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Major natural hazards have sparked growing public concern worldwide. This book provides new information on Typhoon Impact and Crisis Management using satellite remote sensing technology, linking the natural sciences and social sciences in typhoon studies. It examines remote sensing observations of typhoons (hurricanes), typhoon impacts on the environment, typhoon impacts on marine ecosystems, typhoon impacts and global changes, typhoon (hurricane) impacts on economics, and crisis management for typhoon (hurricane) disasters.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Natural hazards have, throughout history, caused public concern worldwide. Typhoons are some of the most frequent and influential natural hazards in the world.
DanLing Tang, GuangJun Sui

Erratum To: Typhoon Impact and Crisis Management

Guang Jun Sui, Dan Ling Tang

Remote Sensing Observations of Typhoon (Hurricane)

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Microwave Instruments for Observing Tropical Cyclones

Development of microwave technologies and our ability to penetrate into Tropical Cyclones (TCs) by instrumented aircraft and observe from satellites have contributed much of the knowledge and understanding that exist today. We can now follow the structure and development of a storm from inception through the many stages towards a dangerous typhoon, hurricane or cyclone, as they are variously called around the globe. The data from satellite microwave radiometers, scatterometers, altimeters, Synthetic Aperture Radars (SARs), microwave sounders, a rain radar and a cloud profiling radar as well as coastal radars, airborne radars and microwave radiometers have all contributed to changing the fields of both TC research and TC operational forecasting.
Kristina B. Katsaros, Leonid Mitnik, Peter Black

Chapter 3. Typhoon Eye Observations Using SAR and MTSAT

Typhoon eyes have been delineated from the smoother area in the Radarsat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of ocean surface roughness and from the warmer area in the Multi-functional Transport Satellite (MTSAT) infrared images by using wavelet analysis. Case studies for different typhoons and environment have been investigated to demonstrate that SAR can be a powerful tool to help in typhoon tracking and prediction, especially at the ocean surface. It is found that the distance between the center locations of these typhoon’s eyes, as determined by SAR and MTSAT, respectively, is quite significant (14–26 km) for all five cases. The result of large center distance between typhoon eyes at the cloud level from MTSAT data and on the ocean surface from SAR data implies that the eyewall shaft may be highly tilted and the vertical wind shear profile is more complex than generally expected. Some of the issues concerning the definition of typhoon eye and typhoon tracking/prediction have been identified and compared with other data sets. Also, the tilted structure and associated vertical wind shear, especially during typhoon turning and staggering, may be caused by the ocean feedback or island blocking effects.
A. K. Liu, Y. -H. Cheng, C. -R. Ho, S. -J. Huang, N. -J. Kuo

Chapter 4. Satellite Passive and Active Microwave Methods for Arctic Cyclone Studies

Satellite passive microwave methods for the Arctic cyclone studies are considered. The data of Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) onboard Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) onboard Aqua satellite and AMSR2 onboard GCOM-W satellite are shown to be quite informative for polar low studies. The methodology of polar low detection and tracking, based on analysis of the total atmospheric water vapor fields, retrieved from passive microwave satellite measurement data, is described. Several case studies of mesoscale low system are considered using passive microwave and other satellite data, including visible, infrared and synthetic aperture radar images and scatterometer wind fields.
E. V. Zabolotskikh, L. M. Mitnik, L. P. Bobylev, B. Chapron

Chapter 5. Numerical Simulation and Forecasting Techniques for Tropical Cyclones in the South China Sea

This chapter introduces a numerical simulation and forecasting technique for tropical cyclones in the South China Sea, and describes a technique to initialize model simulation of typhoons that improves typhoon formation and forecasting in the simulation. It includes three-dimensional variational data assimilation and the curvature-modification linear balance equation. In order to determine the quality of the initial field in numerical models, a relocation method for the initial vortex is adopted as to decrease the error that is caused by bias in a tropical cyclone initial location in tropical cyclone models, and a bogus data assimilation (BDA) method is designed to assimilate typhoon bogus tangent wind into the initial wind field, and to update the typhoon’s vortex structure. Doppler radar data, satellite infrared brightness temperature data, tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) retrieved rainfall rate data, and other satellite observations are integrated into the background field by means of the GRAPES-3D-VAR (Global/regional assimilation and prediction system three-dimensional variational assimilation) system, so that the initial structure of the typhoon is closer to reality. It is shown through statistical analysis that the Tropical and Marine Meteorology (Guangzhou) operational forecasting system possesses effective forecasting skill for tropical cyclones.
Qilin Wan, Fangni Lin, Jinnan Yuan, WeiYu Ding, Gad Levy, DanLing Tang

Typhoon Impacts on Environments

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. Predicting and Visualizing Storm Surges and Coastal Inundation: A Case Study from Maryland, USA

Many low-lying coastal regions are vulnerable to both chronic hazards associated with inundation by sea-level rise, and episodic storm surges generated by hurricanes and typhoons. Using Maryland’s coast as an example, we provide an overview of a recent effort in the development of a state-of-the-art coastal inundation prediction system. We use a suite of atmospheric and hydrodynamic models to obtain an ensemble forecast of storm surge and overland inundation. Advanced graphic software such as ArcGIS and Google Earth is used to generate high-resolution images and animations of inundation in flood-prone areas. Such an end-to-end inundation prediction system can be applied to any coastal region. Given the accelerating sea-level rise and projected increases in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in a warming climate, we discuss how sea-level rise, changing tidal ranges and storm surges combine together to generate dangerously high surges in coastal regions.
Ming Li, Xiaohong Wang, Peng Jia

Chapter 7. Influence of Tropical Storms in the Northern Indian Ocean on Dust Entrainment and Long-Range Transport

Ninety five tropical cyclonic events (tropical storms, depressions and cyclones) between 2001 and 2010 were studied to determine their impact on dust outbreaks and long-range transport over the northern Indian Ocean and south Asia. In addition to the winter and summer Shamal Winds, tropical cyclones are an important mechanism of dust entrainment and transport of dust in this region. Elevated dust levels were observed in the northern Arabian Sea during most tropical cyclone events. During the study period, fifteen tropical cyclones migrated close to the dust source areas leading to major dust storms. Anti-clockwise winds associated with these storms were observed to entrain dust and transport it mostly towards the west or south-westerly direction. Tropical cyclones and storms, located further away from dust source areas, significantly alter the dispersal pathways of dust plumes raised by other mechanisms. The Northern Bay of Bengal cyclone events are shown to aid advection of dust plumes from southwest Asia and Thar Desert over highly populated regions of the Indian Subcontinent. Tropical cyclones also play an important role in dispersal of fine-mode aerosols over South Asia and formation of complex aerosol-dust mixtures.
V. Ramaswamy

Chapter 8. Rainfall Prediction for Landfalling Tropical Cyclones: Perspectives of Mitigation

The torrential rainfall associated with landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs) often represents the major impact to coastal regions, but at the same time an enormous challenge to meteorologists and forecasts. This chapter first discusses the complex dynamical processes involved in TC landfalls, which are related to the increased surface roughness and reduced surface moisture fluxes of land. The result is often certain patterns of convection and rainfall asymmetry in the landfalling TCs, but these patterns are not well explained by current theories or conceptual models. With emphasis of development of rainfall prediction techniques according to the needs of mitigation, the requirements on the skill of rainfall forecasts from the perspectives of mitigation are reviewed. Then, the operation and performance of several statistical TC rainfall models are discussed including the rainfall climatology-persistence model (R-CLIPER) for the Taiwan area. A topographic component is developed for R-CLIPER through multiple regression analyses, which improves the model’s performance in reproducing the local extreme rain that is lacking in the original model. Finally, the importance of utilizing remote-sensing data in TC rainfall prediction is discussed, and how TC rainfall statistical models can be applied to risk analyses under the consideration of global changes.
Kevin K. W. Cheung, Lisa T.-C. Chang, Yubin Li

Typhoon Impacts on Marine Ecosystems

Frontmatter

Chapter 9. Typhoon Impacts on the Surface Phytoplankton and Primary Production in the Oceans

This chapter introduces recent research about typhoon impacts on marine phytoplankton and related oceanic ecological environment in the world. Typhoon can induce the increase of Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration in the up water, and introduce phytoplankton blooms in the different regions of the oceans in world. Typhoons can also have important contribution to the marine primary production. Many studies suggested that typhoons indeed contribute to local primary production and carbon fixation through nutrient pumping to the surface. Phytoplankton blooms in response to typhoons are closely related to their speeds and intensities, which must be considered when estimating primary production. Different classification of typhoons may have different influence on the marine ecology. The mechanisms of typhoon impacts on phytoplankton blooms and primary production were summarized at the end of the chapter.
SuFen Wang, DanLing Tang, Yi Sui, Gang Pan, Dmitry Pozdnyakov

Chapter 10. Typhoon Impacts on Subsurface Marine Ecosystems

Typhoons usually can induce phytoplankton blooms in the surface waters. This chapter, using satellite and cruise survey data, introduces recent observations that Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) blooms occur not only on the surface, but also in the interior, just above the thermocline after the passage of a typhoon. The analysis of the physical and biological characteristics in the South China Sea after the passage of the typhoon Nuri in August of 2008 show that a subsurface (20–100 m depth) Chl-a bloom (1.31 mg m−3) occurred and lasted for 3 weeks; stronger and longer than the surface Chl-a bloom (0.48 mg m−3). The maximum value of the Chl-a at 2.10 mg m−3 was detected at a 50 m depth. This value was approximately 4–5 times higher than the background value of 0.48 mg m−3 measured at non-blooming areas at the same time and about 7.5 times higher than the mean Chl-a value of 0.28 mg m−3 measured over a period of 5 years. The mixed layer-depth and the thickness of the Chl-a bloom increased after the typhoon. This study clearly shows that a subsurface upwelling caused by the passage of the typhoon, transported nutrients to the euphotic zone and supported the Chl-a bloom. This study identified three phases for a typhoon-induced Chl-a bloom: The normal or pre-typhoon phase; The early post-typhoon phase and; The late-post typhoon phase. These observations provide some insights on the effect of typhoons on marine ecosystems, especially as related to the Integrated Primary Production. At the end of this chapter a summary of the impacts of typhoons on marine ecosystems, including surface, subsurface, and deep water systems, and their related physical processes is presented.
DanLing Tang, Hai Jun Ye, Yi Sui, Y. D. Afanasyev, SuFen Wang

Chapter 11. A Pilot Satellite-Based Investigation of the Impact of a Deep Polar Cyclone Propagation on the Phytoplankton Chlorophyll Spatial and Temporal Dynamics in the Arctic Ocean

A pilot satellite-based investigation of modulations exerted upon mixed-layer phytoplankton fields by deep cyclones is performed for the first time across the northern hemisphere polar region, viz. the Arctic Ocean. Resorting to a synergistic approach, polar cyclones were first identified from NCEP/NCAR data for the summer time period during 2002–2005, and their propagation throughout the Barents Sea was further traced down. The above water wind force was retrieved from QuikSCAT data. These data were further accompanied by ocean colour data from SeaWiFS, and MODIS to examine the spatial and temporal distributions of surficial phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration dynamics along the trajectory of the cyclone’s footprint across the sea. When the wind speed, bathymetric features and cloud conditions proved conjointly favorable, appreciable increases in phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration (for basically oligotrophic waters of the Arctic Ocean) have been observed following the cyclone passage with a time lag of about 5 days. This implies that with the ongoing amplification of climate warming at high northern latitudes, the increase in chlorophyll discussed above is potentially capable of boosting the primary production in the Arctic Ocean. However, further studies are certainly required to extend the observational data up to 2012 and further on in order to statistically and phenomenologically underpin and further our understanding of the actual mechanisms of changes in the Arctic Ocean ecosystem functioning.
Dmitry Pozdnyakov, DanLing Tang, Leonid Bobylev, Pavel Golubkin, Elizaveta Zabolotskikh, Dmitry Petrenko, Evgeny Morozov

Chapter 12. Effects of Typhoon on Seagrass Distribution

Typhoons inflicted great press on coastal environment. Seagrass, one of the most important constituents of coastal ecosystem, have been also greatly affected by typhoon. This chapter reviews effects of typhoons, hurricane and cyclone on seagrass distribution variation in the world, with much attention to China. The 5 major issues have been investigated : (1) Increased turbulence generated by cyclone and hurricane can result in direct physical damage; (2) Sediments resuspended by huge waves and coastal land use change decreased water transparency correspondingly decreased the efficiency of photosynthesis; (3) Hurricane, cyclone and typhoon increased the rainfall, which decreased nearshore and river mouth water salinity, correspondingly changed seagrass growth environment; (4) New species brought in by Hurricane, cyclone and typhoon, changed the composition of seagrass. (5) Satellite remote sensing is a good method for detecting seagrass distribution change.
DingTian Yang, ChaoYu Yang

Chapter 13. Impacts of Typhoons on Nutrient Supply and Potential Fish Production in the Southern East China Sea

Each year, typhoons (also called tropical cyclones or hurricanes) cause billions in property damage and great human toll. Besides, many typhoons occurring in tropical regions of the open ocean and their collective effects upon the marine environment and fishery remain undefined because of sampling difficulties. Recent satellite observations have shown that phytoplankton biomass can be enhanced for several days after typhoons, while in situ hydrographic observations, and data on biogeochemical properties and potential fish production induced by typhoons are limited. In this chapter, field observations are used to evaluate possible impacts of different typhoons on nutrient supply and potential fish production in the Southern East China Sea (SECS). The results provide evidence that typhoons add significantly to the nutrient supply and biological productivity in the SECS. The specific highlights are: (1) the typhoon-induced nitrate supplies after typhoons Fungwong (8.2 × 109 g N d−1) and Morakot (1.3 × 1010 g N d−1) are roughly 10-fold higher than that (1 × 109 g N d−1) during non-typhoon periods, and (2) the field observations demonstrate that typhoons can have a profound influence on nutrient supply and potential fish food sources in marginal seas.
Chin-Chang Hung, Gwo-Ching Gong, Ming-An Lee, Cheng-Hsin Liao, Yi Chang, Yung-Yen Shih, Kuo-Shu Chen, Meng-Hsien Chen, Peter H. Santschi

Chapter 14. Typhoon Impacts on Fishery in the South China Sea

Marine phytoplankton and primary production can be greatly impacted by typhoons, as discussed in the previous chapters; the present chapter introduces new observations about typhoon impacts on fishery, focusing on fish abundance. A fish monitoring program was conducted in the northern region of the South China Sea from March 2009 to December 2010. During this period, two typhoons, GONI and Koppu, hit this region consecutively in August and September 2009. The fish and satellite data were analyzed to understand the influence of the typhoons on fish activities. The results showed that the fish species number (FSN) increased by approximately 14.29 and 14.81 % after the two typhoons, GONI and Koppu, respectively. The five increased fish species included three estuarine species and two shallow sea species. However, one shallow sea species was also absent. In the nearshore (near the Pearl River Estuary) and offshore (along the typhoon’s track) regions after GONI, the FSN increased by approximately 24 % (nearshore) and 52.63 % (offshore), with estuarine species accounting for 42.86 % (nearshore) and 33.33 % (offshore) of the fish species; after Koppu, the FSN increased by approximately 15.38 % (nearshore) and 163.64 % (offshore), with estuarine species accounting for 60 % (nearshore) and 26.32 % (offshore) of the fish species. In the increased records, small and medium-sized fish species were dominant nearshore, and small fish species were dominant offshore. The FSN increased to a maximum value between the 5th and the 10th days after the typhoon nearshore and between the 3rd and 8th days after the typhoon offshore. The results indicated that river discharge, triggered by the typhoon’s nearshore rainfall, as well as offshore upwelling nutrients, also triggered by the typhoons, and may have played important roles in the variability of fish species. This research found that the increase in the FSN was associated with the typhoons in the northern South China Sea. At the end, the chapter summaries the ecological mechanisms of typhoon impacts on fishery.
DanLing Tang, Jie Yu, SuFen Wang, Gang Pan

Typhoon Impacts and Global Changes

Frontmatter

Chapter 15. Responses of the China Seas to Tropical Cyclone

In this chapter the ocean responses to tropical cyclone (TC) in the China seas are discussed. The powerful Kuroshio, mesoscale eddy activity, and complicated bathymetry in the area modulate the responses to the passage of TCs. Upwelling, entrainment and near-inertial oscillation trailed behind TCs are well simulated by ocean models. Sea surface temperature (SST) cooling caused by upwelling and vertical mixing is observed using satellite observations and three-dimensional models. Observational and high-resolution model analyses are carried out to study the favorable conditions and relevant physical processes that cause the SST cooling. The result demonstrates that upwelling dominates vertical entrainment in producing the surface cooling for a subcritical storm. Further, surface chlorophyll-a concentration often increases significantly after TC’s departure. Upwelling and mixing bring nutrient-rich subsurface water to the sea surface, causing enhancement of phytoplankton bloom.
Chau-Ron Wu

Chapter 16. An Inferential Statistical Study on the Climate Characteristics of Tropical Cyclones over the Northwestern Pacific

This chapter presents an inferential statistical study on the climate features of cyclone activities in the Northwestern Pacific (WNP) using data from 2,029 tropical cyclones (TCs) obtained within 60 years (1949–2008). The analysis shows the following results. (1) The annual genesis frequency of TC from 1949–2008 exhibits a statistically significant downward trend. The frequencies of tropical storms, typhoons, and strong typhoons have also declined, although less significantly than that of TCs. The interannual occurrence frequency of TCs has a statistically significant high value from 1960–1975, whereas its value is low from 1990–2008. (2) The highest frequency occurs at 14°–19°N and 115°–120°E within the 5° × 5° area, which is a narrow ocean surface to the west of Luzon Island in the South China Sea. (3) In general, the more southward and eastward the location of the TC genesis is, the stronger the TC is. Comparatively speaking, the effect of longitude on TC intensity is greater than that of latitude. Moreover, the interaction impact on TC intensity exists between latitude and longitude. This study provides new information that can improve the understanding of TC climate features over the WNP.
ZhangJin Wei, DanLing Tang, GuangJun Sui

Chapter 17. Comparisons of Two Types of El Niño Impacts on TC Genesis over the South China Sea

This chapter examines the impacts of warm pool (WP) El Niño on the tropical cyclone (TC) genesis over the South China Sea (SCS) during 1965–2004. We check the relationships between WP El Niño and SCS TC genesis in Sept-Oct-Nov (SON) when the interannual variability of TC genesis is significant. Compared with the cold tongue (CT) El Niño, the relationship of TC genesis with WP El Niño is significant. In recent a couple of decades with more frequent WP El Niño, the significant coherent variations between TC genesis and WP NINO index on the timescales of approximately 4 years are displayed. The distinct different atmospheric teleconnection patterns related to CT and WP El Niño are responsible for these relationships. The WP El Niño could result in a dipolar pattern with anticyclone anomalies over the SCS and cyclone anomalies over the western tropical Pacific warm pool at low- and mid-level, which is different from the CT El Niño-induced anticyclone anomalies over the SCS and western tropical Pacific warm pool. These WP El Niño-related large-scale circulation anomalies could enlarge the low-level northerlies over the SCS, which consequently enhances the vertical wind shear and suppresses the TC genesis over the SCS.
DongXiao Wang, Xin Wang, Wen Zhou, ChongYin Li

Typhoon Impacts on Economics

Frontmatter

Chapter 18. Theory and Practice for Typhoon Disaster Assessment

There has been much progress in the study of typhoon disaster assessment in recent years. A comprehensive overview of typhoon disaster assessment from different sources is still missing from the literature of the specialization. Therefore, this chapter reviews and analyzes research on the issues of disaster system prevention theory, risk and damage assessment for typhoon disasters and assessment practice in some countries. On the basis of the analysis of the evolvement of assessment approaches, this study also points out the problems related to typhoon disaster assessment, i.e. the grade classification for assessment, lack of uniform standards and the selection of indicators that cannot take all the factors into full consideration. At the end of this chapter the investigators also give some suggestions for typhoon disaster assessment.
GuangJun Sui, ZhangJin Wei, DanLing Tang

Chapter 19. Concepts and a Framework for Typhoon Disaster Assessment

Good progress has been made in typhoon disaster assessment in recent years. However, related terminologies are still vague and the framework for typhoon disaster assessment is lacking in the literature. This chapter focuses on the concepts of typhoon disaster evaluation, clarifying the definition of typhoon disaster assessment, and outlining a framework for typhoon disaster assessment. Based on the current evaluation, this chapter classifies composite indices into two types (i.e., absolute and relative), summarizes the definition of these indices in typhoon disaster damage measurement, and points out problems in the typhoon damage grade classification and indicator system, that is, previously, various factors were not fully considered in index selection and the uniform standards are still lacking in disaster grade classifications. This chapter provides a reference for disaster prevention and mitigation by forming the basic concepts and framework for typhoon disaster assessment.
GuangJun Sui, ZhangJin Wei, DanLing Tang

Chapter 20. Mechanisms of Emergency Management Against Typhoon Disasters: A Case Study of Typhoon “Bilis”

This chapter analyzes the mechanism of emergency management employed by governments, and typhoon No. 0604 “Bilis” in 2006 has been selected as a typical case for comparative analysis of emergency response plans and precautions among different provinces in China. The analysis shows that Zhejiang Province in China has established a complete system, which can be used as a significant model for the improvement of our emergency management preparation and implementation. Finally, some suggestions are made to improve the system of emergency management against typhoon disasters in Guangdong, China.
GuangJun Sui, HuiYing Pu, DanLing Tang

Chapter 21. Comprehensive Impact and Defensive Measures for Typhoon Disasters: A Case Study of Typhoon Morakot

Typhoon disasters are a global issue. With the continuously improving economic development of Mainland China, a comprehensive impact, resulting from development, has been exerted on coastal areas, particularly that of Guangdong Province. Through a comprehensive analysis of the impact of typhoon Morakot on the Taiwan region, and through a similar analysis of the emergency measures taken by the regional government of Taiwan, plus that of Mainland China and, as well, taking into consideration the pros and cons of these measures, this paper tries to draw upon the defensive experience of the typhoon disaster relief programs that might be suitable for Guangdong Province. Results of the follow-up studies show that, as a typhoon-prone province, Guangdong Province can gain some insights and, perhaps, even inspiration from the emergency measures related to Typhoon Morakot. Drawing on experiences from Typhoon Morakot, Guangdong Province should establish a comprehensive, three-dimensional typhoon disaster defensive system, including pre-disaster, during-disaster and post-disaster measures, namely pre-disaster preventative and damage-reduction systems, in-disaster crisis management systems and post-disaster loss evaluation and compensation systems.
GuangJun Sui, He Chen, DanLing Tang

Crisis Management for Typhoon Disaster

Frontmatter

Chapter 22. The Mathematical Model for Typhoon Disaster Management

This chapter introduces the management methodology of modeling typhoon disaster with focuses on describing an ideal mathematical way to represent typhoon risk. The mathematical model is based on the pattern structure to estimate the relationship between different characteristics in a typhoon event. The prediction results are calculated by the predictor from the disaster event. The candidate indexes of each pattern are selected from important factors in the literatures. Based on the approach, the relationship between the environmental events, the ecosystem change, the economic loss, and the response measure can be evaluated. The model can be further improved as long as the database of the predictor becomes sufficient and the mathematical scheme is accurate. The development of fuzzy theory, neural-network, and intelligent system can be helpful for the future development of this system.
Wang-Kun Chen, Guang-Jun Sui, DanLing Tang

Chapter 23. A Study on Typhoon Risk Prediction by Different Methods of Pattern Recognition

This chapter presents the economic loss prediction of typhoon by different pattern recognition methods, such as multivariable statistics (MS), case base reasoning (CBR), fuzzy theory (FT), and neural network model (NN). The typhoon records in Taiwan before 2000 were used as the database for reference, and the records after the year 2000 were predicted using the pattern derived from the database. Six scenarios were calculated using these methods. The first sceneries include the parameters: maximum wind speed, minimum atmospheric pressure, maximum wind speed in typhoon center and lowest atmospheric pressure near typhoon center. The second scenario includes the previous four parameters with rainfall and calculated by CBR. The third scenario uses the fuzzy calculation with five parameters. The successful rate of prediction for the three methods was 12.5, 37.5, and 57 %. The results reveal that the fuzzy calculation can significantly increase the prediction rate than the traditional CBR method. On the other hand, five neural network methods were compared, which were back propagation network (BPN), extend neuron networks (ENN), fuzzy neural network (FNN), analysis adjustment synthesis network (AASN), and genetic algorithm neural network (GANN). The result reveals that the BPN is the best choice, because the error is the lowest among the five schemes in this study.
Wang-Kun Chen, GuangJun Sui, DanLing Tang

Chapter 24. Disaster Management and Risk Reduction: Impacts of Sea Level Rise and Other Hazards Related to Tsunamis on Syrian Coastal Zone

The rapid development of economic construction and urbanization, highly dense population, infrastructure and traffic, all have caused a lot of troubles to the main cities in the Syrian coastal region. In addition, this region which is located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, and among Arabian, African and European Asian plates is suffering from increasing the number of natural and man-made disasters such as earthquakes, climate change, flash flooding, and mainly the expected sea level rise. This rise effect often depends on many elements, such as seismic hazard, vulnerability, exposure and emergency response and recovery capability. It is not possible to completely avoid this rise, but the sufferings can be minimized by creating proper awareness of this hazard and its impacts through developing an integrated system of the geographical and environmental data collection and management tools with simulation and decision tools for risk reduction and assessment. Great change becomes to integrated management and more to eco-environmental safety construction, especially to the prevention for disasters destroyed structure as sea level rise. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to address the need for an integrated disaster risk management in Syrian coastal zone. This will help to manage the risk of these disasters and hazards in a more effective manner through linking up disaster management more closely and consistently with urban planning and management.
Hussain Aziz Saleh, Georges Allaert

Chapter 25. Using Geology as a Tool for Assessing Coastal Risk in Asia

In many places in Asia, the written record of typhoons (tropical cyclones) and tsunamis is too short or inconsistent to accurately assess the risk of coastal disasters from both kinds of event. Here we propose that sedimentary deposits left by overwash events attributed to past typhoons or tsunamis can be used to extend the record of overwash, and generate an analysis of recurrence interval, thus, improving long-term risk assessment. The two primary factors in assessing coastal hazard risk are frequency and magnitude. These can be addressed through field and modeling studies of deposits where they are found. Recent advances in identification of overwash deposits along with progress on attempts to distinguish between storm and tsunami sedimentation, have increased the utility of using overwash deposits to improve coastal risk assessment.
Fengling Yu, Adam D. Switzer

Chapter 26. A Typhoon Disaster Loss Evaluation System Based on Multi-models

Typhoon disasters cause serious economic losses and human casualties every year. An accurate evaluation system for typhoon disaster losses is the prerequisite for preventing and reducing the consequences of the disasters. In this chapter, a multi-model system is introduced. Based on the databases of typhoon information, this system establishes a comprehensive evaluation model which is capable of evaluating the possible losses before, during, and after typhoon disasters and automatically generating disaster ranks. Accordingly, a report consisting of disaster losses and coping strategies is proposed by this system. This chapter illustrates the functional framework, the database design, the model construction, the evaluation methods and the generating report of the system. Besides, partial demonstrations and experimental results are also provided.
AiMin Yang, GuangJun Sui, DanLing Tang, He Chen, JiangHao Lin

Backmatter

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