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2005 | Buch

Unternehmenskultur und Unternehmensidentität

Wirklichkeit und Konstruktion

herausgegeben von: Univ.-Prof. Dr. phil. Nina Janich

Verlag: Deutscher Universitätsverlag

Buchreihe : Europäische Kulturen in der Wirtschaftskommunikation





Der vorliegende Band ist das Ergebnis des 3. interdisziplinären Symposiums der Forschungskooperation „Europäische Kulturen in der Wirtschaftskommunikation“, die im November 2003 an der Universität Regensburg stattfand. Ziel ader Tagung war es, Praktiker und Theoretiker, Wirtschaft und Wissenschaft zusammenzuführen und interdisziplinär möglichst weit gestreut definitorische Ansätze, Methoden, Fragestellungen und Lösungsvorschläge zum Themenbereich Unternehmenskultur/ Unternehmensidentität auszutauschen. Neben sprach- und kommunikationswissenschaftlichen Beiträgen finden sich daher auch wirtschaftswissenschaftliche, psychologische und soziologische Ansätze.
Nina Janich

Unternehmenskulturen im Spannungsfeld von Landeskultur und Globalisierung

Psychologische Aspekte von National- und Unternehmenskultur im Kontext internationaler Mergerprozesse
The belief that with increasing internationalization, tendencies to converge become so strong, that intercultural differences lose significance and a kind of global culture develops, has proven to be false. In many countries, tendencies to emphasize cultural divergencies are actually gaining significance, almost like a countermovement to the convergence concept. The fact that internationally active companies invest in the development of an adequate corporate culture is a sign that the so-called “soft factors” are deemed important enough to be attended to and not left subject to random forces. Based on empirical studies of the psychology of intercultural action, it is shown that national and corporate culture are closely interrelated, even when international companies try to develop a corporate culture that is tailored to meet global demands. Here, one can see clearly that the employees are the crucial factor in these international dynamics. Of particular importance are their qualifications regarding intercultural action competence. On the basis of knowledge about the own cultural orientation system and about foreign-cultural orientation systems, this competence enables to find and develop ways and means for an efficient and mutually satisfying cooperation in cultural overlap situations.
Alexander Thomas
Die Wiederentdeckung der Neuen Welt — Spanische und lateinamerikanische Unternehmenskultur in Interaktion
The Rediscovery of the New World — Spanish and Latin American Business Culture in Interaction. Myth or reality? For many decades, Spain has been considered a bridgehead to the emerging markets of Latin America. Since the middle of the 1990’s, when large Spanish corporations established themselves on the new continent, the idea of a new discovery has grown. This article therefore will examine whether the success of foreign companies in Latin America is primarily a Spanish phenomenon, determined by the common cultural roots of Spain and Latin America and consequently by a similar communicative style. In other words, is there a high synergy potential, which is responsible for the Spanish successes in the New World and if so, how can this best be described? Or, alternatively, can this Spanish business success simply be understood as the result of intelligent strategies and accurate market analysis?
Jorge Peña, Francisco Javier Montiel
Werbung, Geschichte und nationale Identität in Russland
This paper deals from a linguistic point of view with the discursive interaction of culture and contemporary advertising in Russia. As a mirror of Russian society, advertising depends both on global processes and on the system of traditional values, beliefs and social practices. Through branding the advertised goods with symbolic value, advertising influences the dynamics of culture. However, the described tv advertising material ranging from 1991 to 2003 shows that advertising both in an implicit and explicit way, as well as verbally and non-verbally, focuses on the stereotypisation of the ‘us’ (the own ethnos) and the ‘others’ (other ethnoi) as central categories of advertising valuing. It chains traditional cultural elements with the own ethnos and opposes them to the nonmown entities around Europe. In this way, Russia is clearly conceptualised as an entity, not belonging to Europe and the West.
Edgar Hoffmann
Umwandlungsprozesse in der Unternehmenskultur und in der Unternehmenskommunikation in Ungarn
During the last fifteen years all circumstances that may influence the corporate culture of organizations were changed in Hungary. There were changes both in the external environment of companies: in the cultural, sociocultural, socioeconomic, politico-juridical and technological environment as well as in the internal determinants like size, profile, structure, age and ownership of firms. Now we can not speak about typical Hungarian corporate cultures, but we can identify several distinguishable types such as the type of the still existing state-owned companies, the type of the successfully developing companies, the stability-oriented and the survival-oriented ones, the type of typical family-companies, the type of the dependent firms, the type of the multinational companies, and the type of the technology parks. Not only the corporate culture but also the communication of companies has new characteristic features.
Ágnes Borgulya
International Team Building aus britischer Perspektive, mit Schwerpunkt auf interkultureller Kompetenz
Intercultural competence is the overriding essential skill in intercultural communication but it is very difficult to define. Can we really talk here of just one skill or should we rather consider a combination of skills? What roles do hard and soft skills play in this model and how can it be applied to international team building?
In times of increasing globalization international teams are commonplace phenomena and beset with every possible facet of success and failure. People from different cultural background strive to understand each other, to overcome intercultural obstacles and optimize group potential. In this paper ways of achieving this potential will be investigated, such as the correct choice of language, heightened awareness of own and other perspective, the application of dos and taboos, and the desirability of consensus. These will be reviewed in the context of British and German business styles.
Sonja Bründl-Price

Perspektiven auf die Praxis aus der Praxis

Screening der Unternehmenskultur
The main purpose of screening organizational culture is to help managers and change agents diagnose, understand, and facilitate the change of an organization’s culture. Based on a theoretical framework for classifying organizational values (“Competing Values Model”, Quinn & Rohrbaugh 1983) a validated instrument is used to survey characteristical value profiles of ûn organization. Organizational members are asked to respond to sixty organizational values describing six key dimensions of culture. For evaluation the data is analysed and the resulting value profiles of different organizational groups are compared (manager versus staff members, purchasing versus sales). The German version of the instrument (based on the Organizational Culture Assessment Inventory, Cameron & Quinn 1999) can be used for research on organizational culture and subcultures. The focus of this article rests on its practical impact to guide cultural change processes. Screening organizational culture helps to understand culture as a crucial factor in the long-term effectiveness of organizations and identifies actions needed to assist change.
Gundula Jänicke
Einsatz einer integrierten Kommunikation in Unternehmen
The development of strategies and devices to support the implementation of an integrated communication in companies and institutions is of high importance for their economic success. Based on a description about current market developments which show the necessity of an integrated communications approach the article focuses on the difficulties in achieving integration. It describes strategic, organisational and employee specific barriers to implement an integrated communication and highlights measures to reduce the barriers. The recommendations are based on market research data and the experiences of the author as head of integrated marketing communication at Swissair.
Michael Boenigk
Corporate Identity, Linguistik und das Internet
Corporate Identity (CI) has been increasingly discussed as a management concept again for some years. In addition to well-known issues new aspects such as the search for a CI concept matching web presences have accrued. In the first instance this essay presents a CI concept in which communicative aspects play an important part. CI blemishes are not interpreted as defects of the communicated but as symptoms of more underlying deficiencies. Subsequently the specific problems with corporate identity in the internet are introduced and typical causes for CI blemishes are discussed. Finally a model of analysis for the identification of CI blemishes is briefly introduced.
Markus Nickl
Die Prozessarchitektur umfassender Kulturentwicklungsprozesse
The article deals with cultural change of enterprises and understand it by difficult processes.
It suggests a system of strategies how to make a cultural change successful (like “leadership strategy”or “coaching strategy”). In this way, it shows a complex of recommendable actions which concern the management, the employees, the partnerships, or communicative measures.
Ralph A. Höfliger
Aufbau der Firmenkultur eines globalen Unternehmens in neu gegründeten Niederlassungen
With the fall of the “iron curtain” in 1990, international companies like Colgate-Palmolive started to open new subsidiaries in the countries of the former Soviet block. One of the key challenges was the conflict between the local culture, influenced by 50 years of communism, and the “western” culture of international companies. This required special strategies and more importantly special skills of the managers involved in the establishment of the new subsidiaries. Companies with a long international experience (like Colgate-Palmolive) and managers with inter-cultural competence had an important advantage. Clarity and consistency of the company strategy and the decisions in the day-to-day business were a prerequisite for success. Special emphasis was necessary on people development and internal communication, given the young and inexperienced organizations. This required a strong involvement of the management in personnel development and coaching. The building of a strong company culture and an esprit de corps also required many measurements, some of those nowadays often neglected in developed western countries. With a clear and consistent strategy and a comprehensive program of organizational development, Colgate-Palmolive was able to build in a short period of time very strong new subsidiaries with a solid business base and strong market positions in the new markets in Eastern Central Europe.
Friedrich Reinshagen
Die Rolle eines neuen und erweiterten Verständnisses von Marken für Unternehmen und deren Erfolg
This essay highlights the importance of brands for companies. It describes three layers of understanding:
the BrandBeing as a conceptual model for understanding brands and the relationship between brands and different target groups,
the concept of holistic brand development and connection points,
the IMO-model as a conceptual frame or for developing companies. In a macro perspective the three layers and their independencies are integrated into a new strategic planning approach for companies.
Marc Sasserath

Sprach- und kommunikationswissenschaftliche Aspekte von Unternehmenskultur

Made in Denmark, sold in Germany — zur Verwendung des Country-of-Origin-Prinzips im dänisch-deutschen Kontext
The Country-of-Origin principle has been known for quite some time. Originally invented to warn against and to stigmatize foreign products, today its purpose is much more one of promoting and recommending products that originate from a specific country. Although globalization and the convergence of markets by some authors are predicted to make the ?Made in? concept obsolete, replacing it with a ?Made by? concept, there are reasons to believe that the country of origin will remain important also in the years to come. That is why this paper sets out to show the various forms in which the country of origin may occur, illustrated by examples from a Danish-German context. On that background a scale is developed which is able to take into consideration the different degrees of how strongly the country of origin is visible in marketing communications.
Martin Nielsen
Markenslogan und Markenpersönlichkeit: bild-schematische Konzeptualisierung als Erfolgskriterium unternehmensexterner Kommunikation
The article shows in which way brand management can use metaphorological insights in order to build up and communicate on a systematic level a consistent brand image both online and offline. It is shown how a brand slogan using an image-schematic structure can function as the key to a holistic brand strategy. This is made possible by linking insights into cognitive linguistics, namely the cognitive theory of metaphor, with intercultural issues, and problems in brand management. By this interdisciplinary approach not only successfully chosen brand slogans can be made lucid in their strategic and text structuring function for brand management, but also the problem of correlating one specific corporate identity with manifold national cultures in brand communication can be solved.
Christopher M. Schmidt
Zwischen Rationalisierung und Eigensinn: Zur Organisation kommunikativer Tätigkeiten im Dienstleistungssektor
Since different things can be understood under such terms as ‘corporate culture/ identity/ communication’ etc., the paper starts by briefly sketching the author’s conception of the subject-matter. This conception is aimed at focussing — and finally bridging — a gap which is usually neglected: Whereas the rational communication model of the ‘management’ is oriented along the economic lines of ‘efficiency’, ‘effectiveness’, ‘quality assurance’, ‘consistent external presentation’ etc., there are — in principle — different views among the personnel and the customers of the empirical ‘organisation’. As the analyses of service interaction show, these views coincide only partially with the management’s perspective but also differ up to a certain degree so that irritations and conflicts have to be handled in the communication processes. Thus, it is argued that the differences between economic models and sociocultural/ linguistic phenomena of communication have to be sensitively observed when communicative work becomes subject to organisational arrangements.
Stephan Habscheid
Kulturelle Rahmenbedingungen in der europäischen Diskussion über Unternehmensreputation und soziale Verantwortung
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a concept that today touches most business organizations. This paper discusses some of the dimensions of CSR: confusing concepts, cultural differences, indistinctness of the role of CSR in society, and the bad reputation of CSR reporting. It will be claimed that CSR can be seen as a part of the globalization process and as a consequence of the ongoing change in the traditional European societal values. The European values are moving towards the American business culture in which philanthrophy and visible donations play a central role in corporate PR.
Jaakko Lehtonen


Zum Verhältnis von Unternehmensimage und Jahresbericht
This paper deals with the way in which the organizational images come into existence through annual reports. The concepts of image, annual report and text/ discourse will be discussed. These concepts are connected to a wider framework of organizational image. Methodically this paper is based on the theory of knowledge, perceptual psychology and text analysis.
Satu Selkälä
Der „Country of Origin-Effect“ und Images fremder Länder in der deutschen und russischen Fernsehwerbung
The following study illustrates the use of the country-of-origin effect as well a of other features of images of foreign countries in recent German and Russian TV-commercials. Many examples are provided. Additionally, the essay deals with problems of advertising transfer and dares to predict the consequences of globalisation on the country-of-origin effect.
Svetlana Kourilova

Unternehmensidentität und -kultur: Wirklichkeit oder Konstruktion, Methode oder Heilslehre, Erfolgsfaktor oder Zauberwort? Eine Podiumsdiskussion

Die Schwierigkeiten der Betriebswirtschaftslehre mit der Identität und der Kultur
Sichtet man die inzwischen kaum noch überschaubare betriebswirtschaftliche Literatur zur Corporate Identity (Unternehmensidentität, CI) und zur Unternehmenskultur (UK), so kann man sich des Eindrucks nicht erwehren, dass sie in ihrer Funktion für den angestrebten Unternehmenserfolg oft austauschbar sind. Beiden Konzepten ist in ihrem ursprünglichen angloamerikanischen Verständnis (Corporate Culture und Corporate Identity) eine instrumentalstrategische Bedeutung inhärent, die von bekannten Unternehmensberatungen in CI- und Unternehmenskulturprogrammen für die Praxis umgemünzt wird.
Theo Bungarten
Der lange Weg zum Erfolgsfaktor
„I’ schaff’ beim Daimler“ — hinter dieser Aussage von vielen Tausenden von Mitarbeitern stand in den 60er und 70er Jahren des 20. Jahrhunderts eine klare Wertvorstellung, eine Unternehmenskultur und -identität, ohne dass von diesen Begriffen die Rede war. Sie wurden einfach gelebt und empfunden und auf das Beste ergänzt durch „den guten Stern auf allen Straßen“. Diese Kommunikation gegenüber dem Verbraucher vermittelte Werte wie Sicherheit, Solidität, beste Qualität und Zuverlässigkeit, wie diese sich auch für Werksmitarbeiter und Angestellte darstellte.
Jörg Goll
Unternehmenskultur — mehr als ein Zauberwort
Viele Firmen bekennen sich in ihren Hochglanzbroschüren, Neujahrsansprachen und Führungsgrundsätzen gern dazu: „Unsere Mitarbeiter sind unser wichtigstes Kapital.“ Und das Zusammenspiel dieser Mitarbeiter im Unternehmen wird dann häufig als „unsere einzigartige Unternehmenskultur“ bezeichnet. „Kultur“ klingt nach Theater und Museum, hohem Anspruch, geheimer Kraftquelle — und ist zugleich unverbindlich genug, um vielfältige Interpretationsspielräume zuzulassen. Also doch ein Zauberwort?
Bernhard Rosenberger
Unternehmenskultur zwischen Realität, Konstruktion und Fiktion
Tagungen wie die hier nun dokumentierte in Regensburg haben das Verdienst, Leute mit sprachwissenschaftlichem Background mit Expertinnen „aus der Wirtschaft“ zusammenzubringen. Die Beziehung von Linguistinnen zur Welt der Wirtschaft verdient eigentlich eine eigene längere Studie. Neigten Sprachwissenschaftlerinnen in den 70er Jahren des 20. Jhs. eher dazu, bestimmte Aspekte der Wirtschaft vor allem kritisch zu beleuchten (so z.B. den manipulativen Charakter von Werbekommunikation), hat man später den Verlockungen des Spätkapitalismus oft selbst nachgegeben und begonnen, bei Werbekampagnen oder auch in sonstigen kommunikationsberatenden Funktionen bereitwillig mitzuarbeiten. Hier handelt es sich aber nach wie vor eher um Einzelfälle, und keineswegs darf daraus der Umkehrschluss gezogen werden, dass „die Wirtschaft“ nun endgültig „die Linguistik“ für sich entdeckt habe und aus deren potenzieller Expertise in verstärktem Ausmaß zu schöpfen bereit ist. Seit einigen Jahren gelingt es jedoch vor allem der Angewandten Linguistik, ein wenig präsenter zu sein und insbesondere auch ihre Zuständigkeit im Bereich „Kommunikation“ zu vermitteln.
Martin Stegu
Eine Synopse
Ziel der Podiumsdiskussion während der Regensburger Tagung war es, Angehörige aus Wissenschaft (Bungarten, Stegu) und Wirtschaft (Goll, Rosenberger) zusammenzubringen und mit dem ebenfalls gemischten Publikum über die vielschichtigen und durchaus nicht unstrittigen Begriffe der ‚Unternehmenskultur‘ und ‚Unternehmensidentität‘ zu diskutieren. Dabei ging es nicht nur um die in der Überschrift thematisierte Frage, wie substanziell diese Begriffe und wie relevant sie tatsächlich für die Praxis sind, sondern auch darum, ob und inwiefern die Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft zu Konzepten (und Umsetzungen?) von Unternehmenskultur und -identität beitragen kann.
Nina Janich
Unternehmenskultur und Unternehmensidentität
herausgegeben von
Univ.-Prof. Dr. phil. Nina Janich
Deutscher Universitätsverlag
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