the depicted region since the year 8000 B.C. is projected onto the terrain model by a video projector and the help of a tilted mirror. This true 3D installation is one of the first of its kind worldwide. It facilitates much more thematic flexibility than terrain models without changing illumination. Both the terrain model and the film result from a cooperation of the City Museum of Dresden with the Institutes for Cartography and for Software- and Multimedia-Technology of the Dresden University of Technology. The scale of the solid terrain model is 1:16,250. It is four times vertically exaggerated to improve the perceptibility of small terrain features for the visitor. The projected film is a FlashMX animation, for which several tenths input data layers were prepared with the GIS software ArcGIS and the vector graphic software Freehand. Input data for both the solid terrain model and the animation were Laserscanning DEM data and ATKISDGM/- DLMdata. A major challenge of the terrain model construction was the reconstruction of the primordial terrain. As the input data showed the contemporary situation of the terrain a significant number of visible anthropogenic terrain changes, such as bridges, railway lines, motorways and man-made riverbeds had to be removed. An iterative semi-automatic approach was developed, which cuts relevant areas from the data and using a linear TIN interpolation that filled the data holes afterwards. The filtered data set was cut into a polyurethane pattern plate by using a Portatec milling machine by the Institute for Production-Technology of the Dresden University of Technology. In a stepwise process an accuracy of 1/100 mm in the three dimensions x, y and z was reached. Afterwards the solid terrain model was varnished with a special white colour, for which previous tests had shown optimum reflection behaviour.
Thomas Hahmann, Christina Eisfelder, Manfred F. Buchroithner

Enhancing Interactive NonPlanar Projections of 3D Geovirtual Environments with Stereoscopic Imaging

Abstract
Stereo rendering, as an additional visual cue for humans, is an important method to increase the immersion into 3D virtual environments. Stereo pairs synthesized for the left and right eye are displayed in a way that the human visual system interprets as 3D perception. Stereoscopy is an emerging field in cinematography and gaming. While generating stereo images is well known for standard projections, the implementation of stereoscopic viewing for interactive non-planar single-centre projections, such as cylindrical and spherical projections, is still a challenge. This paper presents the results of adapting an existing image-based approach for generating interactive stereoscopic non-planar projections for polygonal scenes on consumer graphics hardware. In particular, it introduces a rendering technique for generating image-based, non-planar stereo pairs within a single rendering pass. Further, this paper presents a comparison between the image-based and a geometry-based approach with respect to selected criteria.
Matthias Trapp, Haik Lorenz, Markus Jobst, Jürgen Döllner

Topographing and Thematic Geovisualization Go True 3D

Frontmatter

3D Representation of Retreating Glaciers: Anaglyphs and the Geowall

Abstract
The Western Canadian Cryospheric Network (WC2N), which is funded by the Canadian Foundation for Climate and Atmospheric Sciences (CFCAS), 2005-2010, has collected glacier extents and digital terrain models of glacier areas dating from 1905-2005. These cover the two western provinces of British Columbia and Alberta and are being used to map glacier change, for glacier monitoring and future prediction. Data sources range from early (˜1925) topographic maps, to post-1950 federal and provincial mapping programs and to early 21st century terrain models from remote sensing platforms that include the SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission), ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) and SPOT (Système Pour l'Observation de la Terre). Traditional methods for displaying these surfaces include contouring, hillshading and oblique draped perspectives. These often involve challenges in effective representation, for example in distinguishing between smoother surfaces in accumulation snowfields with saturated contrast, and steeper slopes usually downvalley. We are now investigating presentation methods for the visualization of multiple extents and surfaces incorporating 3D technology, as part of our funding mandate to provide public education and outreach. In addition to traditional perspective views, anaglyph images are being increasingly used to represent surface elevations and changes. These can be generated from standard commercial GIS and remote sensing software; some are also available on the internet through the British Columbia MapPlace website. We also use the University's High Performance Computing Lab GeoWall, a low-cost polarization-based dual-projector interactive 3D stereoscopic system to generate large format perspectives and animation sequences. Two GeoWall visualization systems comprise a stationary, rear projection system and a more portable, front projection system. These enable visualization of glacier environments using a combination of digital terrain models and draped satellite imagery along with cartographic education.
Roger Wheate, Brian Menounos

High-resolution mapping and visualization of a climbing wall

Abstract
Many cartographers are making an effort to depict mountainous steep relief on classical maps. There are many techniques that enable achieving this goal effectively. However nowadays we notice a trend toward 3D realistic representation of relief, using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) derived from aerial photographs or satellite imagery. They are very useful and sufficient for visualizing and modeling various terrain features — from flat to hilly. Nevertheless the mountainous terrain is very problematic, as very steep slopes cannot be seen and depicted from bird'. That is why an alternative method should be used to gather information and visualize terrain with vertical relief, otherwise information about such areas is omitted or very poor (Butler et al. 1998; Gooch et al. 1999; Buchroithner 2002; Mergili 2007). The aper resents ossible pplication of close-range photogrammetry for mapping and visualization of steep (close to vertical) rock walls. In this way integration of photogrammetry, digital cartography and photorealism meets the needs of information systems for climbers and tourism in general. Technology and software is similar to that being used in aerial photogrammetry, but some differences in concept should be considered in order to generate spatial model in horizontal projection, so called quasi-DEM. The research object is a part of natural climbing wall situated in Krakow, Poland. The surface is approximately vertical, with some parts which are overhung. It is also very rough, so many shades appear. For the creation of quasi-DEM, quasi-orthophoto and virtual rock face, 4 overlapping photographs were taken with Nikon D80 amateur digital camera. Object distance was about 5.5 m, and ground resolution about 1.8 mm. The camera was previously calibrated with ImageMaster software by Topcon and known parameters of the camera lens allowed the removal of the distortion from the images. ERDAS LPS (Leica Photogrammetry Suite) was used to perform photogrammetric processing. In order to demonstrate the potential of the technique, some steps used by climbers are marked, and anaglyphic methods facilitate a three dimensional perception. That can help inexperienced climbers to plan their route and prepare for the real experience.
Natalia Kolecka

TOPGIS - swisstopo’s Production System for 3D Topographic Databases

Abstract
To truly visualize topographic data in 3D requires truly 3D topographic databases. The Swiss Federal Office of Topography (swisstopo) is replacing their current map-based 2D VECTOR25 dataset with a 3D Topographic Landscape Model (TLM). This represents a major shift in their internal production workflow, and also a beneficial change for their customers who require accurate 3D geographical reference data. The TLM is swisstopo's new vector landscape model. It will be very up-to-date across all of Switzerland, seamless across this area, 3D, and very accurate with better than 1 meter accuracy in all three dimensions. The TLM forms the basis for several geo-data products and the Swiss National Map series. The TLM is accompanied by a new Digital Terrain Model (DTM) which is designed to be consistent at all times with the TLM. The DTM is derived principally from LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. For the capture and administration of the TLM and the DTM, a new high-performance infrastructure called Topographic Geographic Information System (TOPGIS) has been built for swisstopo by ESRI Switzerland. As the central production infastructure for the TLM, TOPGIS is a modern, database-centered system for data capture, editing, management and storage. The TLM and DTM are photogrammetrically updated based on high resolution digital imagery. TOPGIS supports three simultaneous modes for producing 3D data Stereo-photogrammetric 3D TLM production Stereo-photogrammetric DTM production TLM production by using mono-plotting from orthophotos and the DTM
Martin Suter

Temple complex ‘Virtual Nako’ – 3D Visualisation of cultural heritage in Google Earth

Abstract
The preservation of cultural heritage and the communication of its vital importance for modern society represent an increasing and demanding challenge for the scientific community. Due to the occurrence of cultural objects in geographic space and time, cartographers are questioned, amongst others, to deal with new forms of geo-visualisation. These new visualisations improve communication between scientists and a broad audience by facilitating a more efficient information exchange. A national research network gave the setting for cartographers at the University of Vienna to develop and implement a Google Earth 3D visualisation of a Buddhist temple complex built during the early second millennium. This paper describes the efforts of the national research network and the preceding research and preservation project, which led to a detailed conception for the digital reconstruction of the sacred temples in Nako, Himachal Pradesh, India. Furthermore the workflow from acquisition of basic datasets to their refinement for an interactive view in Google Earth is discussed. Finally an outlook on future developments towards a more immersive 3D visualisation on a virtual reality wall will be given.
Ben Nausner

Challenges and Perspectives for True–3D in Car Navigation

Abstract
In the past years car navigation systems have significantly developed. Beside many important features to support drivers the advanced graphics is the most visible part. After starting with simple arrows and numbers, maps were displayed in order to provide hints for the spatial orientation of the driver. Later on, those maps were rendered perspectively in bird's eye view and finally 3D data was integrated to generate more realistic views using city models and terrain models. However, one drawback of these 3D navigation systems is the use of monoscopic displays. Using these displays, the only way to mediate spatial depth has been to facilitate monoscopic depth cues. Whereas for desktop computers stereoscopic displays are used in order to allow a better depiction of 3D scenes, they were not used for mobile navigation systems yet. Since this application field has specific characteristics and requirements, this paper addresses the challenges and perspectives for the use of (auto—) stereoscopic displays in prospective car navigation systems.
Timo Götzelmann, Jochen Katzer

Holographic Relief Map Production by using Topographic Line Maps (Digital Carto-Holograms)

Abstract
Most of the inventions in the history discovered by accidentally or inspire of irrelevant association between things. In most cases, somewhere in time, someone else has already imagined it before, but has not been materialized yet. It is so hard to match the idea and the final product in reality, and therefore many of people throws their ideas to the mind trash. But addiction to the idea prepares all the circumstances and brings every possible opportunity to make it real. The thought of a Digital Carto-Holograms (DCH) or Holographic Relief Map (HRM) came into mind such a way a few years ago. It was so popular on those days to have 3D Hologram Eye on the cell-phone's screen among teens. This idea was a perfect practical marketing strategy for a production company. On the other hand it was an innovative object to a person who manufactures Plastic Relief Maps (PRM). Main problems with the PRM were inflexibility, lack of depicting objects without their heights and aligning features on the plastic sheet with the relief itself. It could be possible to eliminate these disadvantages of PRM with DCH. After preparing theoretical background for over 5 years, it was possible to create the frontier of DCH by using sample vector map data within six months. The Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the terrain was used to create the perspective, Topographic Line Map (TLM) data, such as line, point and area features were converted to 3D objects, in place of imaginary 2D map symbols, and the aerial photograph to give more realistic view. Exaggeration was implemented on the 3D models to prevent from vanishing on the terrain. After finishing this 3D TLM, it was possible to edit the model by using Autodesk's 3D Studio Max software. The model then posed on a suitable film to produce the Computer Generated Hologram (CGH). In this paper you'll find the story of this product, benefits of holographic techniques for relief maps, development phases, suggested procedures to follow, main problems for such a production line and the product itself. Although it is a demonstration product, there are too many issues have to be solved in the near feature to create 3D TLM for producing thousands of map sheets. This innovation of the very first and primitive Holographic Relief Map (HRM) gives us hope to solve some disadvantages of Classical Plastic Relief Maps.
H. Polat Dalkiran, Servet Özağaç, Hakan Büyükbayrak

3D Geodata in the Web

Frontmatter

Stereoscopic 3-D solutions for online maps and virtual globes

Abstract
Because our pupils are about 6.5 cm apart, each eye views a scene from a different angle and sends a unique image to the visual cortex, which then merges the images from both eyes into a single picture. The slight difference between the right and left images allows the brain to properly perceive the ‘third dimension’ or depth in a scene (stereopsis). However, when a person views a conventional 2-D (two-dimensional) image representation of a 3-D (three-dimensional) scene on a conventional computer screen, each eye receives essentially the same information. Depth in such cases can only be approximately inferred from visual clues in the image, such as perspective, as only one image is offered to both eyes. The goal of stereoscopic 3-D displays is to project a slightly different image into each eye to achieve a much truer and realistic perception of depth, of different scene planes, and of object relief. This paper presents a brief review of a number of stereoscopic 3-D hardware and software solutions for creating and displaying online maps and virtual globes (such as Google Earth) in “true 3D”, with costs ranging from almost free to multi-thousand pounds sterling. A practical account is also given of the experience of the USGS BRD UMESC (United States Geological Survey's Biological Resources Division, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center) in setting up a low-cost, full-colour stereoscopic 3-D system.
Manfred F. Buchroithner, Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Larry R Robinson

Special Contributions

Frontmatter

The Landscape Relief Model - An anachronism or still a useful object for contemplating the landscape

Abstract
Already at the age of 13 years I produced the landscape of Bethlehem with a rock cave to show the birthplace of Jesus Christ. This was my first geomodel. Having troubles to understand the geomorphology of a Switzerland, which appeared to me not so characteristic, I made my first geographic landscape model. In contact with the famous late Prof. Eduard Imhof I learned about the issues determining the quality of a relief model. I shall never forget the principles taught by Imhof. Thus, I am trying to produce my relief models in a way that Imhof would be satisfied. Perhaps these principles are the reason why I always try to generate a “living landscape” with high accuracy and without compromise. Touching upon the question if I am not afraid that the computer would replace my manual work, my answer is: I am as afraid to be replaced by the computer as is the first violinist of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra. He is not to replace! Hence, he will never be afraid. Producing a steric landscape relief is comparable to making music: the finest details and nuances can only be produced by men and not by machines. My slogan is: Do not give away to machines the most creative work — to create a landscape. I want to do it myself.
Toni Mair

StereoWebMap, A Real Stereoscopic Map Server for the Internet

Abstract
This article was included to document the promising technologies of 3D data transmission. Due to the fact that old figures given in this article are first based on a technology demonstration by the office and, second, all in colour, the readers are kindly referred to the colour presentation in the enclosed CDROM.
Conrado Sanchez

Backmatter

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