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Über dieses Buch

This book is a collection of papers presented at UCS 2004, held on November 8–9 in Tokyo. UCS is a series of international symposia sponsored by the special interest group Ubiquitous Computing Systems of the Information Processing Society of Japan. The ?rst UCS was held on November 17, 2003 in Kyoto. It was held as an invitation-based symposium. UCS 2004 was the second of the series, and the ?rst submission-based conference. UCS focuses on the emerging researcharea of ubiquitous computing systems. This emergence is an outcome of the rapid evolution in smart appliances and devices, as well as tremendous advances in wireless networks and mobile c- puting.Inthelastfewyears,variousapplicationsofinformationtechnologyhave been changing our everyday life rapidly and to a large extent. The best ex- ple is the use of mobile phones. By getting new sensing devices, cameras, their application ?eld is no longer limited to communication but covers data c- munications including Internet access, and data and program up-/downloading, and so on. The symposium o?ered the opportunity for in-depth exploration of the most recent research and development ?ndings in the ?eld of ubiquitous computing. The submitted papers presented at UCS 2004 suggest such a direction to future technologies, including mobile ad hoc networks, sensor networks and conte- aware technologies.



Invited Talks

The Pervasive Sensor

Forget processing power, memory, or the size of computers for a moment: Sensors, and the data they provide, are as important as any of these factors in realising ubiquitous and pervasive computing. Sensors have already become influential components in newer applications, but their data needs to be used more intelligently if we want to unlock their true potential. This requires improved ways to design and integrate sensors in computer systems, and interpret their signals.
Kristof Van Laerhoven

From Everyday Things to Everyday Memories: Two Kinds of Interactions with Objects in a House

How many “things” do we have in our house? More than eighty years ago, Wajiro Kon conducted a study to answer the question. In this paper, I introduced the works of Kon and his followers, including the ecological study of life commodities by CDI (Communication Design Institute) and the database of things in a Korean house from the exhibition of “Seoul Style 2002” by National Museum of Ethnology.
By using the Seoul Style 2002 database, I proposed two important aspects of the study of things and people, that are (1) detailed description of human activities in relation to their physical interaction with things, and (2) our emotional interaction with things.
Hisao Nojima

Location-aware Computing

Design, Implementation and Evaluations of a Direction Based Service System for Both Indoor and Outdoor

This paper describes a design, implementation and evaluations of a direction based service system named Azim, which utilizes both a position and a direction of a user. In this system, a user’s position is estimated by having the user point to and measure azimuths of several markers or objects whose positions are already known. Because the system does not require any other accurate position sensors nor positive beacons, it can be deployed cost-effectively. We have implemented a prototype system using a direction sensor that combines a magnetic compass and accelerometer. We have conducted experiments both indoor and outdoor, and exemplified that positioning accuracy by the proposed method is precise enough for a direction based service.
Yohei Iwasaki, Nobuo Kawaguchi, Yasuyoshi Inagaki

Designing Transparent Location-Dependent Web-Based Applications on Mobile Environments

This paper describes an architecture model designed to allow the development of web-based client-server applications where results should be dependent of the location of the client on a mobile (normally wireless) environment. It has been designed to work with the most popular technologies used nowadays which are available in every modern personal computer such as HTTP protocol client-server internetworking, 802.11 wireless networks, Bluetooth, IR or RFID devices. This system is divided into three user transparent subsystems: the first one obtains the location of the client computer from the hardware installed on it, the second one works as a proxy and embeds this obtained location into the HTTP request generated by the user’s web browser, and the last one, installed in the HTTP application server controller, extracts the location from the request and offers the programmer a complete object oriented API that allows to code a web program that will generate a client-location dependent HTTP response. Thus the HTTP response to a client request is dependent of the location of the client at the moment the request was generated.
Simón Neira, Víctor M. Gulías

Position Tracking Using Infra-Red Signals for Museum Guiding System

In this paper, an indoor positioning system has been presented. The proposed system is set up by using infra-red transmitters. The developed system will be utilized as the museum guiding system for the next-generation at the National Science Museum of Japan in this summer. Plenty of research works have been performed for the development of positioning systems or mobile devices of the museum guiding systems. However, user-friendly and more flexible guiding systems are still required for both exhibitors and visitors to the museums. The developed positioning system is a simple system with inexpensive components. In addition, the museum guiding devices should be simple and portable especially for the visitors. Each infra-red(IR) transmitter, which is set on the ceiling of the exhibition hall, transmits its own signal for the identification of the coordinate value of the hall area. Unlike the common IR beacon usage as a part of the museum guiding system, all the IR transmitters are set to have overlap areas for the precise positioning of the visitors with limited number of transmitters.
Atsushi Hiyama, Jun Yamashita, Hideaki Kuzuoka, Koichi Hirota, Michitaka Hirose

Navigation with an Adaptive Mobile Map-Application: User Experiences of Gesture- and Context-Sensitiveness

In this paper, we identify navigation sub-tasks in a mobile map-application, and apply adaptive and gesture-based control methods having improved user experience as our goal. We investigate how automated positioning and rotating of maps and intuitive gesture control for zooming and scrolling facilitates navigation. Several smart features were implemented into a handheld prototype: Map is positioned and rotated according to current location and orientation. Zooming is performed with hand gestures in front of a proximity sensor. Scrolling is operated with tilting movements that are recognized with accelerometers. Graphical icons and effects visualize interesting objects, their directions and distances. We evaluate the prototype by analyzing the effort needed for performing navigation sub-tasks with and without smart control features. Moreover, a user experience study was conducted. The results show that navigation tasks can be facilitated with context-sensitiveness and gesture control, though users may need some practice.
Leena Arhippainen, Tapani Rantakokko, Marika Tähti

Real-World Interaction

Real-World Interaction with Camera Phones

With the integration of cameras, mobile phones have evolved into networked personal image capture devices. Camera phones can perform image processing tasks on the device itself and use the result as an additional means of user input and a source of context data. In this paper we present a system that turns such phones into mobile sensors for 2-dimensional visual codes. The proposed system induces a code coordinate system and visually detects phone movements. It also provides the rotation angle and the amount of tilting of the camera as additional input parameters. These features enable applications such as item selection and interaction with large-scale displays. With the code coordinate system, each point in the viewed image – and therefore arbitrarily shaped areas – can be linked to specific operations. A single image point can even be associated with multiple information aspects by taking different rotation and tilting angles into account.
Michael Rohs

Experience-Sharing System Using Ubiquitous Sensing Environments

This paper proposes an experience-sharing system that captures experience by using ubiquitous sensing environments and a humanoid communication robot. For experience sharing, a summarizing method is absolutely necessary because it is impossible to spend enough time to experience all other person’s experiences or past experiences vicariously. This system uses human-human or human-object interaction as the summarizing key. Interaction data are captured with an infrared ID tag system and microphones, and thus these data become the index for streaming data automatically. Both of these data compose the hInteraction Corpus.h Another characteristic function is interaction facilitation, that is, the system creates new and meaningful interactions for a user with an HMD or a humanoid communication robot. In an actual exhibition hall environment, we examined our hypothesis on the differences in exhibit visitors’interests based on the differences in staying time at each exhibit.
Megumu Tsuchikawa, Shoichiro Iwasawa, Sadanori Ito, Atsushi Nakahara, Yasuyuki Sumi, Kenji Mase, Kiyoshi Kogure, Norihiro Hagita

Augmented Classroom: A Paper-Centric Approach for Collaborative Learning System

We developed AirTransNote, a computer-mediated classroom collaboration system. The system enables real-time note-sharing. AirTransNote manages notes written by students on paper and enables the teacher to browse through the notes or show them to the students. AirTransNote can analyze students’ answers, helping the teacher better understand their problems. The system is not meant to provide an alternative to the conventional way of instruction; rather, it is designed to enhance class interaction. We conducted a preliminary study using questionnaires and found that this system can be feasible to apply for classroom environment.
Motoki Miura, Susumu Kunifuji, Buntarou Shizuki, Jiro Tanaka

EnhancedTable: An Augmented Table System for Supporting Face-to-Face Meeting in Ubiquitous Environment

This paper describes our design and implementation of an augmented table system for face-to-face meetings. The system was designed to be used by multiple users in the ubiquitous environment, where people do not need to bring their laptop PCs. With effective use of the advantage of computer vision, we implemented the concept of ubiquitous desktop as personal workspace and virtual Chinese table as shared workspace. User can share/personalize files by drag-and-dropping icons to/from the shared workspace. The system also provides capabilities for interactive image capturing and finger position sharing, both of which would be useful for the meetings.
Hideki Koike, Shinichiro Nagashima, Yasuto Nakanishi, Yoichi Sato


Agents That Coordinate Web Services in Ubiquitous Computing

The paper describes an agent-based web service coordination framework in ubiquitous computing. It is called context-mediated web service coordination. In the framework, all service processes in ubiquitous computing environments are wrapped in web services that have standard communication protocols. The framework coordinates sensor devices wrapped in web services, web services on the Internet, and web services that manage user profile, etc. In addition, these web services are wrapped in specific types of agents. Giving a standard agent communication protocols to the heterogeneous web service processes, the framework introduces a new agent-based service coordination layer in ubiquitous computing. Coordinating these agents based on the user’s intention and their physical contexts, we can seamlessly coordinate the heterogeneous service components over the digital and real world in a human-centered manner. We also show a prototype application of the framework, context-aware information retrieval services in a museum.
Akio Sashima, Noriaki Izumi, Koichi Kurumatani

Realizing a Secure Federation of Multi-institutional Service Systems

Today, many organizations and individuals are creating a large variety of services. However, even if these services are connected through a network, there are very few examples where such services operate in an interconnected way. One reason for this is the lack of systems that are able to coordinate multiple systems, with different schemes for user management, in a safe way with adequate authorization. Furthermore, the same problem arises when users carrying mobile terminals wishes to connect to and use services at location that they are visiting. In this paper, we are proposing an extended framework for service provision based on Kerberos, allowing groups of services and information about ordinary users that are managed on an organizational or personal level to be combined, handling service systems with different management bases as units of gSpaceh, while defining the security relations between different spaces.
Yu Enokibori, Nobuhiko Nishio

Middleware Supporting Various Input/Output Devices for Networked Audio and Visual Home Appliances

In this paper, we propose universal interaction for networked home appliances, which provides a simple mechanism to fill the gap between traditional user interface systems and advanced user interaction devices. Our middleware enables us to control appliances in a uniform way at any places, and the system allows us to select suitable input and output interaction devices according to our preferences and situations. Our middleware has based on the stateless thin-client system, and translates input and output interaction events according to user interaction devices. Therefore, our system allows us to use a variety of interaction devices without modifying applications using existing GUI toolkits.
Tatsuo Nakajima, Nobuyuki Kobayashi, Eiji Tokunaga

Context Awareness

Bazaar: A Conceptual Framework for Physical Space Applications

In ubiquitous computing era, the notion of context-awareness will play an important role. An application should be aware of its operating context for supporting and enriching human activities. Such contextual information is required to be extracted as seamlessly as possible through interaction between users and surrounding environments. This leads to the need for dealing with a wide variety of contextual information from a physical world.
In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework, Bazaar, for modeling the physical world and for manipulating the model. It constructs the model with self-descriptive objects represented as a set of triples. Additionally, it provides a programming model for a developer so that he/she can intuitively manipulate the model and develop an application. We also report experiences with building a sample application.
Kaori Fujinami, Tetsuo Yamabe, Tatsuo Nakajima

A Unified Application Service Model for ubiHome by Exploiting Intelligent Context-Awareness

We propose a unified ubiHome application service model which provides user-centered services by exploiting intelligent context-awareness. Recently, most of research related to smart home focused on the infrastructure rather than a user, and did not consider effective use of context. Such approaches are not appropriate for a user-centered interface, intelligent home control, flexible extension of application service, etc. In this paper, we design a unified ubiHome application service model by exploiting ubi-UCAM (unified context-aware application model). The proposed model provides services corresponding to a user’s intention and also supports flexible interaction between a user and ubiHome environment. It provides personalized ubiHome environment to each user. The proposed model contributes flexible interaction between a user and ubiHome environment. And it provides personalized ubiHome environment to a user and simplifies extension of various application services. Therefore, the proposed model helps ubiquitous applications obtain users’ context and provide adaptive applications flexibly.
Yoosoo Oh, Woontack Woo

A Behavior-Based Personal Controller for Autonomous Ubiquitous Computing

In this paper, we propose a way to retrieve and invoke ubiquitous objects within our living spaces by our behavior. Accumulations of GPS location information collected by a tiny program on a user’s cellular phone are organized into a structure which represents the user’s spatial behavior. This representation provides ubiquitous computing environment with assumptions about the user’s movement in one-day duration, and allow them to act for the predicted future locations of the user. Since this knowledge representation about the user’s daily route is a key to invoke ubiquitous objects by her/his current spatial behavior, we call it “Behavior-based Personal Controller” or “BPC”.A learning algorithm to organize the Behavior-based Personal Controller and a mechanism of the BPC’s invoking networked ubiquitous objects are detailed in this paper.
Takamitsu Mizutori, Yuta Nakayama, Kenji Kohiyama

Sensors and Tags

Scanning with a Purpose – Supporting the Fair Information Principles in RFID Protocols

Today’s RFID protocols that govern the communication between RFID readers and tags are solely optimized for performance, but fail to address consumer privacy concerns by appropriately supporting the fair information practices. In this paper we propose a feature set that future privacy-aware RFID protocols should include in order to support the fair information principles at the lowest possible level – the air interface between readers and tags – and demonstrate that the performance impact of such an extension would be within acceptable limits. We also outline how this feature set would allow consumer interest groups and privacy-concerned individuals to judge whether an RFID reader deployment complies with the corresponding regulations through the use of a watchdog tag.
Christian Floerkemeier, Roland Schneider, Marc Langheinrich

Towards a Comprehensive Integration and Application Platform for Large-Scale Sensor Networks

This paper presents a study that has been performed in order to combine the strength of two emerging technologies: Smart Items and Enterprise Architectures. Smart Items are physical objects with sensing, computing and communication capabilities based on RFID techniques. Enterprise services are generic services that can be tailored to an industry’s or a company’s specific needs. Examples include accounting, health care, financing, supply chain management, oil and gas, consumer goods, automotive industry and many other domains. However, bringing these two emerging technologies together is not obvious and may become quite cumbersome. There are challenging modeling issues that need to be addressed. In this article, we will present our overall approach to discuss solutions for these challenging questions. We will then demonstrate our concepts along a case study that we have performed on the UC Berkeley sensor boards, (so called motes) for the domain of container security.
Asuman Suenbuel, Joachim Schaper, Thomas Odenwald

Inexpensive and Automatic Calibration for Acceleration Sensors

In this paper, we present two methods for calibration of acceleration sensors that are inexpensive, in-situ, require minimum user interaction and are targeted to a broad set of acceleration sensor applications and devices. We overcome the necessity of orthogonal axes alignment by extending existing calibration methods with a non-orthogonal axes model. Our non-orthogonal method can furthermore be used to enable automatic calibration for 1- or 2-axes accelerometers or realize a simultaneous mass-calibration of sensors with minimum effort. The influence of noise to the presented calibration methods is analysed.
Albert Krohn, Michael Beigl, Christian Decker, Uwe Kochendörfer, Philip Robinson, Tobias Zimmer

Dependable Coding of Fiducial Tags

Fiducial tags can be recognised successfully and decoded by computer vision systems in order to produce location information. We term a system dependable if its observable results are predictable and repeatable. The dependability of such a vision system is fundamentally dependent on the scheme used to encode data on the tag. We show that the rotational symmetry common to many tag designs requires particular consideration in order to understand the performance of the coding schemes when errors occur. We develop an abstract representation of tags carrying symbolic data which allows existing information coding techniques to achieve robust codes. An error-correcting coding scheme is presented for carrying arbitrary symbolic data in a dependable vision system.
Andrew C. Rice, Christopher B. Cain, John K. Fawcett


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