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Über dieses Buch

This book presents new and practical solutions to solve the coordination problem faced due to the increasing integration of renewable energy sources into existing electricity transmission networks it addresses how the subsequent technological revolution is not only affecting the structure of the electricity markets, but also the interactions between transmission system operators (TSO) and distribution system operators (DSO). A must-have for smart grid analysis, this book presents models and scenario buildups of complex systems and incorporates the experience of three technological pilots that are analyzing special issues connected to network monitoring and control, and participation to a would-be ancillary services market from special subjects. The reader will benefit from the experience drawn from SmartNet, a major research project encompassing 22 partners from nine EU countries and including input gathered from a significant number of industrial partners.



Chapter 1. Introduction

The electricity world is rapidly changing. On one side, renewable energy sources (RES) are being more and more massively installed everywhere. Due to the variable behaviour of a good share of them, reserve needs are increasing. So, it would be good to extend as much as possible the number of subjects enabled to provide ancillary services and participate in real-time energy markets. On the other hand, distribution networks are becoming active and a steadily higher number of distributed resources are being deployed, hence the opportunity to enable such resources to provide system services. However, in order to do so, the grid operators (transmission system operator (TSO) and distribution system operator (DSO)) should be able to coordinate their actions. This theme was the object of the SmartNet Horizon 2020 project, which constitutes the background for the material presented in the present book. However, this book, yet illustrating material and investigations derived from the SmartNet project activities, has a different aim and scope: to provide the reader with a theoretically solid background to deal in detail with architectures of real-time services markets.
Gianluigi Migliavacca

Chapter 2. TSO-DSO Interaction and Acquisition of Ancillary Services from Distribution

The energy market is undergoing important changes, driven by the realization of the European internal energy market on the one hand and the increase of distributed energy resources on the other hand. The introduction of new resources in the energy market that are mainly connected to the distribution grid creates new opportunities and challenges for system operators (TSO and DSO), commercial market players, and end consumers. In particular, resources connected at the distribution grid could be used to provide ancillary services (e.g., frequency control, congestion management, and voltage control). Consequently, coordination between system operators is needed to guarantee a safe, reliable, and cost-efficient use of these resources. This chapter introduces five coordination schemes to enhance interaction between system operators. Each scheme is described in terms of roles, responsibilities, and market design. Furthermore, we discuss the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of each coordination scheme and evaluate the link with the ongoing European evolutions.
Helena Gerard, Enrique Rivero, Janka Vanschoenwinkel

Chapter 3. Modeling of Complex Systems Including Transmission, Distribution, Aggregation, Ancillary Services Markets

With an increased deployment of DERs, and a supporting distribution grid ICT infrastructure in place, the flexibility potential of these resources can be utilized to provide services both locally and for overall system – to a mutual benefit of DER owners and system operator. In order to achieve this there is a need to coordinate TSOs and DSOs, as discussed in Chap. 2, as well as to implement new market architectures, as detailed in this chapter, so as to manage flexibility offers from DERs. For the most part, this chapter provides mathematical models of different market framework components: aggregation of flexibility offers from DERs, ancillary services (AS) market architecture, market arbitrage, transmission, and distribution network models. In addition, this chapter discusses the computational complexity aspects of the market clearing algorithm and, in context of this, how the key AS market parameters, as well as the choice of the TSO-DSO coordination scheme, impact its tractability.
Mario Džamarija, Guillaume Leclercq, Miguel Marroquin, Manita Herman

Chapter 4. ICT Requirements in a Smart Grid Environment

Energy systems are moving towards more flexible and distributed structures as the share of distributed energy resources gets bigger. New resources connected to the distribution grid offer ancillary services for congestion management and balancing including, e.g. frequency control, aFRR/mFRR, and voltage control. The new TSO-DSO coordination schemes presented in Chap. 2 are studied in this chapter from ICT’s perspective. This chapter introduces a conceptual reference model to help assess where new communication technologies are needed. The second section introduces potential technologies that could be applied. Our focus is more on wireless technologies to ensure flexibility, cost-efficiency, and scalability in large geographically distributed systems. We also present different types of service architectures to manage, secure and orchestrate the increasing number of services created by the new market models. The provision of ancillary services from distribution networks involves the coordination and close interaction between different actors and systems. In the last section, we present a process of capturing ICT requirements for energy systems. The process utilises the Smart Grid Architecture Model (SGAM) that presents a structured approach for modelling the Smart Grid architecture.
Seppo Horsmanheimo, Lotta Tuomimäki, Raúl Rodríguez Sanchez, Filip Pröstl Andrén, Claus Amtrup Andersen

Chapter 5. Scenario Analysis

The performance of TSO-DSO coordination schemes depends on the characteristics of the electricity systems in which regulation reserves can be provided by both transmission and distribution resources. In order to investigate the main aspects influencing TSO-DSO interactions, three detailed electricity scenarios (related to the expected 2030 evolution of Denmark, Italy and Spain) are defined. In particular, these scenarios are designed by assuming various distribution network conditions, determining different volumes of flexibility requested by the DSO in order to carry out local services. Then, the structure of a simulation platform, aimed at testing TSO-DSO coordination schemes, is proposed. It is based on three main blocks, integrating actual market clearing, bidding and dispatching algorithms, together with a simulator for the network and all the physical power resources. Finally, the simulation results are processed by means of a cost-benefit analysis which identified the market architectures providing the highest economic benefits to the system and the main factors that influence the profitability of one TSO-DSO coordination scheme among the others.
Marco Rossi, Julia Merino, Carlos Madina, Elena Turienzo, Harald Svendsen, Pirkko Kuusela, Pekka Koponen

Chapter 6. Technologies and Protocols: The Experience of the Three SmartNet Pilots

The deployment of technological pilots is of paramount importance for testing and demonstrating the technical feasibility of the concepts described in this book for two main reasons. On the one hand, there are few real-life experiences in the application of these concepts, as TSO-DSO coordination is a relatively new topic. On the other hand, there may be some implementation difficulties which cannot be anticipated by the scenario analysis and CBA.
Whenever possible, more than one pilot should be deployed, so that each of them can focus on different parts of the TSO-DSO coordination value chain. In that sense, it is important to demonstrate different potential TSO-DSO coordination schemes, so that issues arising from each of them can be identified. Moreover, it is also important to demonstrate different types of DER, so that their flexibilities can be better assessed and the advantages and disadvantages for real-life implementation can be properly identified and addressed. As a third complementarity aspect, having different technological pilots allows for focusing on different parts of the value chain, so that one of them may take the vision of the TSO or DSO, while another one can focus on the needs of the aggregator or DER owners.
Carlos Madina, Joseba Jimeno, Luca Ortolano, Margherita Palleschi, Razgar Ebrahimy, Henrik Madsen, Miguel Pardo, Cristina Corchero

Chapter 7. Regulatory Frameworks for Enabling Distributed Energy Resource Participation in Smart Grids

This chapter first briefly outlines a policy framework that has been shaping electricity industry and in particular latest developments that are enabling realisation of low-carbon electricity networks with high levels of renewable generation. It also outlines latest changes that are putting customers at the centre of energy transition, thereby affecting TSO and DSO operation, and opening a question of their better coordination, and thus a need for solutions proposed by and evaluated in the SmartNet project. This chapter also discusses changes that are necessary in the DSO operation to enable better DER integration and discusses results from implementation of five coordination schemes analysed in the SmartNet project. Finally, it discusses general issues that need to be considered when deciding on rules and regulation that will enable shift to systems that will require increased flexibility provided by different technologies and customers.
Ivana Kockar, Dario Siface, Andrei Morch

Chapter 8. Conclusions

After the whole path covered by the book, this chapter formulates some conclusions on the kind of TSO-DSO coordination scheme which could be more efficient in dependence from regulatory and structural conditions of the different national markets. The following questions are targeted:
  • Which ancillary services could be provided from entities located in distribution networks?
  • Which optimised modalities should be used for managing the network at the TSO-DSO interface?
  • How should the architectures of dispatching service markets be consequently revised?
  • What ICT on distribution-transmission border can guarantee observability and control?
  • Which could be the regulatory implications?
Then, the perspective is enlarged to the one of natural gas, commodity having from some point of view some similar characteristics with electricity (but also some important difference). Similitudes and differences are highlighted also considering the multi-carrier point of view.
Gianluigi Migliavacca, Ilaria Conti


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