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Über dieses Buch

This book is a collection of policy briefs produced from research presented at the 16th Conference on Urban Health in Xiamen, China, November 4–8, 2019, under the theme “People Oriented Urbanisation: Transforming Cities for Health and Well-Being”, co-organized by the Urban Health and Wellbeing (UHWB) programme of the International Science Council (ISC).

The UHWB programme takes an interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral and systemic view on issues of health and wellbeing in cities which include the urban economy and finance systems, education, employment, mobility and transport, food, energy and water resources, access to public services, urban planning, public spaces and urban green, as well as social inclusion. Contributions to this book have been made by scientists from multidisciplinary research fields.

The policy briefs in this book present the background and context of an urban health issue, research findings and recommendations for policy/decision-makers and action-takers. In some cases, they inform about relevant events and developments from the science community or important opinion pieces which address health emergencies, like the current COVID-19 pandemic.

The book is intended for citizens and political decision-makers, who are interested in systems perspectives on urban health and wellbeing, examples of how to deal with the increasing complexity of cities and the accompanying environmental and social impacts of increasing urbanization. Furthermore, it hopes to inspire decision-makers to facilitate finding solutions, in order to reach the goal of advancing global urban health and wellbeing.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

COVID-19, Cities and Health: A View from New York

Abstract
Population density is one of the defining characteristics of cities and is also one of the dominant challenges in addressing COVID-19 and likely future pandemics. In normal times, urban density allows for cost-effective service delivery, acts as a magnet for jobs and the generation of wealth, and nurtures innovation. Coupled with diversity—another core characteristic of cities—urban density also yields the cultural variety in urban neighbourhoods, fosters global connections and makes cities like New York attractive and exciting.
Jo Ivey Boufford, Anthony Shih

Current and Future Human Exposure to High Atmospheric Temperatures in the Algarve, Portugal: Impacts and Policy Recommendations

Abstract
There is currently evidence of increased morbidity and mortality associated with high atmospheric temperatures. Risk factors such as age, ethnicity and behavioural factors, among others, tend to aggravate these impacts. Urban areas generally present an increased risk, both outdoor (mainly due to the urban heat island effect) and indoor, due to low housing standards (such as poor insulation).
André Oliveira, Filipe Duarte Santos, Luís Dias

Neuroscience-Based Urban Design for Mentally Healthy Cities

Abstract
Urbanization and the recent COVID-19 pandemic highlight the pressing issue of mental health in the urbanized world. It is vital to recognize urban green spaces as a medium to improve mental health and wellbeing for city residents to create healthy cities through mentally healthy living environments.
Agnieszka Olszewska-Guizzo

The Role of Money for a Healthy Economy

Abstract
If we take a look at any newspaper in any country, two major problems frequently are addressed: inequality and the increasing destruction of the natural environment, that is unsustainability in the stricto sensu.
Felix Fuders

Developing Health-Promoting Schools: An Initiative in Government Schools of Indore City, India

Abstract
Young people constitute one of the precious resources of India. In a phase characterized by growth and development, youth are vulnerable to influence by factors that affect their health and safety. Addressing young people in their schools is an efficient way to reach them en masse.
Alsa Bakhtawar

Mobility and COVID-19: Time for a Mobility Paradigm Shift

Abstract
Urban mobility and the COVID-19 pandemic have had significant impacts on each other and on health. Urban areas are particularly hit by COVID-19, where moving around while social distancing is challenging because public space is often limited and mostly designated for motorized traffic. Urgent actions need to be taken by cities and citizens that bring longer-term changes towards healthy, equitable and sustainable mobility.
Carolyn Daher, Sarah Koch, Manel Ferri, Guillem Vich, Maria Foraster, Glòria Carrasco, Sasha Khomenko, Sergio Baraibar, Laura Hidalgo, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen

COVID-19 Shows Us the Need to Plan Urban Green Spaces More Systemically for Urban Health and Wellbeing

Abstract
In addition to the necessity and urgency for bottom-up climate actions, the significance of urban green spaces has been highlighted by the complex socio-economic impacts of COVID-19 on a global scale.
Jieling Liu

How Lack or Insufficient Provision of Water and Sanitation Impacts Women’s Health Working in the Informal Sector: Experiences from West and Central Africa

Abstract
At least 500 million women and girls globally lack adequate facilities for menstrual hygiene management. Inadequate WASH (water, sanitation and hygiene) facilities, particularly in public places, such as in schools, workplaces or health centres, pose a major obstacle to women and girls. The lack of safety toilets, and the unavailability of means to dispose of used sanitary pads and water to wash hands, expose women and girls to face challenges in maintaining their menstrual hygiene (i.e. their sexual health) in a private, safe and dignified manner.
H. Blaise Nguendo Yongsi

Planning Models for Small Towns in Tanzania

Abstract
In Tanzania, a large population with vibrant economic activities mostly informal, is found within cities, regions and small towns. These small towns are growing rapidly and strongly associated with mismanagement especially in their infancy stages.
Dawah Lulu Magembe-Mushi, Ally Namangaya

Coping with Extreme Circumstances Through Community-Led Local Nature Interventions: A Science-Based Policy Analysis

Abstract
Community-led local nature interventions are coping strategies to extreme events created by low-income communities to help them sustain their health and wellbeing.
Diana Benjumea, Agnieszka Olszewska-Guizzo
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