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This chapter provides a critical analysis of the mainstream theoretical tradition (new-institutionalism and its offshoots—social capital, participatory and ‘synergy’ approaches) and the main alternative theoretical traditions (new-traditionalist, and anti/post-development positions) to understand issues related to use of, and access to natural resources in particular and the power of development in general. It discusses the mainstream approaches to the management and development of natural resources and common property resources in rural areas. These approaches based on collective action by resource users, ‘participation’ of rural communities in development projects, enhancement of ‘social capital’ within a group of resource users, and partnership between the state and civil society organisations, the author contends, conceal relations of power and inequality. Furthermore, it discusses the main alternative theoretical traditions to understanding and analysing issues related to rural development and natural resources development. It presents the main propositions of ‘new-traditionalism’ (or neo-populist ideas) and argues that they also neglect conflicts within a given community over governance of local natural resources. In the end, this chapter refers to some recent studies on power relations in rural development interventions (or ‘new directions’ in post-development), which take us beyond discursive determinism, and present a more nuanced understanding on the nature and power of development regimes.
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- Understanding the Politics of Watershed Development
- Chapter 2