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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Ambient Intelligence, UCAmI 2012, held in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain, in December 2012. The 70 research papers were carefully reviewed and selected from various submissions. The main focus of this book has been to explore how Ambient Intelligence can contribute towards smarter but still more sustainable environments. Beyond sustainable computing the proceedings also include research work describing progress on other key research topics for AmI such as human environment mobile-mediated (through NFC or AR) interaction, artificial intelligence techniques to foster user- and context-aware environment adaptation, future internet trends such as social networks analysis, linked data or crowd-sourcing applied to AmI, internet-connected object ecosystems collaborating to give place to smarter environments.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

GreenDisc: A HW/SW Energy Optimization Framework in Globally Distributed Computation

In recent future, wireless sensor networks (WSNs) will experience a broad high-scale deployment (millions of nodes in the national area) with multiple information sources per node, and with very specific requirements for signal processing. In parallel, the broad range deployment of WSNs facilitates the definition and execution of ambitious studies, with a large input data set and high computational complexity. These computation resources, very often heterogeneous and driven on-demand, can only be satisfied by high-performance Data Centers (DCs). The high economical and environmental impact of the energy consumption in DCs requires aggressive energy optimization policies. These policies have been already detected but not successfully proposed.

In this context, this paper shows the following on-going research lines and obtained results. In the field of WSNs: energy optimization in the processing nodes from different abstraction levels, including reconfigurable application specific architectures, efficient customization of the memory hierarchy, energy-aware management of the wireless interface, and design automation for signal processing applications. In the field of DCs: energy-optimal workload assignment policies in heterogeneous DCs, resource management policies with energy consciousness, and efficient cooling mechanisms that will cooperate in the minimization of the electricity bill of the DCs that process the data provided by the WSNs.

Marina Zapater, José L. Ayala, Jose M. Moya

Bat-MP: An Ontology-Based Energy Management Platform

This paper presents an Ontology-Based multi-technology platform as part of an open energy management system which also comprises a wireless transducer network for control and monitoring. The platform allows the integration of several building automation protocols, eases the development and implementation of different kinds of services and allows sharing of the data of a building. The system has been implemented and tested in the Energy Efficiency Research Facility at CeDInt-UPM.

Jaime Caffarel, Song Jie, Jorge Olloqui, Rocío Martínez

Will Eco-aware Objects Help to Save the World?

Our society waste more energy than they should. This is mostly due to the inadequate use that human beings perform on electrical devices. The presented paper aims to justify that embedding intelligence within everyday objects is valuable to reduce the portion of unnecessary consumed energy which is due to human misusing. To such extend, we have augmented a capsule-based coffee machine which is placed in a work office to back our assumptions. Using this device we have devised an energy saving model that takes into consideration features like how and when workers use the appliance along the day.

Additionally, we have simulated the model to demonstrate, through error metric comparison (measured in

KWh

), that a big amount of energy would be reduced if such intelligent systems were applied when compared with a baseline approach. Therefore, this paper contributes with a set of early, but promising, findings regarding how smart eco-aware objects can help to save energy in areas where people inhabit (cities, buildings or homes).

Diego Casado-Mansilla, Juan López-de-Armentia, Diego López-de-Ipiña

A New Approach to Clustering with Respect to the Balance of Energy in Wireless Sensor Networks

In wireless sensor networks the sensor nodes are expected to be remotely deployed to operate autonomously in unattended environments. Since the sensor nodes are extremely power constrained, an energy efficient clustering algorithm is proposed for reducing the energy consumption and balancing the energy load among distributed clusters to increase the useful system lifetime and cluster stability. An analytical clustering model based on classic clustering algorithm LEACH, considering both distance and current energy parameters of the nodes at the time of cluster head election is presented in this paper. It improves the process of cluster head election. Based on our findings it reduces the adverse effect on total energy consumption of each cluster and avoid direct communication between the base station and ordinary nodes in the network. The simulation results demonstrate that the improved clustering algorithm can reduce the energy consumption effectively and prolongs 85% of the useful lifetime in terms of First Node Dies compared with the original LEACH protocol.

Arezoo Vejdanparast, Esmaeil Zeinali Kh.

Lightweight User Access Control in Energy-Constrained Wireless Network Services

This work introduces a novel access control solution for infrastructures composed of highly constrained devices which provide users with services. Low energy consumption is a key point in this kind of scenarios given that devices usually run on batteries and are unattended for long periods of time. Our proposal achieves privacy, authentication, semantic security, low energy and computational demand and device compromise impact limitation on a simple manner. The access control provided is based on user identity and time intervals. We discuss these properties and compare our proposal to previous related work.

J. A. M. Naranjo, Pablo Orduña, Aitor Gómez-Goiri, Diego López-de-Ipiña, L. G. Casado

Channel Analysis and Dynamic Adaptation for Energy-Efficient WBSNs

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have recently emerged as a premier research topic, while the increasing use of this technology has empowered the development of Wireless Body Sensor Networks (WBSNs). In this environment, the power consumption of the sensor nodes has to be optimized in order to extend the battery duration but, at the same time, several factors like the body position and movement impact on the quality of the communication and the power transmission. In this paper, we analyze the effect of body positioning, body movement and body type in the wireless communication and the power requirements. The obtained results for real subjects performing common tasks has allowed the envisioning of a reactive mechanism to alleviate the negative effect of these factors and minimize the power consumption of the radio.

Mónica Vallejo, Joaquín Recas, José L. Ayala

An Efficient, Eco-Friendly Approach for Push-Advertising of Services in VANETs

Thanks to the research on VANETs, we will be able to deploy applications on highways that will contribute to the energy efficiency through a better planning of long trips. With this goal in mind, we have designed a gas/charging station advertising system, that takes advantage of the broadcast nature of the network. We have found that reducing the number of total sent packets is important, as it allows a better use of the available bandwidth. We have optimized a distance-based flooding scheme so that it can support the advertising application with good results in a highway scenario.

Estrella Garcia-Lozano, Celeste Campo, Carlos Garcia-Rubio, Alberto Cortés-Martín, Alicia Rodriguez-Carrion, Patricia Noriega-Vivas

BatNet: A 6LoWPAN-Based Sensors and Actuators Network

Improving energy efficiency in buildings is one of the goals of the Smart City initiatives and a challenge for the European Union. This paper presents a 6LoWPAN wireless transducer network (BatNet) as part of an open energy management system. This network has been designed to operate in buildings, to collect environmental information (temperature, humidity, illumination and presence) and electrical consumption in real time (voltage, current and power factor). The system has been implemented and tested in the Energy Efficiency Research Facility at CeDInt-UPM.

Guillermo del Campo, Eduardo Montoya, Jorge Martín, Igor Gómez, Asunción Santamaría

A Classable Indexing of Data Condensed Semantically from Physically Massive Data Out of Sensor Networks on the Rove

Mobile conveniences generate much of sensor data in company with the persons. Some of sensor data are required for processing at distant places in which the sensor data are aggregated, for capabilities of smartness. In the case of vehicles the sensor data are transmitted for malfunction detection and health monitoring of the vehicle in near future. The sensor data are substantially large in the amount of one vehicle’s data by multiple kinds of sensors, and the amount of a number of vehicles’ data gathered is huge to be received concurrently at some server. Further when the gathered data would be aggregated in one system, the management of the enormous data could determine the functionality of the system. In this work, a data abbreviation diminishes the amount to be transmitted, and data negating a valid extent consist the majority of data to be aggregated, exploiting the semantics of the sensor data gathered. This method is far different from the conventional compressions. The aggregated data are managed and displayed when necessary in one system tracing faulty cars in a region.

MinHwan Ok

A Time-Triggered Middleware Architecture for Ubiquitous Cyber Physical System Applications

Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) are a special type of ubiquitous systems where control theory, communications and real-time computing are combined in embedded applications that interact with the physical world. The development of these applications becomes more complex when real-time and other non-functional requirements are to be satisfied. This paper presents a time-triggered middleware architecture that provides fault tolerance and dynamic reconfiguration at run-time taking into account the available resources of the underlying infrastructure, i.e. devices and communication networks. This architecture aims at easing the development of ubiquitous applications based on CPS. The paper provides an overview of the design of the architecture and discusses some implementation issues.

Adrian Noguero, Isidro Calvo, Luis Almeida

A Message Omission Failure Approach to Detect the Quality of Links in WSN

Failure detection in WSNs, specifically due to message loses, has been usually tackled in the literature from probabilistic approaches. In this work we describe the adaptations of a deterministic failure detector algorithm, originally designed to work in a formal message omission model, to work in WSNs. We analyze the feasibility of the algorithm in WSNs and propose an adaptation to improve its scalability and reduce the energy consumption. The proposed algorithm builds a minimum spanning tree, where the cost of each link is associated to the message omission pattern of that link, which determines the quality of the link. Every node in the system uses heartbeat messages to monitor the communication quality with the nodes in its neighborhood and forwards this information to build the minimum spanning tree.

Unai Burgos, Iratxe Soraluze, Alberto Lafuente, Carlos Gómez-Calzado

Sensor Network Integration by Means of a Virtual Private Network Protocol

Sensor networks are becoming an essential part of smart environments. However, most previous systems rely on ad-hoc mechanisms to access the sensor network from the enterprise information system. We propose the use of object oriented middlewares to provide a Virtual Private Network in which all involved elements (sensor nodes or computer applications) will able to communicate as if they all were in a single uniform network.

David Villa, Francisco Moya, Félix Jesús Villanueva Molina, Óscar Aceña, Juan Carlos López

Design of a MAC Protocol for e-Emergency WSNs

The wide adoption of WSNs in healthcare is still conditioned by quality of service (QoS) issues, namely at the MAC level. Medium access protocols currently available for WSNs are incapable of providing the required QoS to healthcare applications in scenarios of emergency or intensive medical care. To fill this lacuna, this paper introduces a MAC protocol presenting novel concepts to assure the QoS of e-emergency WSNs. Preliminary validation tests showed that the proposed protocol presents a good performance regarding data transmission robustness without sacrificing the power consumption efficiency.

Óscar Gama, Paulo Carvalho, Paulo M. Mendes

Discount Vouchers and Loyalty Cards Using NFC

This paper describes a framework using Near Field Technology for the full management of mobile coupons. The system is responsible for dissemination, distribution, sourcing, validation, and managing of vouchers, loyalty cards and all kind of coupons using NFC technology. Security of voucher is granted by the system by synchronizing procedures and a secure encriptation algorithm.

Francisco Manuel Borrego-Jaraba, Pilar Castro Garrido, Gonzalo Cerruela García, Irene Luque Ruiz, Miguel Ángel Gómez-Nieto

Extending Near Field Communications to Enable Continuous Data Transmission in Clinical Environments

There are several communication technologies that make feasible the integration of things into Internet. NFC, Bluetooth, WiFi Low Power and 6LoWPAN are some of the most extended technologies, which are making possible the wireless transmission for sensor networks communication and integrate this networks with the Internet, in order to reach an Internet of Things (IoT). These networks allow us collect a lot of information process and understand it and act, according to the situation required, effectively. Our research work is focused for the integration of NFC to control the heart status of a patient continuously. This work analyzes the capabilities from NFC to make feasible the integration of continuous data transmission. The main goal of this continuous data transmission is enable a new generation of mobile health tools that make feasible to analyze process and make a preliminary diagnosis of the state of a patient’s heart anytime/anywhere. For this purpose, it is presented how an electrocardiogram clinical device is integrated with a mobile phone enabled with NFC. This is evaluated the performance with the native communication model from the sensor concluding that it is necessary some preprocessing to work properly in real time. For that reason, it is also proposed, evaluated and prototyped a preprocessing module to solve the mentioned communication challenges for NFC in clinical environments.

Antonio J. Jara, Pablo López, David Fernández, Benito Úbeda, Miguel A. Zamora, Antonio F. G. Skarmeta

Tailoring User Visibility and Privacy in a Context-Aware Mobile Social Network

In this paper we describe a context-aware approach for the management of phone address books in mobile social networks applications. User preferences for visibility and privacy are defined for contacts and groups depending on the user’s context. User’s context is defined through the user’s status, assigning different roles to each contact. Virtual and dynamic information about contacts is stored in the mobile phone book allowing the smart server application to manage secure and private communications among users.

Francisco Manuel Borrego-Jaraba, Gonzalo Cerruela García, Irene Luque Ruiz, Miguel Ángel Gómez-Nieto

RFID and NFC in Hospital Environments: Reaching a Sustainable Approach

The increase of safety and the improvement of care received by the patient during their healthcare process are one of the main challenges facing health professionals. Obtaining patient traceability and minimising the occurrence of adverse events during the perscription-validation-dispensing-administration process of medication to patients, encourages making measures of improvement to ensure the quality of the processes that take place in the clinical practice of a hospital. It is therefore essential to study current leading technologies such as RFID and NFC in a sustainable way to determine the feasibility of its application in the healthcare environment.

María Martínez, Jesús Fontecha, José R. Vizoso, José Bravo, Mariano J. Cabrero-Canosa, Isabel Martín

Delay-Tolerant Positioning for Location-Based Logging with Mobile Devices

In this paper, we explore the viability and possible limitations of a delay-tolerant positioning process for location-based logging. Instead of estimating the device position on the device, a delay-tolerant technique stores the radio and Wi-Fi data needed to calculate that position, sends it to a server when appropriate, and it is the server that will calculate the position. This is very suitable for location logging because it supports the generation of frequent position registers without incurring in high communication and energy costs. We have conducted a controlled experiment to assess the accuracy of this technique and the results suggest that the accuracy of the positions calculated on the server using this technique is the same as those that can be obtained by calculating the position directly on the device.

André Coelho, Filipe Meneses, Rui José

A Friendly Navigation-System Based on Points of Interest, Augmented Reality and Context-Awareness

This paper presents a system to supply spatial orientation and support for daily-activities from a friendly and understandable perspective. We propose a model based on points of interest or well-known places, generating friendly routes to a destination based on user context instead of classical street names and quantitative distances. Moreover, the system offers augmented reality views that include contextual information. This philosophy of navigation is closer to the needs of users in their usual environments as well as in unknown places (e.g. tourism, business trips, etc.). The proposal is focused on any kind of people but it is especially useful for those who are not accustomed to use new technologies, people with disorientation problems and, in general, for people with some slight cognitive deficit. The system also includes mechanisms to know the contextual situation of the user by relatives or friends, supporting the desirable social requirements of nowadays applications.

José Ma Luna, Ramón Hervás, Jesús Fontecha, José Bravo

Evaluating a Crowdsourced System Development Model for Ambient Intelligence

In this paper, our objective is to report our findings in regard to the system support offered for building Ambient Intelligence environments and applications. The evaluation of system support for Ambient Intelligence is very difficult because we cannot find globally accepted metrics and because it is very difficult to evaluate large-scale and long-term Ambient Intelligence environments in real contexts. We thus focus on building a few evaluation deployments and report the main challenges we have faced on integrating Ambient Intelligence underlying computing infrastructure and physical spaces, mapping to patterns of situated interaction in everyday life. We have also adopted a

Crowdsourced

system software development model. With this model we want to provide an open and flexible infrastructure as system support for Ambient Intelligence that are based on a balanced combination between global services and situated devices: global services provide functionality that can be relevant anywhere, thus obviating the need to create dedicated services on a case-by-case basis.

Arlindo Santos, Helena Rodrigues, Rui José

Mayordomo and Octopus: A Case Study in Ambient Intelligence Environments

Mayordomo

is a multimodal dialogue system developed to ease user interaction with home appliances using speech and a GUI interface.

Octopus

is an operating system designed to provide ubiquitous access to computing resources using the Internet as the interconnection means. In this paper we describe the main characteristics of both systems as well as our ongoing work to use both systems in conjunction for operation in an Ambient Intelligence environment.

Nieves Ábalos, Gonzalo Espejo, Ramón López-Cózar, Francisco J. Ballesteros, Enrique Soriano, Gorka Guardiola

Dandelion: Decoupled Distributed User Interfaces in the HI3 Ambient Intelligence Platform

Ambient Intelligence and Ubiquitous Computing systems must deal with a wide variety of environments, users and devices. Designing and implementing their interaction systems is quite a complicated task because it is difficult to know in advance the conditions in which the system will be run. This article presents Dandelion, a framework that uses a model-driven approach to support the development of user interfaces for UC and AmI systems by defining a series of high-level declarative models. It decouples the application logic from the interaction elements, which can be physically distributed throughout the environment, and even changed dynamically.

Gervasio Varela, Alejandro Paz-Lopez, Jose Antonio Becerra, Richard J. Duro

Selection and Control of Applications in Pervasive Displays

Public displays are progressively embedded in urban settings. Such displays become elements of an integrated pervasive ecosystem in which various displays with multiple applications are accessed by multiple viewers. Still, many public displays employ content that is based on pre-defined schedules as encountered in conventional digital signage systems. We envision future display deployments embedding many applications that are running concurrently and able to continuously react to users’ requests. In this paper, we investigate application selection and control concepts based on a mixed-initiative scenario in which display system and viewers are both involved in the process of content presentation. Our approach is inspired by traditional GUI interaction concepts and design considerations of sensing systems. Hence, this research would inform the design of novel techniques for application selection and control in pervasive display environments.

Constantin Taivan, Rui José, Ivan Elhart

Multimodal Interfaces for the Smart Home: Findings in the Process from Architectural Design to User Evaluation

Smart Environments have specific natural interaction needs that can be provided for with multimodal interfaces. There are still challenges to face, such as the adaptability of the interaction and an evaluation of the proposed systems. This work focuses on these problems and proposes an architectural design evaluated in the domain of Smart Homes. The architectural approach is based on the Model View Presenter Pattern and the Service Oriented paradigm. The evaluation was conducted with a laboratory deployment of a prototype of the system and usability tests were carried out with a usability questionnaire. Results show the technical feasibility of the proposed design and positive user acceptance of the multimodal interface as compared to mono-modal interfaces.

Miguel Ángel Fernández, Víctor Peláez, Gloria López, Juan Luis Carus, Vanesa Lobato

Web Browser HTML5 Enabled for FI Services

Future Internet Architecture (FIA) is being defined by a common research effort of different EU projects to advance a shared vision for harmonized European-scale technology platforms. In this paper we describe the ongoing work of a non-plugin web browser-based Service Delivery Platform for personal and mobile clients which enables easy service creation and deployment using features of FIA. Services are implemented as HTML5 web pages and standard web elements (servers, proxies and web browser) are used to forge a SDP which enables provision of composite services to the end-user.

Tomás Robles, Sergio González-Miranda, Ramón Alcarria, Augusto Morales

Interacting with a Robot: A Guide Robot Understanding Natural Language Instructions

A guide robot has to capture and process the orders given by humans in an accurate and robust way to generate the correct answer to the task requested. The proposed solution aims at creating a guide robot that is able to interact with humans, interpret and understand their guiding requirements and plan the path to the destination. To automatically perform the natural Human Robot interaction, we propose a solution combining natural language processing techniques, semantic technologies and autonomous navigation techniques. We have evaluated the solution in a real scenario with different subjects and we have obtained an accuracy of 71,7%.

Loreto Susperregi, Izaskun Fernandez, Ane Fernandez, Santiago Fernandez, Iñaki Maurtua, Irene Lopez de Vallejo

Human - Humanoid Robot Interaction: The 20Q Game

This article introduces the development of a human-robot interaction’s system. The NAO humanoid robot has been programmed to play the popular 20 questions (20Q) game. The system includes modules for both, speech recognition and text-to-speech as mechanisms for exchanging information with the humanoid robot. The system has been tested with non-expert volunteers to analyse which kind of interaction is obtained.

Diego Pardo, Òscar Franco, Joan Sàez-Pons, Amara Andrés, Cecilio Angulo

Achieving User Participation for Adaptive Applications

Adaptive applications establish the basis for many ubiquitous computing scenarios as they can dynamically adapt to changing contexts. But adaptive applications lack of success when the adaptive behaviour does not correspond to the user’s interaction habits. A user study revealed that such applications are not satisfying for complex scenarios with a high degree of user interaction. We claim that there must be a trade-off between automation and user participation. By extending an existing adaptation middleware with capabilities to respect user preference and interaction behaviour we demonstrate how to integrate the user in the self-adaptation loop. Interdisciplinary results from the fields of usability engineering and interaction design include the need for an adaptation notification concept to avoid mismatching adaptation behaviour.

Christoph Evers, Romy Kniewel, Kurt Geihs, Ludger Schmidt

Extending Social Networking Services toward a Physical Interaction Scenario

Mobile computing provides ubiquitous access to social networking services allowing computer-mediated interaction among its members. This article proposes a new and complementary interaction paradigm promoting face-to-face encounters among community members, based on their physical proximity. Therefore, the virtual space for interactions is extended towards the physical one. The proposal was implemented through a mobile ubiquitous application, which was evaluated to understand its usability, perceived usefulness and performance. The preliminary results of such evaluations are highly encouraging.

Camilo Vergara, Sergio F. Ochoa, Francisco Gutierrez, Juan Rodriguez-Covili

Improving Cooperativity in a Workflow Coordination Model over a Pub/Sub Network

The execution of distributed workflows is an advance in state-of-the-art service orchestration that indeed improves scalability. However, it introduces complexity in the coordination model of distributed fragments and hampers the workflow reconfiguration. This work proposes a novel approach that uses cooperative techniques over a Pub/Sub network to improve scalability issues and dynamic executions of distributed workflows. We also propose new Pub/Sub dissemination models and strategies in the form of push gossip-based algorithms for controlling event dissemination.

Augusto Morales, Ramón Alcarria, Tomás Robles, Edwin Cedeño

An Approach for the Creation of Accessible and Shared Datasets

Due to the change in global demographics, a significant amount of research is being directed towards developing solutions to monitor and support the ageing as they perform activities of daily living. Research in this area is, however, being limited by the lack of shareable datasets available to support the development and evaluation of data driven activity recognition models. In our current work we have developed a suite of resources in an attempt to establish an openly available data repository where all datasets share a common format for the purposes of data storage. Within this paper the homeML Toolkit and the homeML Repository are presented. Results from a usability study of interactions with the toolkit, conducted by five computer science researchers are presented; the initial findings of which have been encouraging.

Heather McDonald, Chris D. Nugent, Josef Hallberg, Dewar Finlay, George Moore

An Infrastructure to Provide Context-Aware Information and Services to Mobile Users

Mobile devices have undergone great changes in the last few years, turning into powerful hand-held computers. This, together with the numerous information sources they have access to, both in form of physical sensors and applications with access to the Internet and large amounts of personal data, make them an ideal platform for the deployment of context-aware applications. In this paper we present a context management infrastructure for mobile environments, responsible for dealing with the context information which will enable mobile application and services to adapt their behaviour to meet user needs. This infrastructure relies on semantic technologies to improve interoperability, and is based on a central element, the context manager. This element acts as a central context repository and takes most of the computational burden derived from dealing with this kind of information, thus relieving from these tasks to more resource-scarce devices in the system.

Pablo Curiel, Ana Belén Lago

Situation-Driven Development: A Methodology for the Development of Context-Aware Systems

Several toolkits have been proposed in order to ease the development of context-aware systems, providing high-level programming interfaces to manage context data. One of the main tasks in the development of such systems is the definition of user situations that have to be identified by the system in order to adapt its behaviour. These situations are best defined by domain experts, but usually they do not have programming skills. Apart from that, there is a lack of methodologies to guide the development process. This paper presents a methodology based on the definition of situations that is designed to involve domain experts in the development process. This way, they can support programmers in the definition of the required situations. Also, a web-based platform has been implemented in order to manage context data without any programming skills. This way, domain experts can also configure the situations to be detected by the system.

David Martín, Diego López de Ipiña, Carlos Lamsfus, Aurkene Alzua

Evolving Context-Unaware to Context-Aware Model Using the ESC Ontology

This paper presents a process for transforming a context-unaware model into a context-aware based on the Entity Situation Context ontology.

Hélio Martins, Nuno Silva

TSACO: Extending a Context-Aware Recommendation System with Allen Temporal Operators

In this paper we present our research to extend a recommender system based on a semantic multicriteria ant colony algorithm to allow the use of Allen temporal operators. The system utilizes user’s learnt routes, including their associated context information, in order to predict the most likely route a user is following, given his current location and context data. The addition of temporal operators will increase the level of expressiveness of the queries the system can answer what will allow, in turn, more fine-tuned predictions. This more refined knowledge could then be used as the basis for offering services related to his current (or most likely future) context in the vicinity of the path the user is following.

Jose A. Mocholi, Javier Jaen, Kamil Krynicki, Alejandro Catala

Ontological User Profile Modeling for Context-Aware Application Personalization

Existing context-aware adaptation techniques are limited in their support for user personalization. There is relatively less developed research involving adaptive user modeling for user applications in the emerging areas of mobile and pervasive computing. This paper describes the creation of a User Profile Ontology for context-aware application personalization within mobile environments. We analyze users’ behavior and characterize users’ needs for context-aware applications. Special emphasis is placed in the ontological modeling of dynamic components for use in adaptable applications. We illustrate the use of the model in the context of a case study, focusing on providing personalized services to older people via smart-device technologies.

Kerry-Louise Skillen, Liming Chen, Chris D. Nugent, Mark P. Donnelly, William Burns, Ivar Solheim

Tagging-Awareness: Capturing Context-Awareness through MARCado

This article uses the vision of Ambient Intelligence that proposes distributing various computing devices that react to the presence of users. As a first approximation, we have thus modeled the context by identifying users. To do this, we rely on the model of the five W’s. Similarly, this article presents a way to generate context-awareness, supported in the MARCado framework. It also presents a mechanism that allows behavior of contextual information to obtain context-aware services. These elements have been implemented after adapting sensorial technologies, which provide simple input into the system.

Salvador W. Nava-Díaz, Gabriel Chavira, Julio C. Rolón, Jorge Orozco

Exploiting User Feedback for Adapting Mobile Interaction Obtrusiveness

Ubiquitous computers, such as mobile devices, enable users to always be connected to the environment, making demands on one of the most precious resources of users: human attention. Thus, ubiquitous services should be designed in a considerate manner, demanding user attention only when it is actually required according to user needs. However, as user needs and preferences can change over time, we aim at improving the initial decisions by learning from user’s feedback through experience. We present a method for adapting interaction obtrusiveness automatically based on user’s reaction. Instead of asking the user to re-define his preferences about interaction obtrusiveness configurations, we learn them by means of the received feedback in a way that maximizes user’s satisfaction in a long-term use.

Miriam Gil, Vicente Pelechano

Towards an Infrastructure Model for Composing and Reconfiguring Cyber-Physical Systems

Cyber Physical Systems involve the use of different computing, communication and control technologies and require satisfying simultaneously several restrictive constraints. One characteristic of CPS is that there is a constant evolution of technologies and tools that help designers to design this kind of systems. Due to its complexity, middleware architectures are frequently used to implement CPS. Most of these middleware architectures tend to use models of the software entities of the system. However, quite often, they do not consider the infrastructure (hardware and network) over which these systems are executed even though this is a key issue for these systems. In addition, frequently, it is necessary to make some composition and reconfiguration decisions at run-time over the current status of the infrastructure. This work proposes a model developed within the iLAND project that represents the static and operational status of the CPS infrastructure.

Isidro Calvo, Eva Portillo, Oier García de Albéniz, Aintzane Armentia, Marga Marcos, Elisabet Estévez, Ricardo Marau, Luis Almeida, Paulo Pedreiras

Service Composition for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Distributed Matching

Ubiquitous computing envisions the existence of spaces which consist on objects with computational capabilities. These objects can be connected among each other forming wireless networks which could be very dynamic in their nature due to their mobility. Service composition aims to resolve user’s needs by creating work-flows which use available functionalities, provided by devices, by assembling them into new services. This work presents an architecture for service composition applied to mobile networks which reacts to those changes which can arise in the network topology. All nodes taking part in the network contain the same architecture meaning that the solution is performed in a peer-to-peer manner distributing the processing load among different nodes of the network. Applications needing to compose services will be constructed on top of the proposed architecture. The architecture has been fully implemented and evaluated using a network simulator.

Unai Aguilera, Diego López-de-Ipiña

Resource Recommendation for Intelligent Environments Based on a Multi-aspect Metric

Intelligent environments offer information filled spaces. When trying to navigate among all the offered resources users can be overwhelmed. This problem is increased by the heterogeneous nature of resources in smart environments. Users must choose between a plethora of services, multimedia information, interaction modalities and devices. But at the same time the unique characteristics of smart spaces offers us more opportunities to filter these resources. To help users find the resource that they want and need we have designed a multi-aspect recommendation system that takes into account not only the features of the resource and the user, but also context data like the location and current activity. The developed system is flexible enough to be applied to different resource types and scenarios. In this paper we will describe the identified aspects and how they are merged into a single metric.

Aitor Almeida, Eduardo Castillejo, Diego López-de-Ipiña, Marcos Sacristán, Javier Diego

Social Network Analysis Applied to Recommendation Systems: Alleviating the Cold-User Problem

Recommender systems have increased their impact in the Internet due to the unmanageable amount of items that users can find in the Web. This way, many algorithms have emerged filtering those items which best fit into users’ tastes. Nevertheless, these systems suffer from the same shortcoming: the lack of new user data to recommend any item based on their tastes. Social relationships gathered from social networks and intelligent environments become a challenging opportunity to retrieve data from users based on their relationships, and social network analysis provides the demanded techniques to accomplish this objective. In this paper we present a methodology which uses users’ social network data to generate first recommendations, alleviating the cold-user limitation. Besides, we demonstrate that it is possible to reduce the cold-user problem applying our solution to a recommendation system environment.

Eduardo Castillejo, Aitor Almeida, Diego López-de-Ipiña

The Voice User Help, a Smart Vehicle Assistant for the Elderly

The rapid advancement of vehicular technologies has resulted in an exponential increase of new vehicle functions road assistance and connected vehicles services. Vehicle manuals are designed to provide support and information about the use and maintenance of these features. However, current vehicle user manuals do not allow looking for information under driving conditions. This paper presents the Voice User Help, a smart voice-operated system that utilizes natural language understanding and emotional adaptive interfaces to assist drivers when looking for vehicle information with minimal effect on their driving performance. Additionally, the system presents an opportunity for elder drivers to reduce the learning curve of new in-vehicle technologies and improve efficiency. Results on user acceptance of the Voice User Help, as well as cognitive load and driver distraction effects generated during a simulated drive indicate that the Voice User help is an extremely desirable feature and potentially safe application since it did not significantly decrement driving performance. Furthermore preliminary results on adaptive voice interfaces using emotion recognition indicate that personalization of the interaction will be able to palliate possible negative effects that happen during system error recovery.

Ignacio Alvarez, Miren Karmele López-de-Ipiña, Juan E. Gilbert

A Knowledge-Driven Approach to Composite Activity Recognition in Smart Environments

Knowledge-driven activity recognition has recently attracted increasing attention but mainly focused on simple activities. This paper extends previous work to introduce a knowledge-driven approach to recognition of composite activities such as interleaved and concurrent activities. The approach combines ontological and temporal knowledge modelling formalisms for composite activity modelling. It exploits ontological reasoning for simple activity recognition and rule-based temporal inference to support composite activity recognition. The presented approach has been implemented in a prototype system and evaluated in a number of experiments. The initial experimental results have shown that average recognition accuracy for simple and composite activities is 100% and 88.26%, respectively.

George Okeyo, Liming Chen, Hui Wang, Roy Sterritt

Ontology Based Resource Allocation (OBRA) for Adaptive Intelligent Grid Environment

In a grid environment, the availability of resources and the job requirements are dynamic. Therefore allocating jobs to the available resources in this heterogeneous environment is very critical. This paper analyses the impact of ontological based allocation of jobs to resources in the heterogeneous Grid environment. Resource allocation mechanisms must be able to match jobs ontology to a single resource. The resource allocation mechanism must consider dynamically changing conditions both in terms of resource demand and the resource availability. The ontology submitted by the user may have different constraints that can only be satisfied by certain types of resources with specific capabilities. Resource allocation mechanism should also consider multiple intelligent parameters in allocation process to select the best available resources in order to have optimal allocation. Therefore an Ontology Based Resource Allocation (OBRA) mechanism is proposed, which considers the intelligent parameters to allocate best resource to a job.

Japhynth Jacob, Elijah Blessing Rajsingh, Isaac Balasingh Jesudasan

Easily Deployable Streetlight Intelligent Control System Based on Wireless Communication

This paper presents a streetlight management system, based on wireless communication technologies, which will provide tangible solutions to improve energy efficiency by adapting to the changes in the contextual needs. The proposed solution is said to be intelligent since light dimming is fixed based on the analysis of the data provided by the deployed sensors.

Pilar Elejoste, Asier Perallos, Aitor Chertudi, Ignacio Angulo, Asier Moreno, Leire Azpilicueta, José Javier Astráin, Francisco Falcone, Jesús Villadangos

Supporting Collaboration for Smarter City Planning

Computer-based collaborative tools have been proven to be effective in supporting inhabitants of cities to participate more activeley in the decisions about the development of their cities and environment. These tools are also help them to organize themselfs and react more quickly to changes in the environment enabling at the same time the broad participation of its population in the decisions about its development. An example of this situation is triggered by a new law recently issued in Chile which aims to give its population an opportunity to participate in the decision about whether a new mobile communication antenna should be placed in their neighborhood and under which circumstances. This works proposes a new example of such a tool which allows citizens to gather and display the relevant information for such circumstances.

Jonathan Frez, Nelson Baloian, Gustavo Zurita

Ubiquitous Data Management in Public Transport

A case of practical use of ubiquitous data management is presented in this paper; specifically the intensive-data management of a ubiquitous environment working in a public transport context. The description of the working principles of the system is made addressing the specific characteristics of the pervasive environment that are: autonomy, mobility, heterogeneity, distribution and lack of a common catalogue and schema, describing how these aspects affect the data management.

Carmelo R. García, Gabino Padrón, Alexis Quesada-Arencibia, Francisco Alayón, Ricardo Pérez

Context Model for Ubiquitous Information Services of Public Transport

The interoperability is the capacity of a system to work autonomously in different contexts, permitting the collaboration with other systems. To achieve this challenge it is necessary for the system to use a common context model. Therefore the context model is a key aspect of the ubiquitous system. In this work, a context model for public transport information system is explained; this model permits us to develop ubiquitous information services in a context of intermodal public transport networks. The main aspects of this context model are described: the ontology, the representation of the context entities and the main data involved. Using this model, ubiquitous information services, with a high level of functional scalability, context adaptability and accessibility, can be developed.

Carmelo R. García, Gabino Padrón, Pedro Gil, Alexis Quesada-Arencibia, Francisco Alayón, Ricardo Pérez

Driver Drowsiness Monitoring Application with Graphical User Interface

In this paper, we present a computer vision-based application with Graphical User Interface (GUI) to monitor the driver alertness level in real time. Driver alertness level is robustly achieved through the detection of the eye state (open or closed) in each frame using a Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), which is used to measure PERCLOS (percentage of time eyelids are close). The application is implemented with a consumer-grade computer and a webcam with passive illumination. The GUI has been developed with FLTK Library and can be easily used to configure monitoring parameters, observe in real time the result of the driver monitoring, and access to log files of previous monitoring.

David González-Ortega, Francisco Javier Díaz-Pernas, Mario Martínez-Zarzuela, Míriam Antón-Rodríguez, Freddy José Perozo-Rondón

Communication Platform to Enable Collaborative Tourism Applications

An innovative communication platform is presented to enable collaborative tourism applications. The user information is constructed not only from a local application or from a remote server, but also with much more information coming from other network participants. The solution is based on an overlay network that is constructed by means of an object-oriented middleware for distributed applications, enabling the collaboration of several end users and servers. A software prototype was developed to implement a proof of concept in order to demonstrate feasibility.

Gabriel Urzaiz, Ramón Hervás, Vladimir Villarreal, José Bravo

LinkedQR: Improving Tourism Experience through Linked Data and QR Codes

Since Sir Tim Berners-Lee announced the best practices to publish semantic data through the Web, Linked Data principles have been introduced into a wide variety of application domains. This usage of Linked Data eases the enrichment of offered data in a grade that the semantic data that not applies the Linked Data principles never would achieve. In this paper, we present LinkedQR, a tool to improve the collaboration between QR codes and Linked Data; and a case study based on the tourism sector located into an art gallery.

Mikel Emaldi, Jon Lázaro, Xabier Laiseca, Diego López-de-Ipiña

New Approaches in Context Modelling for Tourism Applications

The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been directly imported from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model is needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor or tourist on the move as we need in the TourExp project. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing Open Data about tourist resources from Open Data Euskadi initiative and publishing it as Linked Data.

David Buján, David Martín, Ortzi Torices, Aritz Uriarte

An Evaluation of Multiobjective Urban Tourist Route Planning with Mobile Devices

Tourism is an emerging target area for interactive mobile device applications. This paper evaluates the performance of a multiobjective interactive urban route planner that calculates walking routes for tourists in urban areas. The system allows tourists to choose a walking route between two locations that is short, but at the same time traverses interesting tourist areas. The main characteristics of the system are an intuitive interactive interface, the management of multiple objectives, and local computation on the user’s device. Related aspects, like the retrieval of contextual tourist information relevant to route planning, are also discussed.

Inmaculada Ayala, Lawrence Mandow, Mercedes Amor, Lidia Fuentes

Cardiac Monitoring of Marathon Runners Using Disruption-Tolerant Wireless Sensors

In most current biomedical monitoring applications, data acquired by sensors attached to a patient are either transmitted directly to a monitoring console for real-time processing, or they are simply recorded on the sensor unit for deferred analysis. In contrast collecting and transmitting biomedical data continuously over long distances in outdoor conditions is still a challenge. In this paper we investigate the possibility of using disruption-tolerant wireless sensors to monitor the cardiac activity of runners during a marathon race, using off-the-shelf sensing devices and a limited number of base stations deployed along the marathon route. Preliminary experiments conducted with a few volunteers running around a university campus confirm that this approach is viable, and suggest that it should scale up to a real marathon.

Djamel Benferhat, Frédéric Guidec, Patrice Quinton

Application of Kernel Density Estimators for Analysis of EEG Signals

Nowadays analysis of EEG signals is a very popular area of biomedical engineering and science for both civil and military markets. In this paper a novel analysis of EEG signal with the implementation of kernel density estimators in order to construct

densitograms

of the examined EEG signals was presented. This approach allows obtaining the statistically filtered signals, which enables to conduct the analysis in easier and quicker way. It is also important to mention that analysed signals were obtained from an inexpensive, easily available on the open market headset – Emotiv EPOC. This paper also contains illustration of signal processing and justification of the chosen approach by spectral analysis.

Jerzy Baranowski, Paweł Piątek, Aleksandra Kawala-Janik, Mariusz Pelc, Richard J. Anthony

A System for Epileptic Seizure Focus Detection Based on EEG Analysis

This work presents a recognition system for epileptiform abnormalities based on electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. The proposed system combines a Support Vector Machine classifier automatically trained by an implementation of machine learning approach known as Bag of Words.

Maria Jose Santofimia Romero, Xavier del Toro, Jesús Barba, Julio Dondo, Francisca Romero, Patricia Navas, Ana Rubio, Juan Carlos López

Innovative Health Services Using Cloud Computing and Internet of Things

The demographic and social changes are causing a gradual increase of the population in situation of dependency. The main concern of the elderly people is their health and its consequences in terms of dependence and also is the primary cause of suffering and self-rated ill health. Since the elderly have different health problems that the rest of the population, we need a deep change in national’s health policy to get adapted to population ageing. This paper describes the preliminary advances of “Virtual Cloud Carer’ (VCC), a spanish national R&D project, whose primary purpose is the creation of new health services for dependents and chronics, using technologies associated with internet of things and cloud computing.

Diego Gachet Páez, Fernando Aparicio, Juan R. Ascanio, Alberto Beaterio

Using Haptic and Neural Networks for Surface and Mechanical Properties 3D Reconstruction

The use of haptic interfaces in surgery could provide the surgeon useful sensing information about the patient tissues. Our goal in this work, is to use the haptic interface to obtain some sample points on the surface of an object or organ tissue in medical applications. This elasticity information feeds an artificial neural network. The output of the neural network is an approximation of the compliance of the object which is touched, as well as the coordinates of 3D surface points which in fact are used for the 3D surface reconstruction of the object. Experimental results show that the reconstruction of objects from a elasticity point of view is possible, and that the use of a haptic interface can improve the performance of 3D reconstruction algorithms.

Efrain Castillo-Muñiz, Jorge Rivera-Rovelo, Eduardo Bayro-Corrochano

An Integrated Environment to Aid Knowledge Exchange and Collaboration Using Mobile Devices in a Healthcare Context

Due to the popularization of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets, the number of applications being developed for these platforms increases every day. With that, different scenarios are being supported by these new systems, among them the healthcare scenario. By following the said advances, this article portrays the operation of an integrated approach consisting of two applications created for mobile devices and focused on the improvement of the healthcare environment, especially in respect to the exchange of knowledge. The first application finds the position of people inside a closed environment seeking to promote a more personal meeting. The second application allows the exchange of knowledge between people sharing a common space. The contribution of this integration along with the impact on healthcare scenarios will be described. Both applications have been tested in a controlled environment.

Diego da S. Souza, Pedro C. da Silveira, Patrícia Zudio de Lima, Jonice Oliveira, Sergio F. Ochoa, José Pino, Jano Moreira de Souza

A Metaprocesses-Oriented Methodology for Software Assets Reuse in the e-Health Domain

Software reuse in the early stages is a key issue in rapid development of applications. Recently, several methodologies have been proposed for the reuse of components and software assets, but mainly in code generation as artifacts. However, these methodologies partially consider the domain analysis, business process modeling, and reuse software in the software development environment in order to promote productivity and quality in application development. This paper introduces a metaprocess-oriented methodology for the reuse of metaprocesses as software assets starting from specifications and analysis of the domain. The proposed methodology includes the definition of a conceptual level to adequately represent the domain, a structural level to specify the metaprocess as software assets, and an implementation level which defines the rules for instantiation and reuse of metaprocess as software assets. The methodology has been applied successfully to the first phase, i.e. at the specification of the conceptual level and design of applications in the field of e-health, in particular in monitoring systems of patients with cardiovascular risk.

Javier Darío Fernandez, María Visitacion Hurtado, José Luis Garrido, Manuel Noguera, John Freddy Duitama

Cloud Integrated Web Platform for Marine Monitoring Using GIS and Remote Sensing: Application to Oil Spill Detection through SAR Images

Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have gained popularity in recent years because they provide spatial data management and access through the Web. This article gives a detailed description of a tool that offers an integrated framework for the detection and localization of marine spills using remote sensing, GIS, and cloud computing. Advanced segmentation algorithms are presented in order to isolate dark areas in SAR images, including fuzzy clustering and wavelets. In addition, cloud computing is used for scaling up the algorithms and providing communication between users.

Diego Fustes, Diego Cantorna, Carlos Dafonte, Alfonso Iglesias, Minia Manteiga, Bernardino Arcay

An Agent-Based Wireless Sensor Network for Water Quality Data Collection

Future generation intelligent systems will harvest embedded intelligence as a means of delivering new and innovative services in diverse domains. Amongst the most challenging scenarios are those that consist of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as their functional operating constraints are significant. This paper proposes the use of in-network data aggregation techniques to enable the efficient acquisition of data in a water quality forecasting WSN application. Such an approach reduces the energy required for data transmission by collecting statistics from the network rather than analyzing the raw data centrally. Specifically, clustering points, where aggregation occurs, are modelled as mobile intelligent agents.

M. S. Garcia, Diana Carvalho, Olga Zlydareva, Conor Muldoon, B. F. Masterson, Michael J. O’Grady, W. G. Meijer, J. J. O’Sullivan, Gregory M. P. O’Hare

Detection and Extracting of Emergency Knowledge from Twitter Streams

Increasingly, more important information is being shared through Twitter. New opportunities arise to use this tool to detect emergencies and extract crucial information about the scope and nature of that event. A major challenge for the extraction of emergency event information from Twitter is represented by the unstructured and noisy nature of tweets. Within the SABESS project we propose a combined structural and content based analysis approach. We use social network analysis to identify reliable tweets and content analysis techniques to summarize key emergency facts.

Bernhard Klein, Xabier Laiseca, Diego Casado-Mansilla, Diego López-de-Ipiña, Alejandro Prada Nespral

Protecting Firefighters with Wearable Devices

Emergency units typically operate under extremely harsh conditions and could benefit from new technologies to perform at their highest potential and provide and ideal test case to push wereable computing to its limits. In this paper we present our work on smart textiles and wearable devices for firefighters. The objective of our work is to create an smart t-shirt capable of measuring the rate and thermal stress state which the user is subject to. For that, several sensors monitor different parameters and send the information, via bluetooth low energy wireless protocol, to a mobile phone and a wrist-watch both with bluetooth low energy communication capabilities. In this paper we explain the main features of our work and show some test accomplished with different levels of temperature to test the robustness of the system.

Guillermo Talavera, Renat Martin, Aitor Rodríguez-Alsina, Joan Garcia, Francesc Fernández, Jordi Carrabina

An Experience of Using Virtual Worlds and Tangible Interfaces for Teaching Computer Science

In this paper we present

Cubica

, an educational application that integrates virtual worlds with tangible interfaces. The application is focused on teaching computer science, in particular “sorting algorithms”. The tangible interface is used to make concrete the abstract concept of array, while the virtual world is used for delivering explanations. This educational application has been used with students at different educational levels in secondary education.

Juan Mateu, Xavier Alamán

Learning by Playing in an Ambient Intelligent Playfield

This paper presents an educational Ambient Intelligent (AmI) environment, named AmI Playfield. AmI Playfield is grounded on contemporary learning principles to build a natural playground enriched by computational vision techniques, which provides the basis for physical (kinesthetic) collaborative play and performance measurement. Visual displays, mobile controllers and sound facilities support the player strategy, while their customizations allow the easy development of a wide variety of learning applications. This paper: (i) discusses the design, implementation and evaluation of AmI Playfield, (ii) illustrates an educational arithmetic game, named Apple Hunt, developed in order to test and validate the AmI playfield environment, and (iii) discusses the evaluation of Apple Hunt in terms of both methodology and results.

Haris Papagiannakis, Stavroula Ntoa, Margherita Antona, Constantine Stephanidis

Stimulating Cognitive Abilities with Internet of Things

The interaction between mobile devices and physical objects in the real world is becoming increasingly important as people can utilize available services in a more natural and intuitive way, for example, moving an object closer to a device that triggers the service. In order to realize these developments it is necessary to use the benefits offered by the latest technologies (RFID, WiFi, Web Service, etc). This article describes an interactive system and its infrastructure based on games for stimulating cognitive abilities using Internet of Things designed to facilitate the human–computer interaction.

Elena de la Guía, María Dolores Lozano, Víctor M. R. Penichet

Context, Patterns and Geo-collaboration to Support Situated Learning

Situated Learning stresses the importance of the context in which learning takes place. It has been therefore frequently associated with informal learning or learning outside the classroom. Mobile technologies can play an important role supporting this type of learning, since it mainly occurs in the field. In this paper we present a learning system and a methodology based on the use of patterns. Students learn about patterns by finding instances of them in the field, or by recognizing new patterns unknown to them so far. The teacher proposes tasks to the students consisting of finding instances of patterns or discovering new ones along a path or inside a pre defined area on a map. This work illustrates the role that geo-referenced data can play in situated learning.

Gustavo Zurita, Nelson Baloian

Automated Energy Saving (AES) Paradigm to Support Pedagogical Activities over Wireless Sensor Networks

This paper presents a AES paradigm that introduces wireless sensor networks to control remote servers or other devices at remote place through mobile phones. The main focus of paper is to consume minimum energy for obtaining the objectives. To realize the paradigm, mathematical model is formulated. The proposed paradigm consists of automatic energy saving model senses the environment to activate either the passive or active mode of sensor nodes for saving energy. Simulations are conducted to validate the proposed paradigm; we use two types of simulations: Test bed simulation is done to check practical validity of proposed approach and Ns2 simulation is performed to simulate the behavior of wireless sensors network with supporting mathematical model. The prototype can further be implemented to handle several objects simultaneously in university and other organizations.

Abdul Razaque, Khaled Elleithy

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