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Über dieses Buch

This book summarizes the current status of theoretical and experimental progress in 2 dimensional graphene-like monolayers and few-layers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Semiconducting monolayer TMDCs, due to the presence of a direct gap, significantly extend the potential of low-dimensional nanomaterials for applications in nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics as well as flexible nano-electronics with unprecedented possibilities to control the gap by external stimuli. Strong quantum confinement results in extremely high exciton binding energies which forms an interesting platform for both fundamental studies and device applications. Breaking of spatial inversion symmetry in monolayers results in strong spin-valley coupling potentially leading to their use in valleytronics.

Starting with the basic chemistry of transition metals, the reader is introduced to the rich field of transition metal dichalcogenides. After a chapter on three dimensional crystals and a description of top-down and bottom-up fabrication methods of few-layer and single layer structures, the fascinating world of two-dimensional TMDCs structures is presented with their unique atomic, electronic, and magnetic properties. The book covers in detail particular features associated with decreased dimensionality such as stability and phase-transitions in monolayers, the appearance of a direct gap, large binding energy of 2D excitons and trions and their dynamics, Raman scattering associated with decreased dimensionality, extraordinarily strong light-matter interaction, layer-dependent photoluminescence properties, new physics associated with the destruction of the spatial inversion symmetry of the bulk phase, spin-orbit and spin-valley couplings. The book concludes with chapters on engineered heterostructures and device applications such as a monolayer MoS2 transistor.

Considering the explosive interest in physics and applications of two-dimensional materials, this book is a valuable source of information for material scientists and engineers working in the field as well as for the graduate students majoring in materials science.



Chapter 1. Introduction

The chapter briefly reviews the history of research on transition metal dichalcogenides and the contents of the present monograph.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 2. Chemistry of Chalcogenides and Transition Metals

The lone-pair electrons of chalcogen atoms and the presence of d-orbitals of transition metal atoms determine the rich chemistry of transition-metal dichalcogenides. This Chapter presents a brief overview of the fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the chemistry of these materials.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 3. Bulk TMDCs: Review of Structure and Properties

Bulk (or 3D) TMDCs have been known and used for a very long time, but most of the older applications (i.e. as solid lubricants) were related to their unique mechanical properties determined by the presence of van der Waals bonding between the layers. It is only recently, following the success of graphene, that TMDCs moved to the forefront of solid state research, with main interest being concentrated on mono and few-layer structures. At the same time, the interest to 3D TMDCs also acquired momentum. In this chapter we describe the structure and properties of 3D TMDCs, placing accent on (i) those issue that are important to understand 2D TMDCs and (ii) the latest results that were not reviewed previously.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 4. From 3D to 2D: Fabrication Methods

Two-dimensional TMDCs can be fabricated using two types of approaches: the top-down approach, where the bulk forms are exfoliated into a few-layer structures and monolayers (MLs), and the bottom-up approach using growth methods such as chemical vapour deposition (CVD) or molecular epitaxy.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 5. Structure and Physico-Chemical Properties of Single Layer and Few-Layer TMDCs

The structure and properties of ultimately thin layers are often different from the corresponding bulk. This chapter describes mono- and few-layers of transition metal dichalcogenides, including phase stability and transformations, defects, and the corresponding physico-chemical properties.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 6. Electronic Band Structure of 2D TMDCs

Monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides acquire a direct band gap, opening up a broad range of applications in optoelectronics. In this chapter the progress achieved in theoretical and experimental studies of the electronic structure of mono- and few-layer systems is discussed in detail, including methods for modulating the electronic structure, e.g. by applying strain or manipulating interlayer coupling.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 7. Raman Scattering of 2D TMDCs

Raman scattering is a powerful tool to obtain information about the lattice vibrations of a crystal and it has been widely applied for the characterization of 2D TMDCs. This chapter provides a detailed description of the symmetry of odd- and even-layered structures, non-resonant and resonant Raman scattering, as well as polarisation effects with a special accent on features that are only observed in few-layer systems. The effects of hydrostatic pressure, strain, temperature, interlayer coupling and other factors are also covered.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 8. Luminescence of 2D TMDC

The direct-indirect gap transition accompanying thickness change has a strong effect on luminescence. The present chapter covers various aspects of luminescence such as strain and electrical gating effects but excludes spin-valley coupling (which is the subject of a dedicated chapter). Of special interest is the observation of single photon emission from monolayers.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 9. Excitons

The 2D nature of mono- and few-layer TMDCs plays a very important role in exciton behaviour. The extraordinary large exciton binding energy in 2D TMDCs forms a platform for both fundamental studies and novel applications. Various aspects of 2D excitons in TMDCs are described in this Chapter.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 10. Magnetism in 2D TMDC

This chapter discusses magnetism in few-layer transition metal dichalcogenides associated with the presence of edges, defects, dislocations and grain boundaries as well as dopants.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 11. Spin-Valley Coupling

In 2D TMDCs, spin and valley indices of charge carriers are coupled. This coupling, which is one the most interesting areas of TMDC research and forms the basis of potential TMDC applications in valleytronics, is the subject of the present Chapter.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 12. Miscellaneous Phenomena

In this Chapter we describe phenomena, observed in 2D TMDCs, that are not sufficiently broad or well studied to form individual chapters, namely, second-harmonic generation, piezoelectric effect, Burstein-Moss effect, superconductivity, and the formation of polaritons.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 13. TMDC Heterostructures

Semiconductor heterostructures and superlattices are the fundamental platform for many important device applications such as lasers, light-emitting diodes, solar cells, high-electron-mobility transistors, etc. The presence of van der Waals bonding in transition metal dichalcogenides results in atomically flat interfaces, which offers new opportunities for device fabrication. In this chapter theoretical and experimental progress in the studies of both vertical and in-plane heterostructures are described.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 14. Emerging Applications of 2D TMDCs

In this chapter emerging applications of 2D TMDC are discussed ranging from single and few-layer field-effect transistors, photodiodes and lasers, to memory devices, and biomedical applications.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 15. The Neverending Story

This chapter provides a brief summary of the results (over 100 papers) that were published after the main manuscript was submitted

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga

Chapter 16. Chalcogenides Nanoelectronics: Hype and Hope

The chapter provides an outlook on chalcogenide nanoelectronics based on recent progress in various classes of chalcogenides such as chalcogenide glasses, phase-change alloys, transition metal dichalcogenides and topological insulators.

Alexander V. Kolobov, Junji Tominaga


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