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Turbulence occurs nearly everywhere in nature. It is characterized by the efficient dispersion and mixing of vorticity, heat, and contaminants. In flows over solid bodies such as airplane wings or turbine blades, or in confined flows through ducts and pipelines, turbulence is responsible for increased drag and heat transfer. Turbulence is therefore a subject of great engineering interest. In this chapter, we will look at the state of the fluid motion, which is independent of heat transfer and this is where we speak of forced convection. Forced convection occurs when an external force, such as a pump, fan, or a mixer, induces a fluid flow. On the other hand, natural convection is caused by buoyancy forces due to density differences caused by temperature variations in the fluid. At heating the density change in the boundary layer will cause the fluid to rise and be replaced by cooler fluid that also will heat and rise. These continuous phenomena are called free or natural convection.
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- Turbulent Forced Convection
- Chapter 6