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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Intelligence and Computing, UIC 2010, held in Banff, Canada, September 2011.

The 44 papers presented together with two keynote speeches were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The papers address all current issues in smart systems and services, smart objects and environments, cloud and services computing, security, privacy and trustworthy, P2P, WSN and ad hoc networks, and ubiquitous intelligent algorithms and applications.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Keynote Speech

Internet of Things and Cloud Computing for Future Internet

In recent years, Internet of Things (IoT) and Cloud Computing are the hottest issues of Future Internet. The IoT is the most important concept of Future Internet for providing a common global IT Platform to combine seamless networks and networked things. Cloud Computing provides backend solution for processing huge data streams and computations while facing the challenges of everything will be connected with seamless networks in the future. However, there is a lack of common fabric for integrating IoT and Cloud. In telecommunications, the IMS (IP Multimedia Subsystem) based on the All-IP and Open Services Architecture has been regarded as the trend for Next Generation Network (NGN). We believe that the IMS communication platform is the most suitable fabric for integrating IoT and Cloud. In this study, we will provide the discussion of open challenges and possible solutions for Future Internet.

Han-Chieh Chao

Networking of Vehicles - Applications, Challenges and Some Recent Results

Recent advances in wireless communication technologies are making it possible for automobiles to be integrated into the global network. Intelligent Transportation Systems with vehicles in the loop are expected to significantly improve road safety, reduce traffic congestion and cut greenhouse gas emissions. This is made possible in the USA by Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC), which employs the IEEE 802.11p standard over the 75MHz of spectrum in the 5.9 GHz band allocated by the FCC for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. DSRC is expected to revolutionize road transportation by making possible many real-time safety applications. However, global deployment of DSRC is not expected to materialize in the near term due to regulatory and financial challenges. In the meantime, vehicles and their passengers are increasingly equipped with different forms of wireless networking capabilities, e.g., cellular, WiFi and WiMAX. Thus there is also a growing interest in supporting applications like infotainment, travel advisory, route planning, etc., using heterogeneous wireless networks. In this presentation, I shall describe several applications that leverage the wireless communications to put vehicles in the loop. Different applicants impose different requirements on the wireless network for data routing, transfer latency, etc. I shall review the technical challenges that need to be overcome to meet some of these requirements, and describe solutions developed in our recent research to meet these challenges. I shall conclude the presentation by discussing some future research directions.

Victor C. M. Leung

Smart Systems and Services

Ubiquitous Meeting Facilitator with Playful Real-Time User Interface

Effective group meetings are important for the productivity of corporations. But many meetings do not achieve their goals because some people are too shy to speak while others are too dominant. To avoid the cost and intrusiveness of human meeting facilitation and to increase self-awareness of conversation behaviors, various types of meeting facilitators have been developed over the past couple of years. We present a prototype that is unique because it captures both individual and group behaviors and provides

real time

playful feedback. The portable prototype includes a set of table-top microphones with an audio interface to a laptop PC, where audio data are processed and an avatar-based UI displays the shared state of individual and group behaviors during a meeting. The interface reveals not only level of participation, but also several other meaningful but harder to detect behaviors such as turn taking, interruptions, and group laughter. The presentation’s design is deliberately playful to keep participants monitor, self-estimate and improve their meeting behavior.

Ying Zhang, Marshall Bern, Juan Liu, Kurt Partridge, Bo Begole, Bob Moore, Jim Reich, Koji Kishimoto

An Application of the Wireless Sensor Network Technology for Foehn Monitoring in Real Time

Foehn is one of the common climate phenomena in Taiwan because of geographical factors. The foehn is associated with high temperature and low humidity, which often leads to plant death and even causes serious forest fires. The natural disaster relief fund in Taiwan has covered the loss caused by the foehn. However, no monitoring system has been developed for the foehn, so farmers are not able to immediately obtain foehn-related information and activate necessary schemes for disaster reduction. The research aims at foehn detection and uses the wireless sensor network technology to build a real-time system to monitor foehn. Since the characteristics of wireless sensor networks are low costs, unmanned control and transmission distance up to 80 meters, it is feasible to apply the networks to environmental monitoring. When foehn occurs, the wireless communication devices in the proposed monitoring system will transmit the temperature and humidity information collected by monitoring stations to the gateway module, and sprinkler module action immediately for cooling and increasing humidity to protect the plants from pericarp damage or fruit drop phenomenon caused by foehn.

Chih-Yang Tsai, Yu-Fan Chen, Hsu-Cheng Lu, Chi-Hung Lin, Jyh-Cherng Shieh, Chung-Wei Yen, Jeng-Lung Huang, Yung-Shun Lin, Ching-Lu Hsieh, Joe-Air Jiang

Proactive Ambient Social Media for Supporting Human Decision Making

Since our daily life is becoming more and more complex, it is difficult to make a decision for a variety of occurrences in our daily life. Of course, the Internet gives us a possibility to reactively find necessary information through search engines or browsing hyperlinks among Web pages. But, it requires users understand what they like to know and what they should do for finding the currently necessary information. Also, they need great efforts to collect a set of necessary information reactively for making their decisions. It requires us always continue to be rational to think consciously with heavy cognitive load. If users receive necessary information proactively using information technologies, it is helpful to make reasonable decisions without heavy cognition, and their daily lives will become less stressful and more pleasurable due to desirable decision making.

We are developing several case studies to support the user’s decision making in our daily life by returning necessary information proactively, and the information is embodied into our daily environment to avoid information overload. This paper shows two case studies and analyzes them to make our daily life more desirable. The purpose of the analysis is to understand the current status of proactive ambient social media and to identify a set of future challenges.

Tatsuo Nakajima, Tetsuo Yamabe, Mizuki Sakamoto

Social Interaction Mining in Small Group Discussion Using a Smart Meeting System

In this paper, we propose a mining method to discover high-level semantic knowledge about human social interactions in small group discussion, such as frequent interaction patterns, the role of an individual (e.g., the “centrality” or “power”), subgroup interactions (e.g., two persons often interact with each other), and hot sessions. A smart meeting system is developed for capturing and recognizing social interactions. Interaction network in a discussion session is represented as a graph. Interaction graph mining algorithms are designed to analyze the structure of the networks and extract social interaction patterns. Preliminary results show that we can extract several interesting patterns that are useful for interpretation of human behavior in small group discussion.

Zhiwen Yu, Xingshe Zhou, Zhiyong Yu, Christian Becker, Yuichi Nakamura

Probabilistic Path Selection in Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks for Stochastic Events Detection

Mobile sensors cover more area over a fixed period of time than the same number of stationary sensors. With the combination of communication and mobility capabilities, we can envision a new class of proactive networks that are able to adapt themselves, via physical movement, to meet the need of different applications. In this paper we consider the following event capture problem: The stochastic events arrive at certain points, called points of interesting (PoIs), in the sensor field with a long enough duration time. Mobile sensors visit all PoIs start from Base Station (BS) with a fixed velocity and finally return to BS. An event is said to be captured if it is sensed by one of the mobile sensors before it fades away. Due to the over-detection problem when ever mobile sensors blindly visit every PoIs with the same interval time, we propose a general event detection framework (EDF) for mobile sensors using probabilistic path selection (PPS) protocol to reduce detection latency, and employ less number mobile nodes at the same time. A distinctive feature is that the system ensures that the detection delay of any event occurring at PoIs is statistically bounded, and mobile sensor framework (MSF) reduces transmitting delay from the time mobile sensor detecting event to return to BS simultaneously. Extensive experiments have been conducted and the results demonstrate that our algorithm allows us use less number mobile nodes within the delay bound and reduce the transmitting delay significantly.

Xiwei Zhang, Jia Yu

Distributed Road Surface Condition Monitoring Using Mobile Phones

The objective of this research is to improve traffic safety through collecting and distributing up-to-date road surface condition information using mobile phones. Road surface condition information is seen useful for both travellers and for the road network maintenance. The problem we consider is to detect road surface anomalies that, when left unreported, can cause wear of vehicles, lesser driving comfort and vehicle controllability, or an accident. In this work we developed a pattern recognition system for detecting road condition from accelerometer and GPS readings. We present experimental results from real urban driving data that demonstrate the usefulness of the system. Our contributions are: 1) Performing a throughout spectral analysis of tri-axis acceleration signals in order to get reliable road surface anomaly labels. 2) Comprehensive preprocessing of GPS and acceleration signals. 3) Proposing a speed dependence removal approach for feature extraction and demonstrating its positive effect in multiple feature sets for the road surface anomaly detection task. 4) A framework for visually analyzing the classifier predictions over the validation data and labels.

Mikko Perttunen, Oleksiy Mazhelis, Fengyu Cong, Mikko Kauppila, Teemu Leppänen, Jouni Kantola, Jussi Collin, Susanna Pirttikangas, Janne Haverinen, Tapani Ristaniemi, Jukka Riekki

Verifiable and Lossless Distributed Media Content Sharing

For digital communication, distributed storage and management of media content over system holders is a critical issue. In this article, an efficient verifiable sharing scheme is proposed that can satisfy the significant essentials of distribution sharing and can achieve the lossless property of the host media. Verifiability allows holders to detect and identify the counterfeited shadows during cooperation in order to prevent cheaters. Only authorized holders can reveal the lossless shared content and then reconstruct the original host image. The shared media capacity is adjustable and proportional to the increase of t. The more distributed holders, the larger the shared media capacity. Moreover, the ability to reconstruct the image preserves the fidelity of valuable host media, such as military and medical images. According to the results, the proposed approach can achieve superior performance to that of related sharing schemes in order to effectively provide distributed media management and storage.

Pei-Yu Lin

NuNote: An Augmented Reality Social Note Posting Service

Equipping with feature rich sensors, smart phone are able to run many interesting applications utilizing these sensors. For example, many location based services are based on GPS sensor. In this paper, we present a new note posting service on mobile phones which delivers location based service, social network service, and Augmented Reality (AR). The new service is named NuNote; a new way of posting notes. NuNote offers many interesting features; include multimedia notes associated with location tags, viewing cyberspace notes in physical world based on the AR technology, sharing notes with friends through Facebook website, etc. We also present how NuNote could be used in commercial advertisement and situated learning.

Chun-Yi Lin, Cheng-Ting Chang, Meng-Tsen Chen, Zoeh Ruan, Alan Hsueh, Yi-Yang Chang, Ren-Hung Hwang

A Context-Aware Seamless Handover Mechanism for Mass Rapid Transit System

Internet users are now able to connect to the Internet anywhere at any time for the provision of ubiquitous wireless network. Furthermore, as

IEEE

802.11 wireless networks have deployed widely, passengers of Mass Rapid Transit (

MRT

), one of the most popular transportation systems in modern cities nowadays, can access to the Internet through their mobile devices easily. However,

MRT

passengers bring massive simultaneous handovers to the system while they are getting on and off

MRT

coaches.

H

ence, mobility management becomes a challenging problem for ubiquitous Internet service in a

MRT

system. Although Mobile

IP

v6 (

MIP

v6) is designed to support

IP

mobility, several drawbacks of

MIP

v6 are reported and result in unacceptable handover latency. As a consequence, many proposals, such as Fast handovers for Mobile

IP

v6, Hierarchical Mobile

IP

v6 (

HMIP

v6), Fast Handover for Hierarchical

MIP

v6 (

F-HMIP

v6), and Proxy Mobile

IP

v6, have been proposed to tackle these drawbacks. Nevertheless, none of these proposals are adequate to cope with the large-number-simultaneous-handovers challenge. In this paper, we propose a context-aware seamless handover mechanism (

C-HMIP

v6) which solves the massive simultaneous handover problem based on the concept of context-awareness.

C-HMIP

v6 is based on

HMIP

v6 with following special designs. Firstly, distributed mobility anchor points (

MAP

s) are deployed to separate the loading of forwarding traffic. Secondly, every access router (AR) periodically exchanges mobile nodes (

MN

s’) context with adjacent ARs and periodically broadcasts the network configuration of adjacent ARs to its MNs. Thus, all

MN

s and

AR

s are fully context-awareness in the

MRT

system. The

MN

is able to generate its new CoA prior to the actual handover and skip

IEEE

802.11 channel scanning, which alleviate the majority of the handover latency. The old AR can notify the

MN

’s MAP to take care of the

MN

’s packets during the handover procedure while the new AR can perform binding update on behalf of the

MN

s. In

C-HMIP

v6,

MN

s do not need to participate in sending any related IP mobility signaling. As a result, seamless handover can be achieved even when a large number of MNs perform handover simultaneously. The performance of

C-HMIP

v6 and

F-HMIP

v6 is evaluated via simulations. The simulation results show that

C-HMIP

v6 is able to provide better performance in terms of handoff delay, packet delay and packet loss rate than

F-HMIP

v6.

Hung-Yi Teng, Ren-Hung Hwang, Chang-Fu Tsai

Smart Objects and Environments

Individual Activity Data Mining and Appropriate Advice Giving towards Greener Lifestyles and Routines

Energy conservation and CO2 emission reduction have both recently become critical environmental issues. Despite the considerable efforts of governments and technological developments by private enterprise, such as energy saving appliances and solar power systems, CO2 emissions per household are still increasing. Continued effort not only from companies, but also from each household and individuals is necessary. This paper describes a smart home system that is aware of household situations, performs automatic energy conservation when necessary, mines data on individual activities and gives advice and suggestions to individuals. Initially, the system records related objects and domestic human activities and structures and places the recorded data into three data logs: a space log, a device log, and a person log. Secondly, the system recognizes a device- or appliance-related situation and deduces individual activities by applying data mining techniques to the structured data logs. Finally, the system automatically conserves energy according to situation and gives appropriate advice to individuals by making them aware of their activities. A long-term objective of this system is to build a perception-influence relational model with which the system can adopt personalized presentation styles to give personalized advice to different individuals. It is expected that people’s behavior under this system will shift imperceptibly towards lifestyles and domestic routines that conserve energy and reduce CO2 emissions.

Toshihiro Tamura, Runhe Huang, Jianhua Ma, Shiqin Yang

Adaptive Context Oriented Component-Based Application Middleware (COCA-Middleware)

The cognitively impaired population is very sensitive to issues of abstraction, which presents the application designer with the challenge of tailoring navigational information to each specific user and context. COCA-middleware anticipating the users needs and the context environment. The self-adaptive application reduces the cognitive load and increases the user’s ability to realize the desired route. COCA-middleware is performing the adaptation processes including context monitoring and detecting and dynamic decision making; and maintaining the architecture quality attributes during the adaptation.

Basel Magableh, Stephen Barrett

Intelligent Toilet System for Health Screening

Home monitoring is a promising technology to deal with the increasing amount of chronically ill patients while ensuring quality of medical care. Most systems available today depend on a high degree of interaction between the user and the device. Especially for people relying on advanced levels of care, this scheme is impracticable. In this paper we are presenting an “intelligent toilet” performing an extensive health check while being as simple to use as a conventional toilet. Main focus of the system is to support the treatment of diabetes and chronic heart failure, but additional applications are possible.

Thomas Schlebusch, Steffen Leonhardt

An Efficient Earthquake Early Warning Message Delivery Algorithm Using an in Time Control-Theoretic Approach

Earthquake is a fatal disaster in the world, and it is expected to occur in Taiwan with high probability. The Central Weather Bureau of Taiwan develops the early earthquake warning system as other countries. In this paper, we introduce the current development status for the earthquake early warning system. To integrate the various smart devices, we adopt SIP page-mode as the next generation earthquake early warning alert protocol. Due to the lack of multicast support in the general IP network, we try to deliver the warning message to multiple receivers in time base on SIP architecture, location information, priority with IoT devices and in time control-theoretic algorithm. With the proposed algorithm, we can not only reduce the burst message traffic for network but also send the message in time.

Ting-Yun Chi, Chun-Hao Chen, Han-Chieh Chao, Sy-Yen Kuo

Dynamic Resource Management for a Cell-Based Distributed Mobile Computing Environment

In a distributed mobile computing environment (DMC), managing resources is an important problem. If it is not done in an intelligent manner, many devices may die early because of the limited energy capacity of the devices thus overall system may fail to complete tasks/work by their deadline and failing to satisfy users. This research assumes a cell-based environment and the mobile devices in this environment are heterogeneous (i.e., different CPU speed, different limited battery capacity, different mobility), and different tasks have affinity to different devices and have deadlines that must be met. To use the devices’ energy efficiently, dynamic voltage scaling and variable-range transmission power control techniques are applied. This paper will provide an insight on how to utilize a cell-based environment for distributed mobile computing purposes and discuss methods of resource management techniques crucial to the operation of such system.

Sung Il Kim, Jae Young Jun, Jong-Kook Kim, Kyung-Chan Lee, Gyu Seong Kang, Taek-Soo Kim, Hee Kyoung Moon, Hye Chan Yoon, Hyungmin Kim, Sang Hoon Lee

Automatic Birdsong Recognition with MFCC Based Syllable Feature Extraction

In this study, an automatic birdsong recognition system based on syllable features was developed. In this system, after syllable segmentation, three syllable features, namely mean, QI and QE, were computed from the MFCCs of each syllable aims at capturing variations in time as well as amplitude transitions of the MFCC sequences. With the advantages of the fuzzy c-mean (FCM) clustering algorithm and the linear discriminant analysis (LDA), the presented feature vector was used to construct an automatic birdsong recognition system applied to a birdsong database with 420 bird species.

Chih-Hsun Chou, Hui-Yu Ko

Punishment or Reward: It Is a Problem in Anonymous, Dynamic and Autonomous Networking Environments

Recently, service differentiation based incentive mechanisms are proposed in dynamic networking environments like Peer-to-Peer (P2P), wireless Ad hoc networks, etc.: define small meaningful classes of services and assign participants to these classes according to their overall resource contribution. Basically, there exist two fundamental components: How to define different classes? And who can assign autonomous participants to these classes? We argue that those environments are intrinsically anonymous, dynamic and autonomous, which has the following implications: Users can change their identities with near zero cost (cheap pseudonyms); most interactions in autonomous networks should be one-time (that is, each peer has no idea about other peers’ behavior history, except their current behaviors); and all behaviors and actions are all endogenous, voluntarily chosen and determined by independent and rational peers. Specifically, in the simplest case, service differentiation based incentive mechanisms could be provided with two ways: punish defect behavior (punishment-based scheme), or reward cooperative behavior (reward-based scheme). This paper preliminarily investigated the effectiveness of punishment-based and reward-based incentive mechanisms in anonymous, dynamic and autonomous environments. Our contributions are following: first, under the above networking environment, we found that the traditional service differentiation based incentive schemes could not work, irrespective of punishment-based and reward-based schemes; then, if peers can voluntarily join the system, and small entry fee is set for participation, we got that the performance of punishment-based scheme (first providing high-level service plus punishment) is always better than that of reward-based scheme (first providing low-level service plus reward).

Yufeng Wang, Athanasios V. Vasilakos, Jianhua Ma

event.Hub: An Event-Driven Information Hub for Mobile Devices

In this paper, we present a novel architecture and implementation of an information hub for mobile devices that we call the event.Hub. The event.Hub allows mobile users to share events, implicit or explicit, happening in their lives following a publish-subscribe model. The event.Hub design follows a decentralized architecture that also takes into account the privacy and data ownership problems of current service offers. The event.Hub is implemented using event-driven programming paradigms and utilize the XMPP protocol for its real-time communication support. As an example application using the event.Hub, we also present an extended address-book application.

Adrian Hornsby, Tapani Leppanen

Cloud and Services Computing

A Non-functional Property Based Service Selection and Service Verification Model

As the number of web services increases rapidly, there are two problems puzzling the customers. The first is how to get an optimal service from a set of functionally equivalent services, which mainly results from the absence of the description for non-functional properties. In this paper, we propose to add non-functional properties into WSDL, which can narrow down the scope of the service selection results according to individual preferences. The second problem is that, as customers’ requirements are more complicated, several atomic services need to be composed together to satisfy their requirements. Due to the complex interactions, the process of service composition is error-prone and it may cause the system to crash. In this paper, we use Process Algebra-based Model Checking method to detect logical errors in order to guide the design of service composition. At last, an example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of our methods.

Yu Bai, Yaoxue Zhang, Yuezhi Zhou, Laurence T. Yang

Exploring an Adaptive Architecture for Service Discovery over MANETs

What a service discovery system (SDS) pursues is to successfully discover the services at low costs if the qualified ones exist. However, dynamics and diversification in MANETs increases the complexity to achieve SDS’s goal. This paper develops a SDS over MANETs named SCN4M-H. To enhance system quality, SCN4M-H combines two architecture styles and provides two working modes: basic mode and volunteer mode. In the basic mode, nodes in SCN4M-H work together as peer partners, mapping and discovering the services in a P2P style, and in the volunteer mode, the nodes who declare as volunteers will play the role of servers, they are responsible for dealing with the service discovery requests targeted for the nodes within specified regions. Depending on their own states as well as their neighbors’ states, nodes in SCN4M-H can switch automatically from one mode to another. Moreover, two working modes can coexist in SCN4M-H at the same time, which enables a service discovery request to be dealt with in a locally optimal way. Some system properties are revealed and then extensive experiments are conducted. Experimental data indicate that SCN4M-H adapts well to various dynamic scenarios and shows satisfying software quality in terms of discovery success rate and corresponding costs.

Beihong Jin, Fusang Zhang, Haibin Weng

Web Quality Assessment Model: Trust in QA Social Networks

The Web Quality Assessment (WQA) model formalizes the customizable quality assessment (QA) process on the Web – every information consumer can define a set of QA policies, which are then, as part of the QA process, applied to the set of resources requested by the consumer to deduce the quality of the resources. To improve the result of such QA process, we introduced a concept of

QA social networks

– a mechanism to share QA policies among trustworthy entities to reinforce the number of QA policies applied during the QA process in the WQA model. In this paper, we detail the trust model underpinning the QA social network, i.e. what we mean under “trusting another entity” and how trust can be expressed and persisted; we propose a scalable and robust trust algorithm GriTa capable of deriving trust between arbitrary two entities in the QA social network. The goal of the WQA model is to provide a generally usable QA model with the social network dimension in mind – this paper contributes to that goal by presenting computation of trust in QA social networks.

Tomáš Knap, Irena Mlýnková

Context-Aware Service Composition

This paper presents a framework for providing context-aware services. It supports the separation of services and location, so that application-specific services can be defined independently of any location information. It also provides a mechanism for loosely and dynamically binding the locations of users and physical entities and services for supporting the users and entities. These are useful in the development of software for context-aware services in ambient computing environments. We describes the design and implementation of the framework and two practical applications.

Ichiro Satoh

Implementation of a Green Power Management Algorithm for Virtual Machines on Cloud Computing

With the development of electronic of government and business, the implementation of these services are increasing the demand for servers, each year a considerable number of the procurement server and out of the server are too old to provide better service. However, due to the speed of the server out of nowhere near the rate of increase, the continued expansion of the server, on behalf of our need to prepare more space, power, air conditioning, network, human and other infrastructure. Derived from these costs, long years, the often less than the purchase price of the server. And the provision of these services is actually quite energy-intensive, especially when the server is running at low utilization, the making idle resources, waste, which is caused by the energy efficiency of data centers the main reason for the low. Even in a very low load, such as 10% CPU utilization, the total power consumption is more than 50% in the peak. Similarly, if the disk, network, or any such resource is the bottleneck, it will increase the waste of other resources. The “Green” became a hot key word recently. And we aimed the topic and proposed power management approach with virtualization technology.

Chao-Tung Yang, Kuan-Chieh Wang, Hsiang-Yao Cheng, Cheng-Ta Kuo, Ching-Hsien Hsu

Security, Privacy and Trustworthy

AdPriRec: A Context-Aware Recommender System for User Privacy in MANET Services

Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) has become a practical platform for pervasive services. Various user data could be requested for accessing such a service. However, it is normally difficult for a user to justify whether it is safe and proper to disclose personal data to others in different contexts. For solving this problem, we propose AdPriRec, a context-aware recommender system for preserving user privacy in MANET services. To support frequent changes of node pseudonyms in MANET, we develop a hybrid recommendation generation solution. We apply a trusted recommendation sever who knows the node’s real identity to calculate a recommendation vector based on long term historical experiences. The vector can be also generated at each MANET node according to recent experiences accumulated based on node pseudonyms, while this vector could be further fine-tuned when the recommendation server is accessible. We design a number of algorithms for AdPriRec to generate context-aware recommendations for MANET users. The recommendation vector is calculated based on a number of factors such as data sharing behaviors and behavior correlation, service popularity and context, personal data type, community information of nodes and trust value of each involved party. An example based evaluation illustrates the usage and implication of the factors and shows AdPriRec’s effectiveness. A prototype implementation based on Nokia N900 further proves the concept of AdPriRec design.

Zheng Yan, Peng Zhang

Ensuring Security and Availability through Model-Based Cross-Layer Adaptation

Situation- and resource-aware security is essential for the process control systems, composed of networked entities with sensors and actuators, that monitor and control the national critical infrastructure. However, security cannot be addressed at a single layer because of the inherent dependencies and tradeoffs among crosscutting concerns. Techniques applied at one layer to improve security affect security, timing, and power consumption at other layers. This paper argues for an integrated treatment of security across multiple layers of abstraction (application, middleware, operating system including network stack, and hardware). An important step in realizing this integrated treatment of situation- and resource-aware security is first understanding the cross-layer interactions between security policies and then exploiting these interactions to design efficient adaptation strategies (i) to balance security, quality of service, and energy needs, and (ii) to maximize system availability. We propose a novel approach that employs a compositional method within an iterative tuning framework based on lightweight formal methods with dynamic adaptation.

Minyoung Kim, Mark-Oliver Stehr, Ashish Gehani, Carolyn Talcott

Chameleon: A Model of Identification, Authorization and Accountability for Ubicomp

This paper introduces a model for invisible security. Our model provides an unobtrusive multi-factor authentication and context-aware authorization based on a probabilistic approach that takes into account social relationships and natural behaviors of the user, such as sharing objects or borrowing credentials as a form of access delegation. We believe the traditional model with sequential authentication, authorization and accounting modules is not suitable for smart spaces. Instead we propose a “probabilistic-spiral” model that can be as dynamic as the space itself.

Alireza Pirayesh Sabzevar, João Pedro Sousa

The Safety Related Legal Issues and Privacy Protection for Intelligent Vehicle Telematics in the United States

Intelligent Vehicle Telematics has been a promising industry in the world. This new development of telecommunication technology has emerged with some legal concerns, especially in the liability for failure of safety devises and the protection of information privacy within Intelligent Vehicle Telematics. The purpose of this article is to gain experiences from the discussion for these issues in academic papers and related cases within the United States, in order to depict the possible solution for safety related legal issues and the protection of privacy with regard to developing Intelligent Vehicle Telematics.

Fa-Chang Cheng, Wen-Hsing Lai

PreCon – Expressive Context Prediction Using Stochastic Model Checking

Ubiquitous systems need to determine the context of humans to deliver the right services at the right time. As the needs of humans are often coupled to their future context, the ability to predict relevant changes in a user’s context is a key factor for providing intelligence and proactivity. Current context prediction systems only allow applications to query for the next user context (e.g. the user’s next location). This severely limits the benefit of context prediction since these approaches cannot answer more expressive

time-dependent queries

(e.g. will the user enter location X within the next 10 minutes?). Neither can they handle predictions of multi-dimensional context (e.g. activity

and

location). We propose PreCon, a new approach to predicting multi-dimensional context. PreCon improves query expressiveness, providing clear formal semantics by applying

stochastic model checking

methods. PreCon is composed of three major parts: a

stochastic model

to represent context changes, an

expressive temporal-logic query language

, and

stochastic algorithms for predicting context

. In our evaluations, we apply PreCon to real context traces from the domain of healthcare and analyse the performance using well-known metrics from information retrieval. We show that PreCon reaches an F-score (combined precision and recall) of about 0.9 which indicates a very good performance.

Stefan Föll, Klaus Herrmann, Kurt Rothermel

P2P, WSN and Ad Hoc Networks

A Virtual Channel Technique for Supporting P2P Streaming

Nowadays, some powerful client devices, e.g., smart phone, set top boxes and digital video recorders, are commonly used to enhance digital TV broadcasting services. This paper proposes a virtual channel platform by organizing these client devices to virtually support each user a dedicated channel according to her/his demand. In the proposed platform, each video is partitioned into many small segments before it is shared in a peer-to-peer network. A virtual channel is constructed by composing these video segments into a long video playout sequence. However, retrieving these small segments from a large scale peer-to-peer network could cause relatively large query overhead. To reduce the number of queries, we propose a virtual stream mechanism by aggregating popular adjacent video segments to logically form a long video object. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed virtual channel platform can improve the service performance.

Jau-Wu Huang, Nien-Chen Lin, Kai-Chao Yang, Chen-Lung Chan, Jia-Shung Wang

System-Level Power-Accuracy Trade-Off in Bluetooth Low Energy Networks

Location awareness is a key service in mobile devices. For indoor localization, radio frequency (RF) based distance estimation methods are the most viable. An economically favorable method using RF is received signal strength indication (RSSI) as there is no additional hardware required in the mobile devices. Localization is performed relative to fixed landmark nodes. Bluetooth (BTH) is a widely available standard that can be employed for such purpose. This work explores the potential of BTH and Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) protocols in terms of power consumption and position accuracy. At time of writing there are no known simulators with support for BLE. The major contribution of this work is the design of a simulation infrastructure that supports BLE.

Jürgen Sommer, Simon Lüders, Stephen Schmitt, Wolfgang Rosenstiel

Hidden Node and Interference Aware Channel Assignment for Multi-radio Multi-channel Wireless Mesh Networks

Carrier sense interference and hidden terminal problem are two critical factors, which limit the performance of wireless mesh networks. In order to increase the throughput of the network, multi-radio and multi-channel technology has been put forward to address this problem, since more channels can be used simultaneously to avoid collisions. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for hidden node and interference aware channel assignment, in which both hidden terminal problem and carrier sense interference are taken into consideration. This scheme is put forward in the link layer instead of network layer, which is a pre-determined approach. Our simulation results show that this optimum channel assignment scheme which has the least carrier sense interference and hidden terminal problem will be proposed before the establishment of network infrastructure.

Fei Hao, Jin Ma, Chunsheng Zhu

uFlow: Dynamic Software Updating in Wireless Sensor Networks

A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure. Due to the maintenance reason, we may update the software to fix bugs. Because there are more and more sensor nodes using in the vehicle, smart environment, Software updating for wireless sensor networks has become an important issue. In previous related works, Update the node usually is required to reboot. However, reboot the nodes is costly since the previous runtime status may be lost. To recover the runtime status for routing, it will take time and bandwidth to synchronize with other nodes. We present uFlow: a programming paradigm and a prototype implementation for wireless sensor networks. uFlow allows application to update the nodes without rebooting. So we can avoid to lost precious runtime status.

Ting-Yun Chi, Wei-Cheng Wang, Sy-Yen Kuo

Energy-Balancing and Lifetime Enhancement of Wireless Sensor Network with Archimedes Spiral

Energy is one of the scarcest resources in wireless sensor network (WSN). Therefore, the need to conserve energy is of utmost importance in WSN. There are many ways to conserve energy in such a network. One fundamental way of conserving energy is judicious deployment of sensor nodes within the network area so that the energy flow remains balanced throughout the network. This avoids the problem of occurrence of ‘energy holes’ and ensures prolonged network lifetime. In this paper, we have identified intrinsic features of Archimedes’ Spiral and shown its suitability to model the layered WSN area. Next we have transformed the same Spiral in its discrete form and proposed this as a deployment function. A node deployment algorithm is developed based on this deployment function. Further, we have identified necessary constraints involving different network parameters to ensure coverage, connectivity and energy balance of the entire network. Performance of the deployment scheme is evaluated in terms of energy balance and network lifetime. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are done based on these two performance metrics. Finally the scheme is compared with an existing Gaussian distribution-based deployment scheme and the results confirm the superiority of our scheme in respect to both the metrics over the existing one.

Subir Halder, Amrita Ghosal, Aadirupa Saha, Sipra DasBit

Bullet-Proof Verification (BPV) Method to Detect Black Hole Attack in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Mobile ad hoc networks are vulnerable to various security attacks due to the fact that a mobile node not only has a freedom of joining or leaving the network but also acts as a router. In this paper, we propose a bullet-proof verification (BPV) method to detect the black hole attack, either single or cooperative, in mobile ad hoc networks. The BPV method consists of two steps: every node first examines suspicious nodes using local neighborhood information and secondly, if a node receives RREP from a suspicious node, it sends an encrypted (bullet-proof) test message to the destination to confirm whether the suspicious node is black hole or not. The two-step approach not only pins down the black hole nodes, but also contributes to reducing control overhead. We prove by resorting to simulation that the BPV can be applied to the AODV without degrading performance notably and also is highly dependable against the black hole attack.

Firoz Ahmed, Seokhoon Yoon, Hoon Oh

The Coverage Problem in Directional Sensor Networks with Rotatable Sensors

Directional sensor network is composed of many directional sensor nodes. Unlike conventional omni-directional sensors that always have an omni-angle of sensing range, directional sensors may have a limited angle of sensing range due to technical constraints or cost considerations. Therefore, it is possible that when directional sensor nodes are randomly scattered in the environment, some interested targets cannot be covered due to the limited angle of sensing direction even if the targets are located in the sensing range of sensors. We propose a Maximum Coverage with Rotatable Sensors (MCRS) problem in which coverage in terms of the number of targets to be covered is maximized whereas the angle’s degrees to be rotated are minimized. We present two centralized greedy algorithm solutions for the MCRS problem. Simulation results are presented to apply angle adjustment algorithm to enhance the coverage of the directional sensor network.

Yin-Chung Hsu, Yen-Ting Chen, Chiu-Kuo Liang

Ubiquitous Intelligent Algorithms and Applications

A Bayesian Approach to Blind Separation of Mixed Discrete Sources by Gibbs Sampling

Blind source separation (BSS) is the process of separating the original signals from their mixtures without the knowledge of neither the signals nor the mixing process. In this paper, a Bayesian modeling approach for the separation of instantaneous mixture of linear modulation signals with memory in communication systems is developed, in which the finite alphabet (FA) property of the source signals, together with the correlation contained in the source signals are used for the purpose of accurate signal separation. And the Gibbs sampling algorithm is employed to estimate discrete source signals and mixing coefficients. Moreover, the approach takes into account noise levels in the model in order to provide precise estimations of the signals. The simulation results under determined mixture condition show that this new algorithm gives precise estimation of sources and coefficients of mixture. Furthermore, the efficiency of this proposed approach under underdetermined mixture condition is attested by a numerical simulation experiment.

Hang Zhang, Fanglin Gu, Yi Xiao

Image Data Hiding Schemes Based on Graph Coloring

Graph coloring has been applied in a variety of applications, but not for data hiding. Therefore, in this paper, we are proposing two graph coloring-based data hiding schemes that embed secret data in spatial domain of gray scale images. The main idea of our schemes is to use a graph, in which every vertex corresponds to a pixel pair, to hide data by replacing a pair of pixels of one color with a pair of pixels of a different color, with every color corresponding to some bits of the secret message. The performance of the proposed schemes has been evaluated by a joint evaluation of the imperceptibility of the images they produce and their embedding capacity. Also, the validity of the proposed schemes has been proven by comparing them with some other schemes.

Shuai Yue, Zhi-Hui Wang, Ching-Yun Chang, Chin-Chen Chang, Ming-Chu Li

A Variable Weight Based Fuzzy Data Fusion Algorithm for WSN

Due to the limited energy, storage space and computing ability, data fusion is very necessary in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN). In this paper, a new variable weight based fuzzy data fusion algorithm for WSN is proposed to improve the accuracy and reliability of the global data fusion. In this algorithm, the weight of each cluster head node in global fusion is not fixed. Time delay, data amount and trustworthiness of each cluster head will all affect the final fusion weight. We get the fusion weights by variable weight based fuzzy comprehensive evaluation or fuzzy reasoning. In the variable weight based fuzzy comprehensive evaluation, by increasing the weight of the factor with too low value, we can give prominence to deficiency and the clusters with too long time delay or too small amount or too low trustworthiness will get smaller weights in data fusion. And therefore, the cluster head node with deficiency will have a small influence in global fusion. Simulation shows that this algorithm can obtain a more accurate and reliable fusion results especially when there are data undetected or compromised nodes compared with traditional algorithms.

Qianping Wang, Hongmei Liao, Ke Wang, Yuan Sang

Threshold Selection for Ultra-Wideband TOA Estimation Based on Skewness Analysis

Because of the high sampling rate, coherent Time of Arrival (TOA) estimation algorithms are not practical for low cost, low complexity Ultra-Wideband (UWB) systems. In this paper, an Energy Detection (ED) based non-coherent TOA estimation algorithm is presented. The expected values of skewness and kurtosis with respect to the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) are investigated. It is shown that the skewness is more suitable for TOA estimation. To improve the precision of TOA estimation, a new threshold selection algorithm is proposed which is based on skewness analysis. The best threshold values for different SNRs are investigated and the effects of integration period and channel modes are examined. Comparisons with other ED based algorithms show that in CM1 and CM2 channels, the proposed algorithm provides higher precision and robustness in both high and low SNR environments.

Hao Zhang, Xue-rong Cui, T. Aaron Gulliver

Modeling Human Activity Semantics for Improved Recognition Performance

Activity recognition performance is significantly dependent on the accuracy of the underlying activity model. Therefore, it is essential to examine and develop an activity model that can capture and represent the complex nature of human activities precisely. To address this issue, we introduce a new activity modeling technique, which utilizes simple yet often ignored activity semantics. Activity semantics are highly evidential knowledge that can identify an activity more accurately in ambiguous situations. We classify semantics into three types and apply them to generic activity framework, which is a refined hierarchical composition structure of the traditional activity theory. We compare the introduced activity model with the traditional model and the hierarchical models in terms of attainable recognition certainty. The comparison study shows superior performance of our semantic model using activities of daily living scenario.

Eunju Kim, Sumi Helal

A Two-Layer Steganography Scheme Using Sudoku for Digital Images

Steganography is a skill to convey the secret data in the digital images without getting any unexpected notices to attackers. LSB replacement, the simplest method, directly replaces the secret bits with LSB bit plane. Unfortunately, it is insecure because it cannot resist against the visual attacks and statistic detection. In 2009, Lin et al. proposed a novel data embedding scheme by using the concept of Sudoku. Lin et al.’s scheme not only improved the performances of traditional LSB-based steganography schemes, but also resist against steganalysis. In this paper, a steganography scheme based on Lin et al.’s scheme is explored. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can improve the visual quality of stego-images. In addition, the average of hiding capacity is 1.29 bpp (bits per pixel). Therefore, it confirms that our proposed scheme provides higher hiding capacity than that of LSB replacement 0.29 bpp. Furthermore, our method shows the positive results to resist against the visual attacks.

Yi-Hui Chen, Ci-Wei Lan, Zhi-Hui Wang

Algorithms and Hardware Architectures for Variable Block Size Motion Estimation

Multimedia has become more and more important in embedded systems. It is well-known that motion estimation plays an essential role in video coding. It is also one of the key elements that achieve video compression by exploiting temporal redundancy of video data. The latest coding standard H.264 has adopted lots of new features. For instance, in order to adaptively choose the proper block size for frame macroblock, H.264 has used variable block size motion estimation which can significantly improve the coding performance compared to previous techniques. However, the computational complexity of H.264 has also increased drastically. Among all the techniques in the encoder, motion estimation is exactly the most time-consuming function especially when it is implemented in a software approach. In this paper, we combine software and hardware optimizations for variable block size motion estimation. At the software level, we propose a new algorithm that can efficiently select a suitable block size by grouping the motion vectors. At the hardware level, we propose a pipelined and parallel architecture to enhance the performance. Our architecture is implemented on an FPGA platform. It operates at a maximum clock frequency of 311 MHz with gate count 65k. The results show that under a frequency of 248MHz, our architecture allows the processing of 1920x1080 at 30fps with full search motion estimation in a 16x16 search range. This proposed architecture provides a better hardware efficiency in terms of throughput and gate count than previous works.

Sheng-De Wang, Chih-Hung Weng

Reliability Comparison of Schedulability Test in Ubiquitous Computing

The development of ubiquitous intelligent has increased the real-time requirements for computing system. If one real-time computation does not complete before its deadline, it is as worse as that the computation is never executed at all. Ineffective computation not only wastes computational resources, but also might bring system overload and collapse. Hence, a schedulability test is necessary to ensure the stability of ubiquitous system. The schedulability test is concerned with determining whether a set of tasks is schedulable on a cluster. Although a number of schedulability tests have been developed, they can not be compared due to distinct test principles. In this paper, we propose a reliability indicator, through which the probability that a random task set succeeds in schedulability test can be evaluated. The larger the probability is, the better the test is. The reliability of two sufficient deadline monotonic tests are compared, and the comparison result is further validated by detailed experiments. Both analysis and experimental results show that the performance discrepancy of schedulability test is determined by a prerequisite pattern. Since this pattern can be deduce by reliability indicator, it may help system designers choose a good schedulability test in advance.

Fei Teng, Lei Yu, Frédéric Magoulès

A Practice Probability Frequent Pattern Mining Method over Transactional Uncertain Data Streams

In recent years, large amounts of uncertain data are emerged with the widespread employment of the new technologies, such as wireless sensor networks, RFID and privacy protection. According to the features of the uncertain data streams such as incomplete, full of noisy, non-uniform and mutable, this paper presents a probability frequent pattern tree called PFP-tree and a method called PFP-growth, to mine probability frequent patterns based on probability damped windows. The main characteristics of the suggested method include: (1) adopting time-based probability damped window model to enhance the accuracy of mined frequent patterns; (2) setting an item index table and a transaction index table to speed up retrieval on the PFP-tree; and (3) pruning the tree to remove the items that cannot become frequent patterns;. The experimental results demonstrate that PFP-growth method has better performance than the main existing schemes in terms of accuracy, processing time and storage space.

Guoqiong Liao, Linqing Wu, Changxuan Wan, Naixue Xiong

Reducing Total Energy for Reliability-Aware DVS Algorithms

Power aware scheduling is of increasing importance in real-time system design, especially in this global warming era. Reliability is also very critical for real-time system design. In this paper, we aim at minimizing total energy while guaranteeing reliability constraints. Total energy refers to the sum of static and dynamic energy. (Dynamic Voltage Scaling ) DVS is usually used for reducing dynamic energy consumption by reducing speed. Unfortunately, it has been shown that the transient faults of the system will be increased when the processor runs at reduced speed. To guarantee reliability be at least as high as that of without speed scaling, previous reliability aware DVS algorithms reserve recovery job for each of the scaled down tasks. However, these previous reliability aware DVS algorithms do not explore the shutdown technique to reduce static energy consumption. Static energy is consumed whenever the processor is on, and in modern processors, static energy consumption is comparable to the dynamic energy consumption and can not be ignored anymore. To lower total energy consumption, we integrate leakage control method and shared-recovery technique with reliability aware DVS algorithms. Experimental results show that our methods are effective.

Yongwen Pan, Man Lin, Laurence T. Yang

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