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Über dieses Buch

Recent advances in electronic and computer technologies have paved the way for the proliferation of ubiquitous computing and innovative applications that incorporate these technologies. This proceedings book describes these new and innovative technologies, and covers topics like Ubiquitous Communication and Networks, Security Systems, Smart Devices and Applications, Cloud and Grid Systems, Service-oriented and Web Service Computing, Embedded Hardware and Image Processing and Multimedia.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Adding Secure Communication Mechanism to Existing Distributed Applications by means of AOP

The object-oriented programming paradigm is a process of implementing a program by means of

‘Objects’

into which separate concerns are grouped. However, it does not map some types of concerns such as security, logging and exception handling, which should be implemented in each object separately. As most of the security goals, reliable communication is a non-functional requirement in a distributed system development process, and it typically crosscuts many objects in the distributed architecture. Program codes to realize this secure communication goal is generally spread in different code places throughout the application. Aspect-oriented programming (AOP) is a new programming paradigm that improves program modularity by enabling the separation of concerns from the main logic of the application. For example, in the context of security, developers should not need to encode security logic in the main program; instead, it can be grouped into a separate and independent unit, called as

aspects

. This paper presents a case study to illustrate how aspect oriented approach can be used to resolve the scattered and tangled concerns

, like secure communication,

in a previously developed distributed system in which objects communicate with each other via Java RMI. As a java-based aspect oriented tool, AspectJ is used to encapsulate the security related crosscutting concerns like communication. Performance evaluations are tested for adding security aspect to a distributed application. As a result, usage of aspects is a good choice for enhancing system to achieve high cohesion and low coupling, which are one of the main the software engineering requirements. It also enhances the readability of the system and makes system easier to maintain.

Ozgur Koray Sahingoz

Multi-Level Dynamic Key Management for Scalable Wireless Sensor Networks with UAV

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are more vulnerable to security attacks than wired networks because of their wireless and dynamic nature. In today’s WSNs, the sensor nodes act not only as routers but also as communication endpoints, and they are also responsible for the security of the messages. Therefore, it is important to define whether an incoming message originates from a trustworthy node or not. The main solution for this is the usage of cryptographically signed messages. There are two main classifications for signing messages: namely

symmetric

and

asymmetric

algorithm based cryptography. In the asymmetric key cryptography, public/private key pairs are used to encrypt and decrypt messages. However, it can cause severe computational, memory, and energy overhead for the nodes. On the other side, symmetric key cryptography is superior to asymmetric key cryptography in terms of speed and low energy cost, but at the same time, it needs to design an efficient and flexible key distribution schemes for improving system performance. In this paper, it is aimed to set a multi-level dynamic key management system for WSNs with the aid of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) as a key distribution and coordination center for asymmetric keys. Public keys of the sensor nodes are dispatched by UAVs and symmetric keys set with these key combinations. Evaluation results show the proposed system is scalable, and its performance is considerably better than single asymmetric key management systems

Ozgur Koray Sahingoz

A Multi-Modal Coevolutionary Algorithm for Finding All Nash Equilibria of a Multi-Player Normal Form Game

Nash’s theorem says that every game that has a finite strategic form has at least one Nash point. The problem of finding one Nash point is a well studied problem, and there exist a number of different methods for numerically computing a sample Nash equilibrium. But the problem of finding all equilibria has been addressed only recently. Literature review shows that many of the existing methods for detecting all equilibria are computationally intensive and error prone. In this paper we present a multi-modal coevolutionary algorithm that is able to detect all Nash points of a multi-player normal form game at the same time. We formulate the problem of solving a matrix game as a multi- modal optimization problem. Then a coevolutionary algorithm decomposes the problem and solves it in a parallel form. It associates one population to each player’s strategies. So various components of the problem will coevolve and better results may be produced at lower computational costs.

Nona Helmi, Gelareh Veisi

Study on Analysis Android Applications for Smartwork

New information leading to the Internet, P2P, Ubiquitous, and smartphone has appeared paradigm. The main contents of the information paradigm are the ‘open’ and ‘standard’. Full security incidents account for more than 80 % of the internal information security incidents, damages the value of information assets has increased rapidly. Mobile malware is rapidly becoming a serious threat. In this paper, I survey the current state of mobile malware. As I classified according to behavioral characteristics and propagation and understood the history mobile evolution. I Android Application analysis methodology present Android Application analysis methodology for the more secure smartwork environment.

Seung-hwan Ju, Hee-suk Seo, Jin Kwak

Face Recognition System for the Enhanced Authentication in the Smart Work Environment

ID/PW method is easy to implement, but has the disadvantage of the security strength is weak. The proposed face recognition authentication system method is used with ID/PW for the enhanced authentication. The main feature of the proposed system prevents face recognition technology from unlocking of photos only that is one of the shortcomings of Android 4.0. It also validates the machine including biometric information and a more secure encryption module is expected to provide a smart work environment.

SangKon Han, Seokhwan Yang, Jae-hyuk Choi, Mokdong Chung

The Innovation Telehospice System in Taiwan: A Home-Based Hospice Care Service Application

Cancer is one of the important health care issues and has been the major leading cause of mortality in Taiwan. Hospice care is another medical option other than the curative treatments for terminal cancer patients. It promotes patient/family-centered care that is palliative, holistic and interdisciplinary. About 60 % of cancer patients preferred that home as the place of death. One of the major approaches of hospice care is to allow the terminal cancer patient to remain at home as long as possible, and using the hospital based care when the situation is absolutely necessary. The fear of not having enough support networks in the skills and knowledge of care at home is one of the most common reasons for terminal cancer patient with stable condition who refused discharge from hospital in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to apply the telehospice system for the home-based telehospice care. The system had integrated electronic medical records, information network communication and biosensor technology together. The study provided the innovation telehospice application which replaced the traditional home care but allowed the terminal cancer patients and their caregivers to receive additional support through this innovation service. The results indicated that the home based telehospice application did add some benefits to the patients and families who participated in this study.

Mei-Ju Su, Yu-Jen Hsieh, Chien-An Yao, Fei-Pei Lai, May-Hua Liao, Heng-Shuen Chen

MimicGesture: Secure Device Pairing with Accelerometer-Based Gesture Input

It is unfeasible to establish a trusted-third party in ad-hoc wireless networks. Transferring authentication data under a human user’s control and involvement, called Out-Of-Band (OOB) channel, bootstraps device pairing. A number of OOB channels have been proposed. However, none of them is generally accepted due to their lack of adaptability to various devices. In this paper, we introduce a new OOB channel, called MimicGesture, which uses accelerometer-based gesture input. We argue that our OOB channel is suitable for all kinds of mobile devices, including I/O constrained devices, as the accelerometer is small in size and requires low computational overhead. We conducted a usability test in order to check the viability of our channel.

Oyuntungalag Chagnaadorj, Jiro Tanaka

Worst Case Response Time Analysis of Sporadic Tasks with Precedence Constrained Subtasks Using Non-preemptive EDF Scheduling

In this paper, we address the problem of Worst Case Response Time (WCRT) analysis of hard real-time systems composed of sporadic tasks scheduled under non-preemptive Earliest Deadline First (EDF) scheduler. WCRT of each subtask is examined based on the constructed Directed Acyclic Graph of each task. Previous work, does not consider arbitrary timing requirements of subtasks; authors investigate simultaneous arrival time of subtasks only where arbitrary deadlines is not concerned. In contrast to previous work that provides guarantee for a task set that in fact is not schedulable in the worst case, our results show accurate WCRTs.

Armaghan Darbandi, Myung Kyun Kim

App Development for Jeju Spring Water Information Visualization

A new trend, which tries to apply an information technology to the field of an existing or emerging industry, is becoming prevalent with the rapid advent of information technology. This study is closely related with an information technology (IT) fusion research on Jeju spring water, aiming at the management of Jeju water resources and smart appliances app service of Jeju spring water information, combined with IT. Using smart appliances, we provide such information as Jeju spring water location information, the surrounded information, and the information on how to use it. It will help to make people recognize and promote the high-quality of Jeju spring water. We focus on how to apply key features of smart appliances to spring water information visualization and management system. Furthermore, it can be applied as an important reference in the development and management of Jeju spring water.

JinLong Piao, Seong Baeg Kim

Novel Clustering Scheme to Guarantee Lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks

Besides main quality of service features the guaranteed lifetime is one of the key characteristic of many applications for efficient operations, therefore guaranteeing the lifetime of the entire wireless sensor networks is mainly considered in the scheme. In this paper, a novel scheme to guarantee the lifetime of wireless sensor networks in terms of distributed and randomized clustering with scary energy is proposed. We then extend this algorithm to checks the status of every cluster head and conclude that how much energy is spent during performing different operations. The cluster head will also aware of the time for which it will perform duty as a local base for its member nodes. Simulation results validate the effect of the proposed clustering algorithm to guarantee scary lifetime of wireless sensor networks.

Babar Shah, Chung-Jae Lee, JinYong Seong, Ki-Il Kim

An Operation Scheduling Technique for Coarse Grained Reconfigurable Architectures

To provide efficiency of high performance and low power, CGRA (Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Architectures) is becoming a very popular component in embedded systems. However, compiler support does not reach the quality of provided hardware efficiency. To remedy CGRA system’s such weakness, this paper proposes a compiler directed instruction and data mapping technique for two dimensional mesh based CGRAs. The proposed approach uses IDFG (Instruction-Data Flow Graph) to represent the relationship between instructions and array data. Each node of IDFG assigns to processing cores and sets of data blocks to on-chip memories. During the mapping process, the on-chip memory capacity and the topology of the interconnection among processing cores are taken into account to minimize routing length since it determines the completion time of loop kernels and energy consumption. By using IDFG in mapping process, the instruction and data mapping can be combined as a unified framework. The experimental evaluation shows that our IDFG based mapping technique are very successful in practice, achieving almost optimal results.

Yongjoo Kim, Jongwon Lee, Doosan Cho, Yunheung Paek

An Implementation of Leaf Recognition System Based on Leaf Contour and Centroid for Plant Classification

In this paper, we propose a leaf recognition system based on the leaf contour and centroid that can be used for plant classification. The proposed approach uses frequency domain data by performing a Fast Fourier transform (FFT) for the leaf recognition system. Twenty leaf features were extracted for leaf recognition. First, the distance between the centroid and all points on the leaf contours were calculated. Second, an FFT was performed using the calculated distances. Ten features were extracted using the calculated distances, FFT magnitude, and its phase. Ten features were also extracted based on the digital morphological features using four basic geometric features and five vein features. To verify the validity of the approach, images of 1907 leaves were used to classify 32 kinds of plants. In the experimental results, the proposed leaf recognition system showed an average recognition rate of 95.44 %, and we can confirm that the recognition rate of the proposed advanced leaf recognition method was better than that of the existed leaf recognition method.

Kue-Bum Lee, Kwang-Woo Chung, Kwang-Seok Hong

The Relative Importance of Weather Factors and the Predictions About the Groundwater Level in Jeju

The research related to the groundwater level in Jeju has focused on the amount of rainfall and its hydrogeological characteristics so far. However, since the sensor technology has been used in many areas to measure the various types of natural phenomena recently, it allows us to perform advanced analysis on the groundwater in Jeju. In this paper, we consider wind speed, evaporation, temperature, humidity, and rainfall as the factors that can have influences on the groundwater level. We describe how the factors can affect the groundwater and how artificial neural networks can predict the groundwater level. We perform multiple regression and hierarchical linear model analysis. And then, we calculate the relative importance of the weather factors. We use data accumulated from 2003 to 2009 and perform data-oriented analysis rather than theoretical analysis. We divide Jeju region into four basins such as north (Jeju), south (Seogwipo), west (Gosan), and east (Sungsan).

Chan Jung Park, Junghoon Lee, Seong Baeg Kim, Jung Suk Hyun

Design of Web Simulation and Content Service on EDISON

In order to help students understand various kinds of phenomena on applications, we design the system structure and service of EDucation-research Integration through Simulation On the Net (EDISON) services. In this paper, we focus on students’ activity who utilizes EDISON simulation and contents service with their lecture notes. The designed web simulation service includes reusing of previous simulation workflow and searching workflow and results. Contents also utilize simulation service to verify the knowledge of contents such as lecture notes, reports, and papers. The designed service helps students to understand the knowledge of their learning materials.

Young Jin Jung, Du-Seok Jin, Bu-Young Ahn, Jerry Hyeon Seo, Hoon Ryu, Ok-Hwan Byeon, JongSuk Ruth Lee, Kumwon Cho

A Collusion-Resistant Trust Management Scheme for Distributed P2P Network

Current trust management employed by the existing peer-to-peer networks is faced with various threats from malicious nodes. If some nodes are contaminated, the network quality is getting to be down. So it eventually makes worse the confidence of among the users. This paper deals with a trust management to protect the attack of the malicious nodes in the distributed P2P network. Especially, it aims to keep safe against the collusive attack. We try to improve the accuracy of node trust to effectively protect this attack.

Byong-lae Ha, Gi-hwan Cho

An Effective Routing Cost Approximation in Many-to-Many Communication for Wireless Sensor Networks

In the Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) environment, a sensor node spends most of its energy for relaying data packets to multiple sinks simultaneously. So, it is important to shorten the distance that a packet has to travel to reach the sinks. Cluster formation is the most common approach to achieve this by assigning a Cluster Header (CH) closed to member nodes to collect the sensed data. In this paper, we derive a mathematical model to partition the network into some clusters with a proper number of member nodes in order to balance the traffic load among the constituted nodes. Then CH is elected to obtain the minimum internal routing cost in data acquisition among the member nodes in their respective cluster. The elected CH routes the gathered data to sink(s) using the constituted CHs as intermediate nodes contained in the minimum routing cost path. The mechanism of reducing routing cost in every factor of WSNs can be the promising approach in the aspect of network lifetime.

A. S. M. Sanwar Hosen, Gi-hwan Cho

An Energy-Efficient Selective Forwarding Attack Detection Scheme Using Lazy Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

In the wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes which are deployed in hostile environments can be easily compromised by attackers. The selective forwarding attacks drop a sensitive packet on the path to transmit the data through the compromised node. The existing selective forwarding attack detection scheme randomly selects some intermediate nodes along a forwarding path as checkpoint nodes which are responsible for generating acknowledgements for each received packet. The checkpoint nodes generate and transmit the acknowledgements to detect abnormal packet loss and identify suspect nodes for all packets. Therefore, the existing scheme is not suitable for the wireless sensor networks since the checkpoint nodes cause the excessive cost to detect the suspect nodes for all packets. In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient detection scheme for selective forwarding attacks in the wireless sensor networks. The proposed scheme monitors the entire networks based on the transmission time of a path for transmitting each packet. It performs a lazy detection for only the paths that have the potential to have attack nodes. By doing so, the proposed scheme can minimize the cost for detecting selective forwarding attacks. To show the superiority of our scheme, we compare it with the existing selective forwarding attack detection scheme. In the result, our scheme has the similar detection rate as the existing scheme and reduces unnecessary data transmissions by about 35.7 % over the existing scheme.

Junho Park, Dong-ook Seong, Myungho Yeo, Byung-yup Lee, Jaesoo Yoo

ID Globalization Across Multiple Convergence Spaces Using Smart Cameras

This paper suggests a scheme for ID globalization, wherein the single successful authentication at initial stage requires no further authentication check while traversing multiple convergence spaces. This is done by delivering ID-related information among smart cameras during an object’s movement.

Geon Woo Kim, Jong Wook Han

Vehicle Inside Information Recording System Using GPS and In-Vehicle Network

Vehicle black boxes that have similar functions as airplane black boxes are currently being used due to the loss of many lives and properties arising from vehicle accidents. Both black-box products and Event Data Recorder (EDR) systems are currently available in the market. Most of the existing in-vehicle black boxes, however, record only external videos and images and cannot show the vehicle’s driving status, whereas EDR products record only the driving status and not external videos. To address the problem of black boxes that can record only videos and images and that of EDR systems that can record only driving data, an integrated vehicle diagnosis recording system that uses Media-oriented System Transport (MOST), a new vehicle multimedia network, and Onboard Diagnostics II (OBD-II), a current standard of electronic-control network, was realized in this study to collect data from the electronic-control devices. The system uses external sensors such as camera (CAM) and global positioning system (GPS) to collect video, time, and location data that will be needed to make a judgment on the vehicle’s current status.

Sung-Hyun Baek, Jong-Wook Jang

Security Based Semantic Context Awareness System for M2M Ubiquitous Healthcare Service

The data and information from heterogeneous embedded devices lead to security and communication problems in M2M environment. Even under the situation where the low-level information causes interoperability problems, these devices should be able to communicate with each other in safe, efficient and right manner without the help of server or human intervention. In this paper, we propose a security based context aware U-healthcare system based on user authentication and data aggregation. Our system can support medical decision-making and inferences using

Knowledge Machine

(KM), which is a mature knowledge representation language. We design and implement frame-based ontology and rules for semantic reasoning using LISP+KM combination. We especially describe the context query, and then show the progress made towards proper and reasonable inference and prediction. In experiments, we showed the feasibility of our proposed system by adding intentional abnormal/informal situation data.

Yunjeong Choi, Inshil Doh, Seung-Soo Park, Ki-Joon Chae

Energy-Efficient In-Network Density Query Processing in Wireless Sensor Networks

In recent, many studies on applications that monitor the information of mobile objects in wireless sensor network have been done. A density query is one of query types for object monitoring applications. A density query finds out an area spread by density that a target object requires in the whole sensing field. In this paper, we propose a novel homogeneous network-based in-network density query processing scheme that significantly reduces query processing costs and assures high accuracy. This scheme is based on the possibility-based expected region selection technique and the result compensation technique to enhance the accuracy of the density query and to minimize energy consumption. To show the superiority of our proposed scheme, we compare it with the existing density query processing scheme. As a result, our proposed scheme reduces energy consumption for query processing by about 97 % compared to the existing scheme. In addition, the proposed scheme guarantees its query result and higher accuracy of the query result than the existing scheme.

Dong-ook Seong, Junho Park, Jihee Lee, Myungho Yeo, Myoungho Kim, Jaesoo Yoo

A Sensor Positioning Scheme Using Neighbor Density Probability Models in Irregular Wireless Sensor Networks

In wireless sensor networks, the positions of sensor nodes are very important for many applications. If each sensor node provides information with less positioning error, the positioning information will be reliable. One of the most representative positioning schemes, called DV-HOP is low for positioning accuracy in irregular network environments. Moreover, because it requires many anchor nodes for high accuracy, it is expensive to construct the network. To overcome such problems, we propose a novel sensor positioning scheme in irregular wireless sensor networks. By doing so, the proposed scheme ensures the high accuracy of sensor positioning in non-uniform networks. To show the superiority of our proposed scheme, we compare it with the existing scheme. Our experimental results show that our proposed scheme improves about 36 % sensor positioning accuracy over the existing scheme on average even in irregular sensor networks.

Hyuk Park, Donggyo Hwang, Junho Park, Dong-ook Seong, Jaesoo Yoo

A Certificate Enhanced Group Key Framework for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) have emerged new prospects in a wide range of researches. Information exchange in VANETs relies on the transmission of packets between vehicles and road-side units. The messages are easily stolen by the malicious users due to the nature of wireless broadcast, and therefore, VANETs need security mechanisms to protect data privacy. Vehicles can be organized into different groups, and members of a vehicular group share a group key to encrypt their messages; even so, they are still exposed to malicious attacks. In this paper, we propose a group key framework with certificate authority in VANETs, where each group has a group leader responsible for the management of members and keys to enhance certificate operations secures the group communication. According to our security analysis and efficiency evaluation, the proposed mechanisms have lightweight overheads in terms of computational and communication requirements, as also to provide better secure vehicular communication than other similar researches in this field.

Ching-Hung Yeh, Meng-Yen Hsieh, Kuan-Ching Li

Migration of Application Data to REST-Based Online Storage Service

The massive disappearance of data is caused by natural disaster, terrorism, fire accidents and so on. If data is stored on an online storage service, the information system can be resumed speedily. To create web applications, Representational State Transfer (REST)-based APIs are offered in some online storage services. However, to modify the system, we have to migrate application data to the online storage service, and have to change file reading/writing operation to related application codes. In this paper, we propose a conversion method from the operations for local file system into HTTP requests for online storage by converting the source code. In the execution of converted code, the file reading/writing operation through networks causes the access delay. Thus, we present a cache function that stores and operates data on local storage in order to reduce the access delay.

Tetsuya Hirai, Masanori Hirotomo, Masami Mohri, Yoshiaki Shiraishi

Development of Knocking Identification and Engine Balance Correction Algorithms for CRDI Engine Electronic Control Unit

In order to apply CRDI engine as an industrial engine which can satisfy the criteria of emission control law recently reinforced domestically and internationally, it is intended to develop an engine control algorithm that can control the ECU for injection timing and injection volume at users discretion which used be done only by manufacturer, and use it for the purpose of test and evaluation of engine performance improvement and the reduction of emission gas. In order to develop such emulator dedicated to CRDI diesel engine, an efficient solution to improve fuel-efficiency and reduce the emission of harmful gas was suggested through detecting diesel knocking using the operating principles of CKP and CMP among the input elements of CRDI engine control ECU and proposing a design methodology for engine balance adjustment algorithm.

Hwa-seon Kim, Seong-jin Jang, Jong-wook Jang

A Lightweight Remote User Interface and Content Sharing System for Smart Consumer Devices

Many smart consumer devices have been extensively introduced that provide multimedia services and various applications. In addition, efficient collaboration among smart consumer devices is helpful to provide user convenience, user mobility, and multi-screen services. Therefore, we present the architecture for a lightweight remote User Interface (UI) and content sharing that guarantees smooth UI transition and efficient collaboration in home networks.

Yuseok Bae, Jongyoul Park

Reusable Context-Aware Software

A framework for providing context-aware services is presented. It enables software for context-aware services to be defined independently of any contextual information so that it can be reused in other context. It introduces two novel mechanisms. The first is to enable non-context-aware services to be used as context-aware services. The second is to enable context-aware services to be defined independently on any contextual information. The framework is useful in the development of software for non-context-aware services in ubiquitous computing environments. Our early experiments proved that it enabled us to reuse JavaBeans components as context-aware services without having to modify the components themselves.

Ichiro Satoh

Byte-Addressable Persistent RAM APIs for Flexible Memory Management and Protection

Byte-addressable persistent random access memory (BPRAM) provides uninterruptable computing experience at power loss. Since there is no need of power to store the data, it is possible to provide faster booting time from completely off-state by utilizing BPRAM as the main memory. However, there is still no explicit explanation about the BPRAM application programming interfaces (APIs) specification taking benefit of the persistent characteristic of the memory. Providing APIs at the operating system level will open possibility to the application and operating system developers to utilize persistent memory to its extent. We defined APIs specifications which include memory management and protection, as some application should not be abusing the BPRAM of its limited lifetime. We focused on phase-change memory (PCM) as the representation of BPRAM, since it is the most probable candidate for DRAM replacement. We observed there are room for improvements to elongate BPRAM lifetime, such as the shared library objects loading to the BPRAM, separation of three memory region in process (i.e. code, data, stack regions), moving rarely modified blocks of RAM to the BPRAM, and also the capability of saving only important states when desired.

Hidayat Febiansyah, Jin Baek Kwon

Design and Implementation of Ubiquitous ECG Monitoring System by Using Android Tablet

In this paper, we present a completed ubiquitous ECG monitoring solution by using an android tablet. A wearable chest-belt ECG measurement system is designed and developed. The measurement system consist of a chest-belt electrode, an ECG signal amplifying and filtering analog circuit board, and a removable Bluetooth transceiver. The ECG signal analog circuit board and the Bluetooth transceiver are designed into two piece PCB and integrated each other with 30 pins connector. The Bluetooth transceiver can be replaced by a Zigbee transceiver by just a plug and on move. This connecting feature offers the flexibility in selecting the type of wireless technology used for data transmission, either Bluetooth or Zigbee. The ECG data is sent streamline to an android tablet via Bluetooth transmission. ECG signal and heart rate is displayed on the tablet for monitoring purpose. Real time experiment is conducted to demonstrate the usability of the proposed system. Result is validated.

Jiunn Huei Yap, Do Un Jeong

An Approach to Creating an Ontology and Rule Set for Situation Aware Software in Mobile Environments

With the recent advent of mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet PCs, everyone wants to receive personalized service and control the environment using a mobile device (i.e., ubiquitous computing). To fulfill this requirement, the necessary, key technology is situation awareness. Today, ontology-models are widely used for representing and constructing the information of a situation. However, the existing approaches to developing ontology models lack considerations for situation awareness and the design of rule sets that can be used to infer the nature of a situation. In this paper, we propose a methodology to creating an ontology and rule set for mobile situation-aware software. This methodology is based on the proposed ontology, namely, Core Ontology for Mobile (COM). This approach enables us to develop and create the necessary ontology and rule set for mobile situation-aware software in a systematic and simplified manner.

Joonseok Park, Soohye Shin, Keunhyuk Yeom

Fast Coding Algorithm for High Efficient Video Coding (HEVC)

The JCT-VC is developing the next-generation video coding standard which is called a high efficiency video coding (HEVC). In the HEVC, there are three unit in block structure: coding unit (CU), prediction unit (PU), and transform unit (TU). The CU is the basic unit of region splitting like macroblock. The CU concept perform recursive splitting into four blocks with equal size, starting from the treeblock. We use mode information of the current CU to avoid unnecessary CU splitting process. To reduce more computational complexity, we propose a depth range selection mechanism (DRSM) by selecting adaptive depth range. The depth range selection mechanism provides an effective splitting by performing just CUs in want of process. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve about 48 % of reduction in encoding time for RandomAccess HE compared to the HEVC test model (HM) 6.0 encoder with BD-bitrate loss of 1.2 %.

Jong-Hyeok Lee, Chang-Ki Kim, Jeong-Bae Lee, Byung-Gyu Kim

Tour Schedule Generation Integrating Restaurant Options for Electric Vehicles

Targeting at a rent-a-car business based on electric vehicles, this paper designs a tour scheduling service which determines a multi-destination tour route, minimizing the waiting time for battery charging. Not just the visiting order, our work can select the best restaurant option capable of reducing the en-route waiting time. The waiting time can be reduced by overlapping charging operations with stay time in each tour place or restaurant. After formulating the per-spot waiting time based on the parameter definition of distance credit, our scheme traverses the search space to find the visiting sequence having the minimum waiting time as well as satisfying the given constraints on dining and precedence. This procedure iterates for the given set of restaurants a tourist selects. The performance measurement results obtained from a prototype implementation reveal that our scheme reduces the waiting time by up to 25 %, compared with classic traveling salesman problem.

Junghoon Lee, Hye-Hin Kim, Gyung-Leen Park, Byung-Jun Lee, Seulbi Lee, Dae-Yong Im

Modified Intensive Prototype Model for Better User Experience and Usability Improvements in Software and Web Application Design and Development

With the surrounding of ubiquitous technology, user experience is exponentially increasing along with technology expansion. This technology brings a new challenge to developers and designers in terms of user experience and usability. Definitely, there is a need for new design strategy and systematic model to enable developers keeping abreast with the dynamic environment of user experience and usability. Therefore, in this paper, we attempt to study the impact of user experience and usability on user satisfactions while communicating with application. The result of the analysis leads us to propose a model in which can concretely enhance the design strategy into a better user experience and exceptional usable interface that can entertain users in diversified aspects.

Sami Abduljalil Abdulhak, Gi-Hyun Hwang, Dae-Ki Kang

An Equidistant Message Power Attack Using Restricted Number of Traces on Reduction Algorithm

The RSA-CRT algorithm has been widely used because of the efficiency of its exponent operation. The physical susceptibility of RSA-CRT to various side channel attacks has been investigated in several studies. Boer et al. proposed MRED (Modular Reduction on Equidistant Data), a brilliant differential power analysis (DPA) of CRT reduction with equidistant chosen messages. This attack targets intermediate data that depend on the

$$r=x\mathrm{{mod}}p$$

value. We introduce a new approach the MRED attack, related to a subtraction algorithm that is not solely based on the

$$r$$

value. Our approach is superficially similar to previous DPA attacks; however, is based on a totally different assumption from that of data dependent analysis. According to our results, only 256 traces are needed to reduce 1 block key to 2 key candidates, so it is a more efficient analysis method on restricted trace environments. Moreover, it can be used to attack a data-dependent trace system. One example of this kind of attack is non-Hamming weight. We describe our technique with its advantages and disadvantages, and we show simulation results using an MSP430 and based software board.

Jong-Yeon Park, Dong-Guk Han, Okyeon Yi, JeongNyeo Kim

An Efficient Continuous Reverse Skyline Query Processing Method Over Moving Objects

As a variant of a skyline query, a reverse skyline query has been studied. However, the existing methods for processing a reverse skyline query have the limitation of service domains and require the high costs of computation to provide various location-based services. In this paper, we propose a new reverse skyline query processing method that efficiently processes a query over moving objects. In addition, the proposed method processes a continuous reverse skyline query efficiently. In order to show the superiority of the proposed method, we compare it with the previous reverse skyline query processing method in various environments.

Jongtae Lim, Yonghun Park, Kyoungsoo Bok, Jaesoo Yoo

Mobile P2P Social Network Using Location and Profile

Recently, some social networks for contents sharing and searching among mobile devices have been proposed. However, since the cost of network management is increased and the data search success rate is low, the existing social networks are not suitable for mobile ad hoc networks. For mobile ad hoc networks, the current location of each mobile node is an important factor, which not only affects the network topology but also affects the success rate of data search and share. In this paper, we design a location based social network over the mobile ad hoc networks. The social relation is established by the similarities among different users. The similarity is measured by considering the current positions and common interests. In order to reduce the management overhead, each node only connects to the nodes that have common interests and nearby positions. The contents search is handled by using the social relationships. And the contents are only shared to the users who are interested in it. Therefore, the search success rate is increased and the rubbish messages in the mobile ad hoc network are reduced. Experiments have shown that our proposed method outperforms the existing methods.

He Li, Kyoungsoo Bok, Jaesoo Yoo

Development of a 3D Digital Textbook Using X3D

This paper proposes a three dimensional (3D) digital textbook (DT) suitable for future educational purposes, using the extensible 3D (X3D) standard. The new DT is intended to enhance overall learning effectiveness by facilitating student motivation and engagement with more visually sophisticated 3D learning resources. It is also intended to overcome the limitations of 2D DTs regarding multimedia features by taking full advantage of 3D graphics. As a prototype, a 3D DT was developed for the subject of general computing used in high schools in South Korea. A user satisfaction survey was conducted after one semester and the responses were generally positive, especially in regard to the 3D learning resources.

Jeong-Hun Hong, Mihye Kim, Kwan-Hee Yoo

Clustering Method Using Item Preference Based on RFM for Recommendation System in U-Commerce

This paper proposes a new method using clustering of item preference based on Recency, Frequency, Monetary (RFM) for recommendation system in u-commerce under fixed mobile convergence service environment which is required by real time accessibility and agility. In this paper, using an implicit method without onerous question and answer to the users, not used user’s profile for rating to reduce customers’ search effort, it is necessary for us to keep the scoring of RFM to be able to reflect the attributes of the item and clustering in order to improve the accuracy of recommendation with high purchasability. To verify improved better performance of proposing system than the previous systems, we carry out the experiments in the same dataset collected in a cosmetic internet shopping mall.

Young Sung Cho, Song Chul Moon, Seon-phil Jeong, In-Bae Oh, Keun Ho Ryu

Integrative In-Home Display Development for Smart Places

This paper designs an in-home display capable of integratively coordinating power management activities from diverse smart grid entities and presents its implementation details. With IHDs, the power consumption values are captured at fixed time intervals by smart meters and sent to the network operation center through an end-to-end connection embracing Zigbee, WLAN, and the Internet. Built upon request-and-response semantic, a control path is implemented from IHDs to smart sockets. This path is extended to smart phones from IHDs, making it possible for customers to send a command or receive the current status of respective appliances on their phones. The high-capacity data server belonging to the network operation center manages and analyzes the time-series metering data sets for accurate demand forecasting using artificial neural networks. After all, our framework can integrate sophisticated power consumption scheduler and automatically send the control command according to a specific schedule.

Junghoon Lee, Gyung-Leen Park, Jikwang Han

Adaptive Packet Coalescing Mechanism in Energy Efficient Ethernet

IEEE 802.3az working group has defined Energy Efficient Ethernet (EEE) specification that implements low-power idle (LPI) modes to improve the efficiency of an Ethernet equipment. LPI mechanism allows an Ethernet link to reduce power consumption by entering a low-power sleeping mode and letting some components being powered off when there is no data to be transmitted through the link. However, if small amount of packets are being sent periodically, LPI mechanism cannot obtain energy efficiency due to a high overhead caused by excessive mode transitions. To overcome this problem, packet coalescing mechanism was proposed. Though coalescing improves the energy efficiency, TCP performance might be degraded due to increased packet delay. This paper proposes and evaluates an enhanced packet coalescing mechanism. The simulation results show that proposed mechanism shows higher performance than LPI mechanism with respect to energy consumption rate and packet transmission delay.

Sung-Keun Lee, Yong-Jae Jang, Kyoung-Wook Park

An Integration Framework of Cloud Computing with Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a key technology extensively applied in many fields, such as transportation, health-care and environment monitoring. Despite rapid development, the exponentially increasing data emanating from WSN is not efficiently stored and used. Besides, the data from multiple different types and locations of WSN needs to be well analyzed, fused and supplied to various types of clients, such as PC, workstation and smart phone. The emerging cloud computing technology provides scalable data process and storage power and some types of connectable services, which can helpfully utilize sensor data from WSN. In this paper, we propose an integration framework of cloud computing with WSN, in which sensor data is transmitted from WSN to cloud, and processed and stored in cloud, then mined and analyzed so as to be supplied to various clients. By applying virtualization and cloud storage technology, and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) and Software as a Service (SaaS) of cloud service model, the framework can fully process and store mass sensor data from multiple types of WSN. Besides, it efficiently mines and analyzes sensor data, based on which the data applications are well supplied to various types of clients in form of services.

Pengfei You, Huiba Li, Yuxing Peng, Ziyang Li

Dynamic Distributed PMIPv6 for Distributed Mobility Management

Traditional mobility management architectures are a centralized structure which has several problems and limitations, such as a single point of failure, scalability problem, triangle routing, and tunneling overhead thereby node which is fixed or in idle mode. Distributed Mobility Management (DMM) focuses on solving those problems caused by centralized mobility management. There are several PMIP-based schemes for DMM proposed in IETF DMM WG. However, they do not satisfy all key requirements of DMM. In this paper, we propose a new DMM scheme,

Dynamic Distributed PMIPv6

(DYD-PMIP), which satisfies all key requirements and additionally supports routing optimization with the help of new procedures and messages about ongoing sessions or new sessions. We compare with other DMM schemes based on PMIP.

Seong-Mun Kim, Hyon-Young Choi, Sung-Gi Min, Youn-Hee Han

Cloud-Based Mobile Distance Learning System

We present a cloud-based mobile e-learning system that supports both synchronous and asynchronous learning. It allows students to watch live lecture video with annotated slides as well as to interact with the lecturer using text in real time. The cloud server records the lecture session and sends them to the clients that ask for the recorded session so that students can watch the lecture session they missed, in their convenient time. We plan to conduct empirical study after having a sample group to use our prototype.

Jang Ho Lee

A Practical Approach Implementing a Wearable Human Activity Detector for the Elderly Care

Human activity recognition is widely researched in the various filed these days. For the aged care, the one of the most important activities of old people is fall, since it causes often serious physical and psychological results. Many researchers have studied human activity recognition techniques in various domains; however none released to a commercial product satisfying the old people requirements, which are comfortable to wear it, weight-lighted and having exact accuracy to detect emergency activity and longer battery durance. Thus, to address them, we propose a practical approach procedure for getting best minimum feature sets and classification accuracy. We also do experiments for comparing the two features reduction techniques and four classification techniques in order to discriminate five each basic human activities, such as fall for the aged care, walking, hand related shocks, walking with walker and lastly steady activity which includes no movement and slow arbitrary hand and body motions.

Chankyu Park, Jaehong Kim, Ho-jin Choi

Formal Verification of SyncML Protocol for Ubiquitous Data Coherence

In this paper, we have verified and specified synchronization protocol (SyncML). In wireless network environment and cloud system, SyncML protocol to maintain data consistency. Previous studies for protocol verification has demonstrated very limited area that selective utilizing of theorem proving or model checking approach. Thus, consistent with weak synchronization protocol was not discussed. In this study, a mixture of proof and model checking through the synchronization protocol verification method was tested for the entire area. To this end, we has formal specified finite state model for behavior and structure of the protocol. In addition, on the stability and finality of the synchronization protocol properties was defined as temporal logic and higher-order logic. On the other hand, data consistency and mutual exclusion property was proved through a sequential computation. In the process of model checking technology was used as a rule of inference. This study has two features and significance.

Seungsu Chun, Seungryong Lee, Donghoon Oh

Cloud Authentication Based on Anonymous One-Time Password

Cloud computing contains many enterprise applications that require from each user to perform authenticate at first step. Then, he will gain a permit from the service provider to access resources at second step. The issue breach remains facing a modern computing model. A more secure scheme is the

two-factor authentication

(2FA) that requires a second factor (such as finger print, token) with username/password. Nevertheless, the feasibility of 2FA is largely limited by high device cost, malicious attack and the deployment complexity. In this paper, we propose a scheme of 2FA in cloud computing systems that depends on

One-Time Password

(OTP),

Asymmetric Scalar-product Preserving Encryption

(ASPE) and RSA digital signature as two factors. Furthermore, it overcomes aforementioned issues and does not require extra devices such as token device, card reader in smart card and scanner in physiological biometrics. The proposed scheme distinguishes to resist practical attacks, high-security level, anonymous password, mutual authentication, identity management, the cloud server and a user can establish authenticated session keys, reduces the cost, and good performance.

Ali A. Yassin, Hai Jin, Ayad Ibrahim, Weizhong Qiang, Deqing Zou

Efficient Scalable Video Coding (SVC) Scheme for Multiple Channel Connections

Usually, a SVC encoding server can provide a single bitstream which has a fixed maximum service layer, to various kinds of devices which have different resources, capacities and performance, simultaneously. Nowadays, as mobile communication technology going on, rapidly, multiple channels are available to single user device in many cases. In this study, we propose new adaptive layer selection algorithm to cope with variation of available channel connections, for providing the maximized quality of video streaming in terms of the consumed power (complexity) of encoding server. To achieve this, the initial negotiation strategy of the connected device is designed based on the performance (decoding and rendering) of it. With initial connection, the proposed SVC encoder changes the proper maximum layers according to the connection status of multiple channels. Through experiments, we verify that the proposed scheme is very effective in terms of the consumed power (complexity) and memory usage of encoding server.

Chang-Ki Kim, Gwang-Soo Hong, Byung-Gyu Kim, Jeong-Bae Lee, Jeong-Ju Yoo

GIS-Based Analysis of Personal Accessibility Measures of Daily Travel

The urban transportation system plays a very important role in people’s daily travel and the purpose of this system is to improve the individual accessibility, so it’s of great significance to research the individual accessibility of travel. This paper reviews research on the development and exploration of the accessibility and points out an important shortcoming that the existing accessibility measurements have not yet been able to link daily activity patterns with long-term spatial behaviors of travelers. Based on the analyses of these facts, this paper presents a new understanding and approach to analyze the individual accessibility of travel, which provides an integrated model based on one’s daily life and personalized weight setting so as to qualify the index of the individual accessibility of daily travel. The result of the integrated approach can be used to analyze the change of accessibility in the same city in different time periods which may assist decision-making and the result can also provide reference data for the choice of his/her living or working place. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provide useful tools for analyzing accessibility. An integrated system was designed for implementing the integrated approach using ArcMap which is part of ArcGIS. The system was demonstrated through a case study in Shanghai in which an individual used the system to identify potential locations to live according to accessibility. The system has a strong practicability and applicability which provides a new powerful tool for the research of the individual accessibility of travel.

Chen Ni, Suxia Liu

Visual Analysis of Portable Computer Forensic Data

From the portable computer forensic data represented in a tabular form with the same pattern, it is not easy to find out features about user behaviors or draw relationships between data. Especially, it is almost impossible to detect the meaningful forensic evidences from the collected tabular-form data when large amounts of data are acquired and multiple data are needed to be analyzed at the same time. In this paper, we propose intuitive and visual analysis of forensic events using a graphic element not a tabular form to represent efficiently and meaningfully the collected portable forensic data.

Keonwoo Kim, Sung Kyong Un

A Universal Software Platform for a Smart Grid Service Gateway

The core technology of Universal Middleware is based on service-deliverable units that make it possible to take advantages of convergence in communication technology. This study focuses on the industrial technologies independently utilized as a component library for extension services. Besides, there are needs for the next generation services gateway model that was described as a unit model on Smart Grid service which is a part of both electric power (network) service and communication (network) service. And it is the motivation for developing the micro-grid infrastructure. This model is able to remotely distribute and deliver to the architecture. This architecture applied to quantification services has various applications such as remote decision, real-time decision and contents-oriented operation service. The proposed Universal Middleware solution provides management service to complementally different platforms. Experiments and performance evaluation of Universal Middleware have been carried out to justify the modular design and service-deliverable architecture with life cycle management. Throughout this research, USP-oriented Smart Grid gateway should universalize various technologies as an activator for entering into services gateway industries such as electric power service providers, convergence network service providers, and manufacturers with operators and end-users.

Hae-jun Lee, Dae-young Seo

Modeling the Collaborative User Groups and Their Effectiveness for the Contents Recommender

In this paper, we model the contents recommender which applies the collaborative filtering and the vector comparison techniques. The system mined the users’ usage history about consuming contents, suggested the user favorable contents. We constructed the usage history data set about 49 users for showing the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms, the results were showed that the collaborative filtering technologies are helpful to resolve the data sparseness problems in the contents recommender.

Saim Shin, Sung-Joo Park, Da-Hee Kim, Se-Jin Jang, Soek-Pil Lee

Analysis of Transmission Rate Using Zigbee Routing Protocol for u-Health

As aging population is increasing, the demand of medical systems for elder and chronic disease is also increasing. Recently ubiquitous health which is based wireless communication is being researched. Ubiquitous health is required a stability and durability for vital-sign transmission and monitoring. Ubiquitous Sensor Network (USN) ensures stable ubiquitous health environment. The network is the most important technique for implementation of efficient u-Health. We consider zigbee-based various topologies in order to build efficient network for u-Health system. We present transmission rate for each topology.

Min Woo Jung, Jeonghun Cho

MHB-Tree: A Distributed Spatial Index Method for Document Based NoSQL Database System

As the development of telecommunication technology and mobile device technology, geo-location data happened everywhere and every time from humans’ real life. Because all of the smart device’s applications are include spatial components now. When the traditional relational database cannot support the continuously flooded data, researchers developed key-value based NoSQL database system to meet this problem. But spatial data processes are rarely considered until now. In this case client user must have their own spatial data processing component to process the spatial data from NoSQL database. In this paper, we proposed a spatial index based on document based NoSQL which can distribute the spatial data by using the geo-hash method and can satisfy the high insert rate by using the b-tree based index method. At last we developed our method on OrientDB which is document based NoSQL.

Yan Li, GyoungBae Kim, LongRi Wen, HaeYoung Bae

Betweenness of Expanded Ego Networks in Sociality-Aware Delay Tolerant Networks

Recently, the consideration of social characteristics present a new angle of view in the design of data routing and dissemination in delay tolerant networks. Many social network studies have been undertaken using a ego network because it has the benefit of simplicity in data collection and gives statistically significant features about the entire network in many cases. In this paper, we newly define the

expanded ego network

by comprising the ego’s 2-hop neighbor nodes as well as the ego’s 1-hop ones. In delay tolerant networks, the expended ego network can be easily self-configured at a node and it can contain more network information than the ego network. Therefore, it is expected that the effectiveness of the expanded ego network will be higher than the one of the ego network in terms of data routing and dissemination. We examine that the relationship among the expanded ego betweenness, the ego betweenness, and the betweenness of the entire network for a node. By a simulation study, we show that the expanded ego betweenness is highly correlated with the betweenness of the entire network when the network is dense and its nodes are highly inter-related.

Yong-hwan Kim, Chan-Myung Kim, Youn-Hee Han, Young-Sik Jeong, Doo-Soon Park

Extending Grid Infrastructure Using Cloud Computing

The computational domain is becoming huge and complex. Cloud computing has begun as a general computing model to support processing large volumetric data using clusters of commodity computers. In recent years, there is a need for extension of Grid Infrastructure to provide dedicated resources to the user. Cloud computing can fulfill resource requirements with the help of virtualization technology. By integrating the cloud computing with grid infrastructure, resource usage can be satisfied as per user demand. In this paper Globus toolkit is used as the grid middleware for the extension of the grid infrastructure using eucalyptus cloud environment. Virtual machines deployed at the Grid resource would satisfy the needs of the user application. Virtualization in the context of Grid can be implemented by combining the GT4 and Eucalyptus features. Globus tool kit, the middleware for Grid computing added the virtual machines via the Eucalyptus to extend the Grid computing environment to access the external Cloud environment. Grid computing community shows research interests in deploying computing systems or test beds with virtual machines. The extension of the GT4 grid middleware using Eucalyptus cloud environment will help the user to execute the jobs remotely with maximum utilization of the resources.

N. Mohan Krishna Varma, Eunmi Choi

Experimental Development and Evaluation of IEEE 802.21 MIH for Enterprise WiMAX/WLAN Environments

IEEE 802.11 WLAN is being considered to handle rapidly growing mobile data requirements. IEEE 802.11 WLAN providing faster data rates than cellular, but mobility is not considered. In this paper, I propose that based on received from Around AP network information, selects candidate access AP networks and make-before-break handover WiMAX. Proposed scheme was evaluated in real environment which consists of WLAN Aps, Mobile WiMAX, and the performance of TCP throughput by moving devices to over time. The average TCP throughput of the proposed measures is 6.49 Mbps, and it showed approximate 40 % improvement by comparing conventional measures TCP throughput 9.04 Mbps.

Gyusun Yi, Eunchong Na, Sungwon Lee

Performance Evaluation for Efficient Complex Event Processing System According to Event Types and Environment

Complex event processing (CEP) is a relatively new technology for processing and analyzing multiple events from distributed sources, with the objective of extracting useful information from them. We need architecture of efficient complex event transporting and processing system according to event types and environment because of these events generate in various environment. It is not only generated in simple system but also generated complex system such as U-City, integrated meteorological information system (IMIS) that needs integration with other system using enterprise service bus (ESB) for extending system and enterprise event processing. In this paper, we propose the guideline of applying method for architecture of system that processes complex event using CEP engine and optimized transfer protocol according to characteristic of generated events and environment through performance test.

Duckwon Chung, Mino Ku, Yunjung Park, Dugki Min

Improved CloudSim for Simulating QoS-Based Cloud Services

CloudSim is useful tool for a simulation of cloud environment. CloudSim can view the availability, a power consumption, and a network traffic of services on cloud environment. However, CloudSim cannot support Quality of Service (QoS). Thus, this paper proposes a cloud-simulating system with QoS using CloudSim. Providing CloudSim with a priority queue is basic solution for offering QoS. Additionally, this paper introduces implementation of priority queue in CloudSim. Proposed system is able to control cloudlets with priority and process them differentially. This advanced CloudSim shows faster complete time than default system in time-sharing policy.

Jun-Kwon Jung, Nam-Uk Kim, Sung-Min Jung, Tai-Myoung Chung

An Improved Divisibility Test Algorithm for Primality Testing

Security of information is a major concern now a days in the world. Cryptography plays a major role in ensuring the safety of the information that is being transferred over the internet or any unsecure medium. Prime Numbers are very important aspect of any Cryptographic System and play a major role in ensuring the safety of the concerned Cryptographic System. Currently there are various algorithms used for checking that a particular number is a prime or not. Few of the commonly used algorithms are Divisibility Test, Fermat Test, and Chinese Primality Test etc. This paper proposes an enhancement in the Divisibility Primality Testing algorithm that reduces the number of comparisons to be made and thus enhancing the performance of the algorithm. In addition to this the pseudo code and implementation code of the improved algorithm are provided in detail. An analysis and comparison of the existing algorithm and the enhanced algorithm is also presented in the given paper.

Arjun Kumar, TaeYong Kim, HoonJae Lee

IRDT-GEDIR: Next-Hop Selection in Intermittent Wireless Multihop Sensor Networks

Intermittent Receiver-driven Data Transmission (IRDT) realizes low-power communication between neighbor sensor nodes. This paper proposes combination IRDT-GEDIR of IRDT and GEDIR which is an on-demand location-based ad-hoc routing protocol. Here, pseudo speed of data message transmission is applied for next-hop selection in an intermediate node and on-line determination of its next-hop node is realized by calculation of expectation of pseudo speed provided by its neighbor nodes which have not yet enter their active mode. Here, for estimation of pseudo speed for neighbor nodes which are still in their sleep mode, a solution of the secretaries problem is applied. Finally, a brief evaluation of the performance of the proposed IRDT-GEDIR in one-hop transmissions of data messages results in reduction of transmission delay.

Takanori Takehira, Hiroaki Higaki

XML-RPC Driven UCR Broker

Broker oriented solution can handle fast and reliable communication issue between robot and controller. A number of users can communicate in a flexible way if they use broker server between each other. In this research XML-RPC driven UCR Broker was introduced as a flexible solution to satisfy reliable and lower latency in robot control. Additionally UCR Broker can provide communication between various protocols such as Bluetooth, ZigBee, UDP and TCP. As a result of this work UCR Common Broker library was designed. Using this library, developers can easily create robotics related applications that provides flexibility and scalability in a communication.

Rustam Rakhimov Igorevich, Eldor Primov Ismoilovich, Dugki Min

A Study on Network Latency in the Concentric Clustering Scheme

A wireless sensor network is composed of numerous sensor nodes. There are two kinds of routing protocol for sensor neworks such as a flat-based and a hierarchical-based routing protocol. In a hierarchial-based routing protocol, the role of sensor nodes is different to reduce their energy consumption. In our previous paper, we proposed concentric clustering scheme to reduce the total residual energy of a sensor network. It is one of hierarchical-based routing protocols. There are some simulation result to show that the scheme is better than existing routing protocol. However, their are no consideration of the wireless communication characteristics in this simulation result. We should to apply these characteristics to the scheme to get precise simulation result. In particular, the network letency is important factor in the wireless communication. So, we proposed the approaches to apply network latency by using some equations. We compare a total residual energy between a conecentric clustering scheme with a consideration of network latency and without it. As shown the simulation results, energy consumption from network latency is significant and we should to apply it to get the practical simulation results.

Sung-Min Jung, Tae-Kyung Kim, Tai-Myoung Chung

Social Cooperative Networking Framework Based on UCR Broker

This paper gives insight into framework which consists of inexpensive hardware and software which permits interaction of robots, arbitrary controller devices and Social Web page controllers. Robots are controlled through different kinds of devices and social network web pages. Since communication between robots and controllers goes through UCR Broker, new types of robots or controllers can be added easily using APIs provided by UCR Broker. These features of the framework let build platform where kids cooperate to play games being remote from each other with affordable and inexpensive devices.

Eldor Primov Ismoilovich, Rustam Rakhimov Igorevich, Dugki Min

Ontology Usability Assessment Model for Context Information Process

The existing context-aware system just can decide the simple state, so that can’t satisfied with the needs of person. For supplying the more complex and high service to context-aware environment progress many research about ontology mechanism in order to represent the context information. Because ontology implies that knowledge to determine the specific situation and it takes a lot of time on the reasoning, performance of inference and accurate representation of ontology. Therefore ontology usability assessment is important to ensure the context information process for context-aware system. So, this study present the model that assess the usability of ontology and suggest the ontology building method to context-aware service which is combine an usability assessment model with the previous ontology building method. So, we find a way to increase the ontology usability in various applications.

Sukyoung Kim, Eungha Kim, Youngil Choi

Wearable P2P Communication System Organization on Digital Yarn

A wearable computing has been proposed as an alternative to the best computing interfaces and devices for these ubiquitous computing. A digital garment accounts a key element of wearable computing. We will apply digital yarn as a material of data communications for the purpose to take advantage a digital garment. This paper proposes the architecture and transmission processes for peer-to-peer (P2P) communications using a digital yarn.

Tae-Gyu Lee, Gi-Soo Chung

An Energy Optimized Unequal Clustering Routing Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

Energy conservation of sensors in wireless network is very important since the battery of a sensor node cannot be replaced. In this paper, we propose an energy efficient base station assisted routing protocol in wireless sensor network, named EOUCR, which uses the base station to control the overhead of sensor nodes and create clusters of sensors. Main idea of BSAH is based on the concept of UCR, which groups the nodes into clusters of unequal sizes. Cluster heads closer to the base station have smaller cluster sizes than those farther from the base station, thus they can reserve some energy for the inter-cluster data forwarding. EOUCR combines the benefit of several clustering schemes to maximize the lifetime of sensor nodes and introduces several new features to enhance the performance of sensors. We compare the performance of BSAH with HEED, BCDCP and UCR and the simulation results show that EOUCR achieves a good improvement on network lifetime.

Nurhayati Nurhayati, Gan Bayar, KyoungOh Lee

Augmented Reality Based Bridge Information System Using Smartphone

Augmented reality is the technology which combines a virtual world and a real world. Nowadays a variety of studies in many areas related to augmented reality have been carried out. The construction industry is being watched in the utilization of augmented reality because all work in the construction industry is conducted from the basis of the complicated design and facilities. In this paper, we propose a bridge information system (BIS) based on augmented reality that a smart-phone provides the information of a bridge. In our system, a user is able to retrieve the information of the bridge anytime and anywhere.

Sung-Han Bae, Gi-Yeol Lee, HwaMin Lee

Ant-Based Routing Protocol for Energy Efficient Use in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Ant colony optimization (ACO) routing algorithm is one of adaptive and efficient algorithms for mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). In wireless ad hoc networks, energy utilization is perhaps the most important issue, routing is very much energy-constrained. In this paper, an ant-based energy efficient routing protocol (AEERP) is proposed in MANETs. In AEERP routing protocol, the route choice is dependent on not only hops between nodes, but also the energy consumed in transmitting packets and the residual energy of nodes, it increases the battery lifetime of the nodes by reducing the repetitive use of these nodes. Simulation results show that AEERP can balance the energy consumption of nodes in the network and extends the network lifetime. AEERP has better performance than AntHocNet and MMBCR in balanced energy use and network lifetime.

Jipeng Zhou, Jianzhu Lu, Jin Li

A Study on the Framework of the Security-Based E-commerce Applications

With the development of Internet, e-commerce is emerging as the key and hot transaction approach in the near future. However, more and more concerns about the security have been raised within these decades due to the confidentiality and privacy aspects through Internet. This paper introduces the related technologies in e-commerce development and proposes a detailed analysis of the existing Internet network and business security issues in e-commerce process. Given an electronic transaction process, this paper aims to achieve the security of e-commerce application framework. Several aspects of the development of e-commerce security technology, as well as the development of electronic commerce are taken measures in the paper.

Jianhong Li

Fast and Secure Handover into Visited WLAN Networks

Generally, the re-authentication procedure in a visited network causes a large delay during a secure handover that always involves communication with the home network. Most existing solutions are based on pre-authentication between the different domains, which needs to statically build the roaming agreement between each pair of domains, and cannot support dynamic and flexible cooperation for them. In this paper, we propose a fast re-authentication scheme, based on an authentication token mechanism to reduce the secure handover delay. The authentication token is issued by the home authentication server. The proposed protocol eliminates the need for communication between the target and the user’s home networks for credentials verification. Numerical results obtained from a series of simulations show that the proposed scheme enhances handover parameters such as authentication latency and handover blocking probability.

Imen El Bouabidi, Faouzi Zarai, Mohammad S. Obaidat, Lotfi Kamoun

Congestion Control for Cognitive Multi-channel Wireless Mesh Networks

Wireless mesh networks that are becoming popular as Internet back-bones suffer interference from various wireless devices operating on ISM bands as well as their own mesh nodes. Promising multi-channel and multi-radio cognitive wireless mesh networks should avoid such interference effectively by scavenging less loaded channels dynamically using periodic spectrum sensing and distributed channel selection algorithm. In this paper, we study a congestion control problem in cognitive multi-channel wireless mesh networks. We first identify two inherent constraints which are specific to multi-channel multi-radio wireless mesh networks and primary user interference. We then formulate a congestion control problem based on the well-known network utility maximization (NUM) framework, solve the problem in a distributed manner, and demonstrate the convergence of flow rates.

Wonyong Yoon, Wooseong Kim

Exploiting Virtual Channel Flash Management Issue for Cost-Efficient NAND Usage in Mobile Devices

The recent evolution of NAND flash memory technologies has lead wealthy memory and storage space not only for system usage, but also user’s preferences. Despite of the dramatic increase of flash capacity, the bandwidth of flash memory does not much evolved. Rather, the bandwidth of flash memory decreases due to the memory manufacture technologies. To overcome the bandwidth shrink for one flash memory interface, manufactures pack several flash memory die into one flash memory package, and the package interface is connected to host controller. However, this packaging could increase hardware and firmware overhead in terms of device complexity and cost. To mitigate cost issue of flash system development, we design and implement cost-efficient virtual channel based FTL. In the designed virtual channel FTL, the raw NAND chip is virtually divided into several regions, and each region is allocated to each virtual channel. Although the virtual channels cannot keep up with physical channels since all the channel cannot be utilized at the same time, it has better utilization of NAND flash chip with single channel FTL.

Seung-Ho Lim, Min Choi, Young-Sik Jeong

Event-Aware Topology Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the data delivery models, such as periodic, event-driven, have implications on the overall network topology. In this paper, a distributed event-aware topology management scheme, for WSN, is proposed. The proposed scheme, named as Event-Aware Topology Management (EATM), periodically constructs the network topology on the basis of the current event state, and the state of the nodes of the network. EATM partitions the network into clusters, and uses concepts intertwined with the concepts of

Facility Location Theory

, in a distributed manner, for reducing the energy dissipation of the event monitoring nodes by reducing their average transmission distance. Simulation results show that EATM can reduce the average transmission distance of event monitoring nodes by 30 % over LEACH and HEED. It is also shown that EATM is able to conserve 15 % energy of event-monitoring nodes and enhances the network lifetime by at least 5 % time.

Sankar Narayan Das, Sudip Misra, Mohammad S. Obaidat

Implementation of Disaster Broadcasting System for Efficient Situation Management Using Mobile Devices

This study is implementation of Disaster Broadcasting System for efficient situation management. Disaster Management is process embraces measures which enable governments, communities and individuals to respond rapidly to disaster situations to cope with them effectively.

Geum Young Min, Hyoung Seop Shim, Duke Hoon Jeong

Golf Ball Bouncing Model Based on Real Images

This paper proposes a more accurate bouncing model based on real trajectories for golf ball. The suggested bouncing model considers the spin of a golf ball, as well as the elasticity and friction of the grass, based on impulse. To measure the accuracy of the model, the trajectories of the ball on a green and fairway were filmed with a camera. As the bouncing model was adjusted based on the real trajectory of the ball extracted from the video, its accuracy is improved.

Seongmin Baek, Myunggyu Kim

Study on Low-Power Transmission Protocols for ZigBee Wireless Network-Based Remote Biosignal Monitoring Systems

This study uses low-power, low-speed ZigBee sensors with defined network and application layers based on the media access and physical layers of Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN). ZigBee sensor nodes were connected to Personal Health Devices (PHD), which measure the biosignals of patients, to form a wireless network. We do not apply generalized ad-hoc routing protocols or tree structures but instead are proposing modified hop-count routing protocols using the WBSS characteristic of IEEE 802.11p. This is because sensor nodes operate from fixed positions and smartphones, which play the gateway role, has the characteristic of constantly shifting location, from the patient’s hand and ears to neraby desks. We used 3 PHDs (ECG, pulse and blood pressure) and connected ZigBee modules using external batteries to confirm whether normal service was being performed.

Young-Hyuk Kim, Il-Kown Lim, Jae-Pil Lee, Jae-Gwang Lee, Jae-Kwang Lee

Security Enhancements of a Mutual Authentication Scheme Using Smart Cards

Password-based authentication schemes have been widely adopted to protect resources from unauthorized access. In 2008, Liu et al. proposed a new mutual authentication scheme using smart cards which can withstand the forgery attack. In this paper, we analyze the security of Liu et al.’s scheme, and we show that Liu et al.’s scheme is still vulnerable to the various attacks. Also, we propose the enhanced scheme to overcome these security weaknesses and provide mutual authentication between the user and the server, even if the secret information stored in the smart card is revealed by an attacker. As a result of security analysis, the enhanced scheme is more secure than Liu et al.’s scheme.

Younghwa An, Youngdo Joo

Research on Meteorology Indices Forecasting Framework based on Hybrid Cloud Computing Platforms

With the development of cloud computing, the whole internet computing has entered an era of high-performance computing and application. Cloud computing makes it possible for resources to be transacted as goods, and for anyone at any time and any place to make use of the mighty power of cloud computing. As is known to all, the meteorological science involves large amount of data and high demand of calculation. In order to improve the accuracy and timeliness of meteorology indices forecasting computing in this paper, employing cloud computing technology in the high performance computing, a meteorological science data computing and process control framework based on hybrid clouds is put forward. And with the practical application, the usability, feasibility and expansibility of this framework has been proved. A large number of evaluation data has demonstrated that this framework can provide higher computational efficiency and prediction products with higher resolution time.

Jia Fu, Junchao Wang, Lu Jing, Chen Zhenghong, Mingqiong He

Qualitative Analysis of Skull Stripping Accuracy for MRI Brain Images

Skull stripping isolates brain from the non-brain tissues. It supplies major significance in medical and image processing fields. Nevertheless, the manual process of skull stripping is challenging due to the complexity of images, time consuming and prone to human errors. This paper proposes a qualitative analysis of skull stripping accuracy for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain images. Skull stripping of eighty MRI images is performed using Seed-Based Region Growing (SBRG). The skull stripped images are then presented to three experienced radiologists for visual qualitative evaluation. The level of accuracy is divided into five categories of “over delineation”, “less delineation”, “slightly over delineation”, “slightly less delineation” and “correct delineation”. Primitive statistical methods are calculated to examine the skull stripping performances. In another note, Fleiss Kappa statistical analysis is used to measure the agreement among radiologists. The qualitative performances analysis proved that the SBRG is an effective technique for skull stripping.

Shafaf Ibrahim, Noor Elaiza Abdul Khalid, Mazani Manaf, Mohd Ezane Aziz

A Community Detection Scheme in Delay-Tolerant Networks

Social analysis and community structure detection present a new angle of view in the design of data routing and dissemination in delay tolerant networks (DTNs). However, most community detection schemes developed in the context of sociology cannot be applied to DTNs since they have been designed without the consideration of the dynamic aspect of DTNs where the network topology changes and evolves over times. In this paper, we propose a new community detection algorithm which runs in a distributed and real-time manner and thus can be used in time-varying networks like DTNs. From the performance study, we show that our algorithm well adapts to dynamically changing networks.

Chan-Myung Kim, In-Seok Kang, Youn-Hee Han, Chan Yeol Park

Modified Reflective Petri Net for Performance Evaluation of Policy-Driven ASBS

The adaption behavior of policy-driven ASBS is very flexible, while the performance of system is remarkably affected by the autonomy of Web services and dynamics of environments. In order to facilitate the design of efficient adaptive policy, it is important to have mechanisms to evaluate system performance. The performance evaluation of policy-driven ASBS is generally difficult due to the complexity of adaptive policies, particularly, when involving unpredictable dynamic environments. In this paper, we proposed modified Reflective Petri Net (mRPN) to analyze the effect of adaptive policy on system performance in different environments. The business behavior and adaptive behavior are modeled separately in mRPN for easy specify and independent analysis, also the model provides performance evaluate ability without changing the foundation of Petri Net. Through an example, we illustrate the use of mRPN in policy-driven ASBS modeling and performance evaluation procedure.

Liang Ge, Bin Zhang, Changsheng Zhang, Fei Li

Roadside Traffic Sensor Based Location-Aware Service for Road-Users

This paper proposes new roadside sensors technologies for location-aware service to drivers in real-time. Our target service is warning information alarm services in a vehicle about obstacles and pedestrian in dangerous situation for approaching drivers. For this services, we are installed some kind of roadside traffic sensors which have abilities about classification and positioning of road objects, such as a vehicle, a pedestrian, and obstacles in a street. In this paper, we describe the service framework and the results of an implementation at road environment about traffic sensors. This suggested sensing system should help in improved system operation with better road-awareness service, traffic monitoring, detection and development of new methods.

Jeong Ah Jang, Dong Yong Kwak

Entropy-Based Grouping Techniques for Resource Management in Mobile Cloud Computing

Recently, research on utilizing mobile devices as resources in mobile cloud environments has been gaining attention because of the enhanced computing power of mobile devices, with the advent of quad-core chips. Such research is also motivated by the advance of communication networks as well as the growing population of users of smart phones, tablet PCs, and other mobile devices. This trend has led researchers to investigate the utilization of mobile devices in cloud computing. However, mobile devices have several problems such as characteristics of the mobility, low memory, low battery, and low communication bandwidth. Especially, the mobility of mobile device causes system faults more frequently, and system faults prevent application using mobile devices from being processed reliably. Therefore, groups are classified according to the availability and mobility to manage reliable resource. In this paper, we make groups of mobile devices by measuring the behavior of mobile devices and calculating the entropy.

Ji Su Park, EunYoung Lee

A Deadlock Detection Algorithm Using Gossip in Cloud Computing Environments

To detection deadlock in distributed systems, the initiator should construct a global wait-for graph in an efficient way. In this paper, we present a deadlock detection algorithm using gossip for cloud computing environments where each node may leave and join at any time. Due to its inherit properties of a gossip protocol, we claim that our proposed deadlock detection algorithm is scalable and fault-tolerant. The amortized message complexity of our proposed algorithm is

O

(

n

), where

n

is the number of nodes. Our evaluation over scalable settings shows that our approach has a significant merit to solve scalability and fault-tolerance problems over existing algorithms.

JongBeom Lim, TaeWeon Suh, HeonChang Yu

Detecting Return Oriented Programming by Examining Positions of Saved Return Addresses

In the recent years, return-oriented programming (ROP) has become the most widely used exploitation technique, achieving arbitrary code execution without injecting any code at all. This is possible by executing small sequences of assembly instructions found in binaries, also known as

gadgets

. Gadgets cannot do complex operations by themselves but when chained together, they can do any arbitrary operations theoretically. There were many mitigations proposed in the past but they either introduced large overhead or were too complex. In this paper, we propose a simple method of detecting ROP attacks by calculating distance between saved return addresses in the runtime stack. Examined ROP exploits which were published on the Internet resulted short distances between return addresses, which are gadget addresses, compared to that of normal control flow of the program. Our method can be used as a stand-alone tool or part of sequential checks in existing tools.

Jae-Won Min, Sung-Min Jung, Tai-Myoung Chung

Evaluation of DRAM Power Consumption in Server Platforms

Low power computing issues become bigger and bigger for cost saving and environment. In case of CPU, DVFS technique can save runtime energy consumption. Fortunately, DRAM is usable at various frequency levels and we might use it for low power computing. Through the experiment, we find strong relationship between memory usage pattern of benchmark and power consumption before modeling and scheduling.

Hyeonsang Eom, Chanho Choi, Shin-gyu Kim, Heon Y. Yeom

Toggle Keyboard: Design and Implementation of a New Keyboard Application Based on Android

Smartphones are becoming more advanced and the use of touch input is increasing. Therefore, various keyboards can be implemented in smartphones. Unlike a button input method, a touch input method can have non-fixed keys that can be freely arranged. Many users are thus interested in the touch input method. In this paper, a user keyboard input method based on Android is proposed and implemented. Compared with conventional methods, the proposed method results in a rapid improvement in typing speed.

Tae-Kyu Yeom, Ji Soo Park, Il-Ho Park, Jong Hyuk Park

Efficient Mobile Device Management Scheme Using Security Events from Wireless Intrusion Prevention System

In this paper, we present an efficient mobile device management scheme using security events from wireless intrusion prevention system. In this scheme, mobile device management (MDM) system utilizes the wireless security events such as rogue access point connection information, room-level indoor location of the managed device and other WLAN attack information from the wireless intrusion prevention system (WIPS) in its mobile device management. So, it is possible to provide a better way to secure and manage wireless LAN and large-scale deployments of mobile devices.

Hyeokchan Kwon, Sin-Hyo Kim

Extending Context Management for Proactive Adaptation in Pervasive Environments

Proactive Adaptation enables application not only to react to changes in context, but to choose, whether they adapt themselves or the context based on context prediction. This can lead to more stable configurations and thus a higher user satisfaction. An integral part of proactive adaptation is context management. In contrast to reactive approaches that typically only read context information, proactive adaptation requires the integration of context manipulation via actuators. Further, the unsteady nature of predictions requires a form of notification. We present a comprehensive approach that offers both.

Sebastian VanSyckel, Gregor Schiele, Christian Becker

Implementation of 3D Deformable Objects on Smart Devices Using FFD-AABB Algorithm

Due to the enriched hardware technology and release of various types of applications, the world’s smart device market has been rapidly expanded these days. Since smart devices can be used anytime and anywhere using wireless internet environment, the game market is swiftly moving to smart devices rather than PC or console game environment. Recently, some game applications have tried to apply 3D graphic physics engine, because smart device game users have been attracted to more realistic or plausible game environments. However, current smart devices cannot sufficiently provide enough computing power for highly detailed 3D object representation and associated physics based animation. In this paper, we designed and implemented an enhanced FFD-AABB algorithm for a mobile physics engine to better represent 3D deformable objects on iPhone environments. In addition, this paper analyzed the performance of enhanced FFD-AABB algorithm including collision detection and response process for refined 3D deformable objects on smart devices.

Min Hong, Jae-Hong Jeon, Dong-Ik Oh, Min-Hyung Choi

Social Activity-Based Content Metadata Modeling

As Web 2.0 and social network service become sophisticated, knowledge generation and sharing activity become diversified. Especially, the contents that individuals have generated on SNC are informal and unofficial, but they provide the value as the information that can be provided just in time. Therefore, this study suggests the social activity-based contents metadata model (SACoM) for explaining and managing interactive activity elements generated on SNC and contents type that is changeable in real time. The SACoM model consists of interaction type and contents type expansion based on IEEE LOM. For the interaction type, the SNC activity element is added to the existing interactive element, and the contents type is subdivided into the real-time changeable type for expressing the real-time interaction activities and the fixed type for expressing the existing contents.

KyungRog Kim, YongSub Lee, Nammee Moon

Development of Smart Phone Apps as Active Learning Tools for U-Learning and its Learning Process for Middle School Students

Due to the advent of fancy smart technology, various kinds of Apps based on smart phones have been developed recently. Many universities and research centers started to organize their own App Centers a few years ago to construct their own software and content. Among Apps, the Apps for ubiquitous learning are also popular. In this paper, we design and develop new Apps that can help the interaction between instructors and students in classrooms and out of classrooms for active learning. Our Apps are developed based on MIT’s App Inventor and Google App Engine. With the database stored in Google App Engine, instructors can give their students multiple-choice questions and closed-answer questions. Also, the students can ask questions to their teachers during class and after school. By doing these, the teachers can examine both performance assessments and students’ attendances at the same time. Our Apps can also be used as a questionnaire tool for courses. In this paper, we also describe the learning process for middle school students who have no programming experience on smart phone Apps with KWLN charts. In this paper, we also describe how we used KWLN charts for our students’ programming skills as an instruction method.

Chan Jung Park, Jae Hee Kang, Myung Jin Kim, Ye Rim Yu, Hyo Sang Kim, Jung Suk Hyun

User Interface Design Model for Supporting Multi Interaction Content Creation

The method of contents interaction is changing to a way of direct control. Also, participation of general users in contents creation is steadily increasing. Reflecting this trend, the software that supports contents creation is also diversifying. The purpose of this study is in drawing the UI design framework of software for creating contents that satisfies usability in the creation phase and various interactive effects in the consumption phase. The framework that was drawn as the result of this study, ‘MASIIC (Make A Software uI for Interactive Content)’, consists of five models: business rule model, creation role model, creation flow model, creation action model, and presentation model. It draws the details of the business rule model for software business and provides more valuable elements that attract user experience through user’s intention and creation action task modeling.

Jung-Min Oh, Ginam Ko, Kyong-Ah Kim, Nammee Moon

An Adaptive Unchoking Algorithm for Efficient Mobile P2P Streaming in Wireless LAN

With the development of broadband wireless network technologies, the demand on video streaming technologies over wireless network has increased drastically. P2P streaming technology is adopted in the wireless environments to expropriate the demand on mobile video, because of its scalability. However, the wireless channel condition varies from time to time due to several reasons, such as node’s movement, symmetric resource allocation, etc. It is hard to provide P2P streaming services in wireless environments, because it is not easy to guarantee the upload and download bandwidth. In order to ensure overall service quality in mobile P2P streaming environments, an unchoking algorithm, that reflects the time-varying wireless channel status, is necessary. In this paper, we propose the adaptive unchoking algorithm that determines the maximum number of unchoked peer, depending on the network status and selects the peers to exchange the stream piece (chunk).

Hun-Hoi Choi, Geun-Hyung Kim

WS-DIRECT: Web Service—Discoverability, Recoverability, Classifiability and Trustworthiness

Despite the growing use of Web Services by many organizations, there are several issues that are slowing their deployment. First, different providers may offer the same service with similar functionalities, so the service discovery is becoming complicated. Second, the context of Web Service is dynamic and several kinds of changes and faults may arise after deploying them. An easy solution to this issue is to reselect the service every time changes and faults occur. However, it is not feasible due to the high complexity of the reselection, which may lead to an extra delay and influence the performance of the services. Third, considering the untrusted communication environment in which Web Services operate, there is a trustworthiness issue. In order to deal with these issues, in this paper, we propose the WS-DIRECT framework. In this framework, first, discoverability is provided through a Functional-Level Mediation which is semantic discovery mechanism. Second, recoverability is handled through self-healing cycle which has three phases such as monitoring, diagnosis and repair. In addition, classifiability is provided by Decision Tree based Web Service classification mechanism which is able to predict the performance and minimizes number of reselections. Fourth, trustworthiness is maintained through ontology-based security mechanism. We will provide an implementation of proposed framework and efficiency measurements through performance evaluation.

Aziz Nasridinov, Jeongyong Byun

Task Replication and Scheduling Based on Nearest Neighbor Classification in Desktop Grids

The desktop grids are a kind of grid computing that incorporates desktop resources into grid infrastructure. In desktop grids, it is important that fast turnaround time is guaranteed in the presence of the dynamic properties such as volatility and heterogeneity. In this paper, we propose a nearest neighbor (NN)-based task scheduling that can selectively allocate tasks to those resources that are suitable for the current situation of a desktop grid environment. The experimental results show that our scheduling is more efficient than the existing scheduling with respect to reducing both turnaround time and the number of resources consumed.

Joon-Min Gil, SungSuk Kim, JongHyuk Lee

Information Technology Strategy Incorporating Dynamic Pricing in the Business Model of the Future

With the continuous development of Information Technology towards the Consumer Electronic area, consumers are provided with invaluable and powerful information for consumption purposes. This has imposed strangle-hold competitive pressures on businesses, especially retailers. The proposed Dynamic Pricing Model discussed in this research will provide the supply chain business partners of industry a strategic weapon to counter-balance the increased consumer competitive power. The main thrust of the model is predicated on the use of Information Technology to massively collect consumer data (Big Data) and apply pertinent Business Analytics to develop appropriate Consumer Utility-Value in the form of an index. This complex index can give businesses, especially retailers the ability to price their products/services according to the utility value it can generate based on the real-time desires/necessities of the consumers. By such practice, it is perceivable that additional revenues can be obtained without increase in costs, with the exception of the Information Technology and Business Analytics efforts.

David S. Kung, Frank Lin, Harold Dyck

A Motion and Haptic System for Immersive Games

This paper presents a motion and haptic feedback game prototype where a user can be provided the same sensation as if he/she rides a real horse and shoots a rifle on the horse. In the proposed system, we measure the user’s motion and use the measured motion for natural interaction with virtual objects. To simulate the behavior of horse riding, we create the horse’s motion with cylinders, solenoid valves, and electric motors. We conduct an experiment in order to investigate whether the proposed prototype increases a sense of reality. To evaluate the proposed system, nine persons experience two kinds of game; one with motion feedback, and the other without motion feedback. The experimental result shows that the sense of reality of the proposed platform is better than that of the conventional platform.

Sang-Youn Kim, Dong-Soo Choi, Kyeong-Jin Jeon
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