Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Much research has examined negative cognitive schemas as associates of psychopathology. Although some research has established relations between positive cognitive schemas and psychopathology, little research has examined positive cognitive schemas in the context of well-being among children and adolescents. In the current study, contributions of positive schemas to two indicators of well-being, namely happiness and life satisfaction, were examined. Specifically we examined how positive schemas predict well-being beyond negative schemas, whether age and gender moderate the relations between positive schemas and well-being, and the contributions of specific positive schema themes to well-being. 282 child and adolescent boys (n = 122) and girls (n = 160) aged 8–18 (M = 13.37, SD = 2.18), completed measures of positive schemas, negative schemas, life satisfaction, and happiness. Results indicated that positive schemas related to life satisfaction and happiness beyond negative schemas, supporting the importance of examining positive schemas in models of well-being. Positive schemas were more strongly tied to happiness in older adolescents versus younger children, but the relations between positive schemas and life satisfaction did not vary as a function of age. Gender effects indicate that the relation between positive schemas and life satisfaction and happiness was stronger for females than for males. When the relative contributions of positive schema themes (i.e., trust, worthiness, optimism, success, self-efficacy) were explored in the prediction of life satisfaction and happiness, worthiness emerged as the strongest predictor. Results emphasize the importance of considering positive schemas in models of well-being among children and adolescents.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Abela, J. R. Z., & Hankin, B. L. (2008). Cognitive vulnerability to depression in children and adolescents: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In J. R. Z. Abela & B. L. Hankin (Eds.), Depression in children and adolescents (pp. 35–78). New York: Guilford.
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191. CrossRef
Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York, NY: Basic Books.
Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York, NY: Guilford.
Beck, A. T., Brown, G., Steer, R. A., Eidelson, J. I., & Riskind, J. H. (1987). Differentiating anxiety from depression: A test of the cognitive content-specificity hypothesis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96, 179–183. CrossRef
Burke, R. J., & Weir, T. (1978). Sex differences in adolescent life stress, social support, and well-being. Journal of Psychology, 98(2), 277–288. CrossRef
Caprara, G. V., Steca, P., Gerbino, M., Paciello, M., & Vecchio, G. M. (2006). Looking for adolescents’ well-being: Self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness. Epidemiologia E Psichiatria Sociale, 15(01), 30–43. CrossRef
Casas, F., Sarriera, J. C., Alfaro, J., González, M., Malo, S., Bertran, I., et al. (2012). Testing the personal wellbeing index on 12–16 year-old adolescents in 3 different countries with 2 new items. Social Indicators Research, 105(3), 461–482. CrossRef
Clark, D. A., Beck, A. T., & Stewart, B. L. (1990). Cognitive specificity and positive–negative affectivity: Complementary or contradictory views on anxiety and depression? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 148–155. CrossRef
Cummins, R. A., & Nistico, H. (2002). Maintaining life satisfaction: The role of positive cognitive bias. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 37–69. CrossRef
Dew, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1994). Adolescents’ perceived quality of life: An exploratory investigation. Journal of School Psychology, 32(2), 185–199. CrossRef
Diener, E. (2000). Subjective well-being: The science of happiness and a proposal for a national index. American Psychologist, 55(1), 34. CrossRef
Diener, E., Sandvik, E., & Pavot, W. (1991). Happiness is the frequency, not the intensity, of positive versus negative affect. Subjective Well-Being: An Interdisciplinary Perspective, 21, 119–139.
Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. E. (2003a). Personality, culture, and subjective well-being: Emotional and cognitive evaluations of life. Annual Review of Psychology, 54(1), 403–425. CrossRef
Diener, E., Scollon, C. N., & Lucas, R. E. (2003b). The evolving concept of subjective well-being: The multifaceted nature of happiness. Advances in Cell Aging and Gerontology, 15, 187–219. CrossRef
Diener, E., Suh, E. M., Lucas, R. E., & Smith, H. L. (1999). Subjective well-being: Three decades of progress. Psychological Bulletin, 125(2), 276. CrossRef
Dozois, D. J. A., & Beck, A. T. (2008). Cognitive schemas, beliefs, and assumptions. In K. S. Dobson & D. J. A. Dozois (Eds.), Risk factors in depression. Oxford: Elsevier.
Friedmann, J. S., Lumley, M. N., & Lerman, B. (2016). Cognitive schemas as longitudinal predictors of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms and resilience. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 45(1), 32–48. CrossRef
Froh, J. J., Yurkewicz, C., & Kashdan, T. B. (2009). Gratitude and subjective well-being in early adolescence: Examining gender differences. Journal of Adolescence, 32(3), 633–650. CrossRef
Funk, B. A, I. I. I., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2006). Reliability and validity of a brief life satisfaction scale with a high school sample. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(1), 41–54. CrossRef
Furnham, A., & Cheng, H. (2000). Perceived parental behaviour, self-esteem and happiness. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35(10), 463–470. CrossRef
Goldbeck, L., Schmitz, T. G., Besier, T., Herschbach, P., & Henrich, G. (2007). Life satisfaction decreases during adolescence. Quality of Life Research, 16(6), 969–979. CrossRef
Hankin, B. L., & Abramson, L. Y. (1999). Development of gender differences in depression: Description and possible explanations. Annals of Medicine, 31(6), 372–379. CrossRef
Holder, M. D., & Coleman, B. (2009). The contribution of social relationships to children’s happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(3), 329–349. CrossRef
Holder, M. D., & Klassen, A. (2010). Temperament and happiness in children. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(4), 419–439. CrossRef
Holder, M. D., Coleman, B., & Wallace, J. M. (2010). Spirituality, religiousness, and happiness in children aged 8–12 years. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11, 131–150. CrossRef
Holte, A., Barry, M. M., Bekkhus, M., Borge, A. I. H., Bowes, L., Casas, F., et al. (2014). Psychology of child well-being (pp. 555–631). Netherlands: Springer.
Hope, T. L., Adams, C., Reynolds, L., Powers, D., Perez, R. A., & Kelley, M. L. (1999). Parent versus self-report: Contributions toward diagnosis of adolescent psychopathology. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 21(4), 349–363. CrossRef
Huebner, E. S., Gilman, R., & Laughlin, J. E. (1999). A multimethod investigation of the multidimensionality of children’s well-being reports: Discriminant validity of life satisfaction and self-esteem. Social Indicators Research, 46(1), 1–22. CrossRef
Huebner, E. S., Seligson, J. L., Valois, R. F., & Suldo, S. M. (2006). A review of the brief multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale. Social Indicators Research, 79(3), 477–484. CrossRef
Jaenicke, C., Hammen, C., Zupan, B., Hiroto, D., Gordon, D., Adrian, C., et al. (1987). Cognitive vulnerability in children at risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 15(4), 559–572. CrossRef
Joiner, T. E, Jr., Catanzaro, S. J., & Laurent, J. (1996). Tripartite structure of positive and negative affect, depression, and anxiety in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 105(3), 401. CrossRef
Jose, P. E. (2013). ModGraph-I: A programme to compute cell means for the graphical display of moderational analyses: The internet version, Version 3.0. Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Retrieved September 9, 2014, from http://pavlov.psyc.vuw.ac.nz/paul-jose/modgraph/.
Keyes, C. L. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 43(2), 207–222. CrossRef
Keyfitz, L., Lumley, M. N., Hennig, K. H., & Dozois, D. J. A. (2013). The role of positive schemas in child psychopathology and resilience. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(1), 97–108. CrossRef
Lewis, A. D., Huebner, E. S., Malone, P. S., & Valois, R. F. (2011). Life satisfaction and student engagement in adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 40(3), 249–262. CrossRef
Lucas, R. E., Diener, E., & Suh, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(3), 616. CrossRef
Lumley, M. N., Dozois, D. J. A., Hennig, K. H., & Marsh, A. (2012). Cognitive organization, perceptions of parenting and depression symptoms in early adolescence. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(4), 300–310. CrossRef
Lyubomirsky, S., & Lepper, H. S. (1999). A measure of subjective happiness: Preliminary reliability and construct validation. Social Indicators Research, 46(2), 137–155. CrossRef
Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The benefits of frequent positive affect: Does happiness lead to success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803. CrossRef
MacLeod, A., & Moore, R. (2000). Positive thinking revisited: Positive cognitions, well-being and mental health. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 7, 1–10. CrossRef
Mahon, N. E., Yarcheski, A., & Yarcheski, T. J. (2005). Happiness as related to gender and health in early adolescents. Clinical Nursing Research, 14(2), 175–190. CrossRef
Marques, S. C., Lopez, S. J., & Mitchell, J. (2013). The role of hope, spirituality and religious practice in adolescents’ life satisfaction: Longitudinal findings. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(1), 251–261. CrossRef
Masten, A. S. (2001). Ordinary magic: Resilience processes in development. American Psychologist, 56(3), 227. CrossRef
McClain, L., & Abramson, L. Y. (1995). Self-schemas, stress, and depressed mood in college students. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19(4), 419–432. CrossRef
McCullough, G., Huebner, E. S., & Laughlin, J. E. (2000). Life events, self-concept, and adolescents’ positive subjective well-being. Psychology in the Schools, 37(3), 281–290. CrossRef
McKnight, C. G., Huebner, E. S., & Suldo, S. (2002). Relationships among stressful life events, temperament, problem behavior, and global life satisfaction in adolescents. Psychology in the Schools, 39(6), 677–687. CrossRef
Moksnes, U. K., & Espnes, G. A. (2013). Self-esteem and life satisfaction in adolescents—gender and age as potential moderators. Quality of Life Research, 22(10), 2921–2928. CrossRef
Mruk, C. (2006). Self-esteem research, theory, and practice: Toward a positive psychology of self-esteem (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
Natvig, G. K., Albrektsen, G., & Qvarnstrøm, U. (2003). Associations between psychosocial factors and happiness among school adolescents. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 9(3), 166–175. CrossRef
Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2006). Character strengths and happiness among young children: Content analysis of parental descriptions. Journal of Happiness Studies, 7(3), 323–341. CrossRef
Piko, B. F., & Keresztes, N. (2006). Physical activity, psychosocial health and life goals among youth. Journal of Community Health, 31(2), 136–145. CrossRef
Prieto, S. L., Cole, D. A., & Tageson, C. W. (1992). Depressive self-schemas in clinic and nonclinic children. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16(5), 521–534. CrossRef
Proctor, C. L., Linley, P. A., & Maltby, J. (2009). Youth life satisfaction: A review of the literature. Journal of Happiness Studies, 10(5), 583–630. CrossRef
Robinson, M. D., & Kirkeby, B. S. (2005). Happiness as a belief system: Individual differences and priming in emotion judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(8), 1134–1144. CrossRef
Rousseau, D. M., Sitkin, S. B., Burt, R. S., & Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust. Academy of Management Review, 23(3), 393–404. CrossRef
Saylor, C. F., Finch, A. J., Spirito, A., & Bennett, B. (1984). The children’s depression inventory: A systematic evaluation of psychometric properties. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52(6), 955. CrossRef
Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219. CrossRef
Seligman, M. E., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction (Vol. 55, No. 1, p. 5). American Psychological Association.
Seligson, J. L., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2003). Preliminary validation of the brief multidimensional students’ life satisfaction scale (BMSLSS). Social Indicators Research, 61(2), 121–145. CrossRef
Seligson, J. L., Huebner, E. S., & Valois, R. F. (2005). An investigation of a brief life satisfaction scale with elementary school children. Social Indicators Research, 73(3), 355–374. CrossRef
Shogren, K. A., Lopez, S. J., Wehmeyer, M. L., Little, T. D., & Pressgrove, C. L. (2006). The role of positive psychology constructs in predicting life satisfaction in adolescents with and without cognitive disabilities: An exploratory study. Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(1), 37–52. CrossRef
Sin, N. L., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2009). Enhancing well-being and alleviating depressive symptoms with positive psychology interventions: A practice- friendly meta- analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(5), 467–487. CrossRef
Singh, K., Ruch, W., & Junnarkar, M. (2015). Effect of the demographic variables and psychometric properties of the personal well-being index for school children in India. Child Indicators Research, 8(3), 571–585. CrossRef
Stallard, P. (2007). Early maladaptive schemas in children: Stability and differences between a community and a clinic referred sample. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 14(1), 10–18. CrossRef
Stallard, P., & Rayner, H. (2005). The development and preliminary evaluation of a schema questionnaire for children (SQC). Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 33(2), 217–224. CrossRef
Stanley, D. J. (2014). Fast interaction (1.5.0). Computer application software. Retrieved from http://www.statscanbefun.com.
Suldo, S. M., Frank, M. J., Chappel, A. M., Albers, M. M., & Bateman, L. P. (2014). American high school students’ perceptions of determinants of life satisfaction. Social Indicators Research, 118(2), 485–514. CrossRef
Suldo, S. M., Minch, D. R., & Hearon, B. V. (2015). Adolescent life satisfaction and personality characteristics: Investigating relationships using a five factor model. Journal of Happiness Studies, 16(4), 965–983. CrossRef
Taylor, S. E., & Brown, J. D. (1988). Illusion and well-being: A social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychological Bulletin, 103(2), 193. CrossRef
Terry, T., & Huebner, E. S. (1995). The relationship between self-concept and life satisfaction in children. Social Indicators Research, 35(1), 39–52. CrossRef
Valois, R. F., Zullig, K. J., Huebner, E. S., & Drane, J. W. (2001). Relationship between life satisfaction and violent behaviors among adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 25(4), 353–366. CrossRef
Vecchio, G. M., Gerbino, M., Pastorelli, C., Del Bove, G., & Caprara, G. V. (2007). Multi-faceted self-efficacy beliefs as predictors of life satisfaction in late adolescence. Personality and Individual Differences, 43(7), 1807–1818. CrossRef
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Carey, G. (1988). Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97(3), 346. CrossRef
Wigfield, A., & Eccles, J. S. (Eds.). (2002). The development of competence beliefs, expectancies for success, and achievement values from childhood through adolescence. In The development of achievement motivation (pp. 91–120). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. CrossRef
Wood, A. M., & Tarrier, N. (2010). Positive clinical psychology: A new vision and strategy for integrated research and practice. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 819–829. CrossRef
Young, J. E. (1998). The young schema questionnaire—shortened inventory. http://www.schematherapy.com. Copyright Jeffrey Young and Gary Brown.
Zullig, K. J., Valois, R. F., Huebner, E. S., Oeltmann, J. E., & Drane, J. W. (2001). Relationship between perceived life satisfaction and adolescents’ substance abuse. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29(4), 279–288. CrossRef
- Unique Contributions of Positive Schemas for Understanding Child and Adolescent Life Satisfaction and Happiness
R. M. Tomlinson
J. S. Rawana
M. N. Lumley
- Springer Netherlands
Entwicklung einer Supply-Strategie bei der Atotech Deutschland GmbH am Standort Feucht