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2022 | Buch

Urban Regeneration Through Valuation Systems for Innovation

herausgegeben von: Francesca Abastante, Marta Bottero, Chiara D’Alpaos, Luisa Ingaramo, Alessandra Oppio, Paolo Rosato, Francesca Salvo

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe: Green Energy and Technology


Über dieses Buch

This book examines the role of the evaluation models in decision-making processes for the construction of circular cities in the digital revolution. In particular, the book explores the need for a rethinking of development models proposed by the circular economy which requires the valorization of natural, social and economic capital. Urban environment represents a crucial field of analysis in which applying the circular-economy principles in order to steer a course towards a sustainable economy characterized by processes meant to create value instead of extracting it, which put a step forward in the pathway towards a better future in terms of economic, environmental and social effects and desirable outcomes. In this context, the design of urban regeneration processes and housing environments requires the adoption of inclusive analysis/assessment models combined with the structuring and organization of public/private investments that can contribute to creating positive natural and social impacts as well as economic and financial returns. This fundamental paradigm shift is accentuated in the current context, in which the digital revolution is reinventing the future and calls for a rethinking and reformulation of value systems in the era of technological process innovations, while respecting economic, natural and social ecosystems.



Models and Metrics for Social Impact Assessment

An Analysis of the Housing Market Dynamics in the Italian Municipalities
The Covid-19 pandemic has caused numerous variations in the global economies with repercussions in all sectors. Once the emergency phase has finished, the entire worldwide population has changed its lifestyle and has had to adapt to live with the pandemic. In particular, the several modifications that have occurred in the job market and in schools and universities have determined a necessary reorganization of domestic spaces. The present study represents the first phase of a wider research aimed at verifying the transformation in the Italian residential market demand resulted by the Covid-19. The analysis carried out in this work has been performed at the municipal level, by considering the data published by the National Institute of Statistics collected for the 15th General Census of the population and housing in 2011. The dataset collected has been processed through an advanced econometric technique in order to identify the functional relationships between the residential average unit market value and the main architectural, socio-demographic and territorial factors. Further developments of this research will concern the application of the same methodological approach proposed to data detected by the National Institute of Statistics for the 16th Census scheduled for 2021.
Pierluigi Morano, Francesco Tajani, Marco Locurcio, Felicia Di Liddo, Rossana Ranieri
Impact Management as a Driver of Value Creation in Payment by Results Schemes for Urban Regeneration Projects
Contemporary changes in cities and territories raise dramatic contradictions between growth and sustainability. In this context, impact measurement and management can provide a useful approach to promote sustainable urban development, by addressing the complexity of social change, accounting for value from the perspective of all relevant stakeholders and providing actionable insights on how to reduce trade-offs between stakeholder groups’ interests and development goals in a context of limited financial and non-financial resources. Payment by Results instruments represent a promising scheme to promote innovation and comprehend the needs of the community. The Social Innovation Fund (FIS), established in 2019 by the Italian Government, precisely requires PbR schemes to sustain urban regeneration and social innovation projects. The paper illustrates the model of intervention, the measurement approach and the financing mechanism of two projects funded by the FIS addressing social exclusion, taking place in Lucca and Perugia. The two case studies will shed light on the importance of measuring impact in regeneration urban projects to align investment decisions with environmental and social objectives.
Filippo Montesi Altamirano, Marta Rossi, Nicola Cabria
Creativity, Responsibility and the Social Project Finance in the Revitalization of Abandoned Territories
This study on the relationship between creativity and responsibility in the processes of revitalisation of abandoned territories is part of the debate on the structural drift to which the possible long-term effects of public deficit spending envisaged by the National Recovery and Resilience Plan launched by the Italian Government to combat the economic crisis generated by the pandemic. This emergency has frozen the austerity regime and the constraints that the EU has placed since its inception on public spending and welfare, especially by the most indebted countries. Starting from an overall background of the territorial economic and demographic disadvantage, and in the prospect of the ecological transition programme, the paper proposes a Public–Private Partnership approach to the renovation of the depopulated old towns, through a financial tool combining Social Impact Bond features with the financing process at the base of tax credit properties renovation, consistent with the administrative aptitudes of the small-town centres.
Salvatore Giuffrida, Carmelo Marisca, Maria Rosa Trovato, Cheren Cappello, Ludovica Nasca
An Evaluation Tool of Public–Private Conveniences in the Definition of Urban Planning Variants
The economic convenience of urban transformation interventions carried out as derogation of existing urban planning instruments is subject to the determination of the “higher value” generated by the urban planning variant. Aim of the work consists in the development and testing of a procedural protocol for supporting the municipal administrations for the “higher value” assessment, according with the provisions of the Italian D.P.R. no. 380/2001, art. 16, paragraph 4, letter d-ter). The protocol’s effectiveness is tested through an application to a case study located in the city of Taranto (Italy). The research intends to provide a tool that integrates the assessment methodology with the normative regulations provided by the national and regional legislator. The results obtained highlight the efficiency and usefulness of the proposed protocol of evaluation.
Pierluigi Morano, Francesco Tajani, Debora Anelli
Sustainability in Urban Regeneration: Real or Propaganda?
There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of sustainability in contemporary cities and societies. Sustainable urban regeneration plays a vital role in city development. This research aims to understand whether what is theorized in the literature on sustainability has empirical effects on cities and specifically on urban regeneration. Considering this purpose, this paper showcases—through comparative analysis—four best practices of urban regeneration and the impacts these processes develop in the three sustainable pillars: environmental, economic and social. In conclusion, this paper is conceived as an opportunity to discuss theoretical and operational aspects for the development of future sustainable cities and we hope that this research will contribute to a deeper understanding of sustainable urban regeneration.
Ezio Micelli, Federica Scaffidi
How to Evaluate Public Spaces as High-Value Impact Opportunities for the Last Generation Adaptive Cities
The utterly unpredicted advent of Covid-19 pandemic has profoundly changed human lives, not only in people habits but in their perception of related-density urban spaces and their use. Smart Cities based on technocentric efficiency are gradually replaced by a new city paradigm: the adaptive cities. The term “adaptive” inspires a new model of interaction between citizens, technology and spaces starting from urban characteristics and users’ needs towards a better accomplishment of the UN seventeen-SDG idea of inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable cities, thus stressing the social dimension. This scenario represents a new challenge in reshaping cities for policy makers, investors, planners and all actors involved in this innovative regeneration process that would comply with ESG criteria. A starting point of Adaptive cities is certainly represented by public spaces that have been rediscovered by people experiencing pandemic. The present paper explores under an evaluative lens the potential social impact of public spaces. Through literature and empirical evidence, it is then introduced the issue of measuring those values that pertain social and collective dimension (extra-market values). Finally, it is discussed how intangible values can be integrated with the economic and financial framework through which policy makers and investors attempt to catch the social impact values.
Federica Cadamuro Morgante, Alessandra Oppio

Decision Making for Circular Cities

Circularity Above Linearity: Toward a Circular Mining Approach of the Planning for Mining Activities
Cities and territories are increasing ever more their attention with respect to circular industrial processes. The extraction of mining resources is one of the first steps in urban and territorial transformations, and it necessitates a step forward, beginning with the use of the entire extracted material. The paper focuses on the emerging concept of circular mining in the context of planning and management for mining activities, and on the role of assessment techniques and tools to explore complex problems through a multidimensional approach as support for the decision-making process in the definition of long-term strategies. It also provides an overview of relevant literature and current regulations related to the circular economy and mining. There is a wide range of techniques and tools of environmental assessment and addressed for example to analysis and assessment of environmental impact, the assessment of the most sustainable scenario, or the plan monitoring and management. The paper illustrates the case of the ongoing Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) of the Regional Plan for Mining Activities (PRAE) of the Piedmont Region (Italy) and the plan issue of incorporating the circularity paradigm. A more sustainable planning and management of the mining sector is a promising challenge to renovate economic growth and development, and also to promote the adaptation of the city and its territory towards circularity. In this way, it will be feasible to provide a more sustainable future for future generations by taking care of the Earth’s resources and reserves.
Vanessa Assumma, Marta Bottero, Giulio Mondini, Elisa Zanetta
Environmental Impact of Transportation Infrastructures: Integrated Methodologies for Preliminary Assessment. A Case-Study
The assessment of environmental sustainability of transport infrastructures is a particularly complex and significant theme, characterized by multiscalarity and multidimensionality. The paper intends to illustrate a recent experience of preliminary assessment referring to an infrastructure project for the Local Public Transportation (LPT) and the related urban projects, and functionalization works (squares, underpasses, bridges, etc.) to be carried out in the municipality of Pompeii, in province of Naples. Starting from a theoretical framework on the links between transport infrastructures and land use planning, the paper illustrates the operating procedures for the preliminary assessment carried out through a multi-level analysis that has considered the intensity, scale, probability and finally the reversibility of the impacts, also identifying the necessary mitigations. Finally, it proposes a reflection on the increasingly mentioned need to engage and correctly inform citizens in all phases of the environmental assessment of infrastructure interventions in the territory.
Alessio D’Auria, Gerardo Maria Cennamo, Irina Di Ruocco
Investigating “Sustainable Neighbourhoods” in the Italian Context: A Diachronic Approach
The chapter investigates the evolution of the “sustainable neighbourhoods” paradigm in Italy, drawing on a selection of initiatives developed through time also as a consequence of the incremental consolidation of a European and national legislation on the matter. The case studies are analysed through a grid developed in the framework of the Erasmus + project LOTUS and properly adapted to the scope of this contribution. The authors identify two main patterns that have characterised the evolution of energy policies and sustainable urban planning practices in Italy in the last 30 years: (i) the shift from a sectoral approach that addresses the production of energy (“silos approach”) to the integration of different urban strategies and policies that look at changes in the processes of production, distribution and energy-saving in relation to urban planning transformations (“integrated approach”); (ii) the shift from the localisation of specific interventions concentrated within a defined municipality or urban area to the promotion of diffused actions fostering inter-municipal cooperation under a regime of co-ownership and co-management of energy services. The collected evidence constitutes a useful input for spatial governance and planning activities in the Italian context, supporting initiatives and projects that promote energy transitions towards the decarbonisation of cities.
Federica Rotondo, Francesca Abastante, Giancarlo Cotella, Isabella M. Lami
The Value of the House-City System as an Emerging Identity Towards “Circular Architecture”
The economic policy implemented in the prospect of the ecological transition identifies in the building sector one of the main drivers of the circular economy and sustainability in terms of climate change mitigation coming from the energy retrofit on the neighbourhood scale. This study tries to see in the tax measures supporting this process a fundamental opportunity to the historic building fabrics enhancement in view of a more general reform of the house-city-landscape system. The paper refers to the case of a neighbourhood “in transition” characterized by significant unexpressed potential, and receptive of measures aimed at its “green re-identification”. Based on a model of analysis and evaluation of a large building sample, an evaluative synthesis of the energy-environmental retrofit interventions was carried out by means of a DCFA model based on an energy/exergy analysis. Two hypotheses concerning an ordinary and extraordinary tax credit scheme were compared in terms of cost-effectiveness and financial feasibility. Critical observations are proposed about the correct use of public spending and the redistributive effects of the wealth created.
Salvatore Giuffrida, Maria Rosa Trovato, Francesco Nocera, Vittoria Ventura, Cheren Cappello, Ludovica Nasca
The Economic Evaluation of Urban Ecosystem Services into Policy-Making Processes
In view of the uncontrolled cities urbanization, climate change and, last but not least, the pandemic crisis from COVID-19, there is the need to implement intervention practices at the territorial scale by an integrated sustainable approach. This to consolidate the different aspects of the design system made by interacting elements in the respect of the environmental, social and economic dimension. To this, the ecosystem services are of international interest with regard to the functional link between the environment and sustainable development, so as to identify methodological and operational issues at the basis of the most current research in the economic evaluation field. With this contribution it is intended to provide an evaluation framework to support public–private decision-makers in establishing the most significant initiatives of sustainable urban development, taking into account the impacts that they would generate on the reference urban context in terms of ecosystem services supply. The proposed framework is developed in a win–win logic capable of merging the different interests of the stakeholders, as well as the purpose of supporting the ecological transition and environmental protection of urban ecosystems according to an integrated-multidimensional pathway. The proposed evaluation process took note of the theoretical, methodological, and operational issues underlying the economic valuation of urban ecosystem services and their addition into policy-making processes. The economic policy implications by the proposed framework will be emphasized in the concluding section along with research perspectives.
Francesco Sica, Pierluigi Morano, Maria Rosaria Guarini, Francesco Tajani
Towards a SDGs Based Neighborhood Sustainability Evaluation Framework: A Tool for Assessing Sustainability at the Urban Micro-Scale
In light of the rapid growth of the built environment and its attendant climate, ecological, social and economic impacts, neighborhood is recognized as an effective level to address many sustainability objectives, according to the Sustainability Development Goals (SDGs) of the 2030 Agenda. However, there is no simple way to define an index for neighborhood sustainability assessment that can be used as a suitable tool for evaluating and monitoring interventions at this scale. The paper introduces a neighborhood sustainability evaluation framework based on SDGs that allows to analyze and measure the performance on different goals and map the results via a Geographic Information System. This architecture is useful to merge data from a variety of open sources and to obtain a significant spatial representation of potentials and problems on different thematic issues of a specific neighborhood or urban area. Due to its sensitivity—both in relation to the spatial and environmental structure and the socio-functional organization of the neighborhood micro-scale that are analyzed—the proposed evaluation framework can serve as an important planning and design tool to guide and inform strategies, policies and urban transformation interventions aimed at improving urban sustainability.
Valeria Saiu, Ivan Blečić, Italo Meloni, Francesco Piras, Beatrice Scappini
A Case of Local Community Engagement for Urban Regeneration: The South Boston Area
In contrast with the “top-down” methodology, usually implemented for urban planning processes, this study presents the application of a “bottom-up” approach, where the local community has been involved in the urban design process. The participation process was tested as a sustainable tool for local urban regeneration. In this sense, the local community has been involved since the beginning of the decision process and high standards of public benefits have been achieved applying this approach. The bottom-up approach implemented in the Plan for South Boston—Dorchester Ave in Boston (MA, USA) was investigated. This area is a low-density mixed-use area, which currently is suffering from a depopulation process and is undergoing the expansionary pressure of the city. The case study confirmed the efficiency of a bottom-up process with public engagement in restricted geographical areas where local communities share common interests and ideas. By obtaining higher levels of public benefits, the participatory process has succeeded in achieving sustainable development goals in line with public needs. The study aims to provide descriptive policy recommendations to promote sustainable redevelopment in local districts.
Rubina Canesi, Chiara D’Alpaos, Giuliano Marella
Circular Economy and Social Circularity. Diffuse Social Housing and Adaptive Reuse of Real Estate in Internal Areas
In internal areas subject to depopulation, a high percentage of real estate assets remain unused not only because of short-term contingent factors (such as physical and technological obsolescence, mismatch between supply and demand, speculative expectations, etc.), but also because of long-term structural trends. Such properties become a ‘waste’ of the economic system, both as a private cost for owners and as a social cost for communities due to the huge quantity of natural, human and financial resources that had been invested in their realization. In line with the adaptive and ex-active reuse approach, vacant real estate stocks may be reused through their physical, technological and functional refurbishment. This can also be an opportunity to develop ‘social circularity’ and to experiment with models of spatially diffused Social Housing, in order to meet the demand for housing and social services by low-income groups, as well as to build community and social cohesion. Taking as an example the internal areas of Sicily (Italy), we propose the development of a multidimensional model to support the decision-making process of selection of unused buildings that have the suitable features to be included in a virtuous circuit of reuse to provide Social Housing.
Simona Barbaro, Grazia Napoli, Maria Rosa Trovato

The Value of Spaces in the Digital Revolution

The Value of Spaces in the Digital Revolution
The paper aims to discuss the theme of value of spaces in the digital revolution. The diffusion of information and communications technologies has outlined the birth and development of new models, strategies and paradigms, whose common denominator is the high degree of automation and interconnection, a founding element of that epochal turning point known as “Fourth Industrial Revolution”. One of the main directions of this phenomenon is represented by the design of physical or digital environments in which humans and technological systems interact in increasingly open, connected, coordinated and intelligent ecosystems. From the design of smart cities to the construction of smart homes, it is now increasingly clear that real estate appraisal discipline must approach the assessment of new real estate types, the consideration of fuzzy market segments, the valuation of complex property variables, linked both to new communication and information technologies and to qualitative dimensions related to individual and community well-being and to the health of the environment itself. After framing the theme of digital spaces in the context of the digital revolution, the contribution deepens the aspects related to smart homes, providing the identification of the main estimation methodologies with particular regard to the approach of hedonic prices and the Contingent Valuation Method.
Francesca Salvo
Development of a WebGIS Open Platform to Support Community Resilience
The aim of this paper is to illustrate the construction process of a WebGIS platform aimed at supporting the planning of adaptation strategies for the municipality of Chiomonte (Italy). The WebGIS platform here illustrated is one of the results of two projects named Chiomonte_2025 and Chiomonte_SMART, promoted by the Public Administration (PA) of Chiomonte and the ImprenD'Oc association ( and financed by Compagnia di San Paolo and Comitati Territoriali IREN. The projects aimed at identifying alternative territorial strategies considering a controversial decision-making process characterized by a high level of uncertainty and guided following a disruptive and divisive event: the realization of the New High Speed Train Line (NHSTL) connecting Turin (Italy) and Lion (France). The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) are recognized as being key players in the managing of complex and multidimensional decision-making processes since they are able to get the different stakeholders on the same page, visualize on the territory the different alternative strategies and considering both quantitative and qualitative data. The WebGIS platform developed goes in the direction of “sharing information” being conceived as a knowledge base that would provide the definition of alternative actions that may be conflictual. Future development of the work will provide the updating of the platform so to integrate Multicriteria Analyses (MCDA, Abastante et al. in Buildings 7(4):103, 2017; Fregonese et al. in Group Decis Negotiation 29(6):993–1019, 2020) useful to structure real-time decision processes, identify the most important decision criteria to guide the definition of operative projects, identify the impacts of each proposed action and disclose a priority ranking of the different projects.
Francesca Abastante, Francesco Fiermonte
When Green Turns into Value
The issues of environment, climate change, use of non-renewable resources and energy needs, have become central both at the international level and in the everyday life of people aware of sustainability, well-being and energy efficiency. In this perspective, the philosophy of Green Building is becoming increasingly important in the building sector; it’s the approach to low environmental impact of construction oriented to improving people’s health and quality of life, respecting the environment. The benefits of adopting these protocols are different: environmental, economic and social ones. Thinking of “green” buildings means minimizing pollutant emissions and the use of unsustainable resources for buildings that, to date, generate almost 40% of carbon dioxide emissions. In addition, it must be stressed that the use of green technologies has a positive impact on economy: on the one hand on the consumption and the costs of tenants, on the other on the employments, with the creation of new jobs. Finally, with regard to the social advantages, it is now acclaimed that those who live and/or work in buildings classified as “green” tend to show a higher level of productivity, mood stability and regularity of biorhythms. Having examined the contribution that green buildings can offer to the objectives of the 2030 Agenda, and once recalled the state of the art with reference to the methods of appraising the value of green buildings, this contribution is intended to think about the possibility of “green turning into value”, helping to increase the appreciation of private real estate users for this kind of properties. In this regard, we propose a model of contingent evaluation able to express the green buildings parameters in terms of economic value. In particular, the paper is the first step of a wider research, so that it reports the work premises, examining the contribution of green buildings in the 2030 Agenda (Sect. 1), the state of art (Sect. 2), the green building certifications (Sect. 3), and the methodological approach (Sect. 4), up to the definition of the considered parameters and the questionnaire schedule. Future research and implications are described in Sect. 5.
Manuela De Ruggiero, Francesca Salvo, Daniela Tavano, Raffaele Zinno
Smart Redevelopment of Existing Buildings. Use of BIM in Economic Value Judgments
Industry 4.0, digitalization, smart building, virtual reality: these are terms that are also entering into the common use of a traditional sector such as that of real estate, a sector that today is at the centre of a revolution of approaches, methods, and processes. There is a change in the way of understanding the building that goes from being a simple shell to an advanced technological object. The advantages of living in a smart home compared to a traditional home are clearly numerous both from an economic point of view and from a psychophysical point of view but the real challenge, Nowadays, it is to be able to redevelop in a smart key existing buildings or belonging to the historical real estate. The topic of smart building becomes more complex when we talk about existing buildings because the constraints of intervention are many and therefore the decision margins to promote redevelopment actions are significantly reduced. With a view to redesigning existing buildings to make them economically viable, the BIM technology is a particularly effective tool, embracing a philosophy that bears witness to the concept of digitalization of the built environment, Today, the foundation of innovation in the construction industry. The estimation of the costs to be incurred for different improvement scenarios can be conducted through the BIM automatically. This makes it possible to simplify the analysis of economic feasibility in the processes of transformation of a property by orienting more effectively the identification of the best use of the property.
Francesca Salvo, Manuela De Ruggiero, Daniela Tavano
Environmental Discount Rate and Energy Transition. An Application for Germany
The achievement of climate neutrality objectives must be guided by long-term policies. It is worth mentioning the projects of the European Green Deal with objectives for 2050 and the investment strategies aimed at containing global warming, the repercussions of which manifest themselves for decades. In assessing the sustainability of these policies, a central role is played by the Social Discount Rate: the greater its value, the less importance is attributed to the project’s effects that are progressively further away over time. The use of constant discount rates, generally used in practice, exacerbates the effect of reducing the present value of future costs and benefits, which are thus underestimated. The aim of the work is to demonstrate how the use of innovative, dual and declining approaches allow to take into account the problems of intergenerational equity, typical of investment projects for the ecological transition. This approach is called dual because it is based on the use of discount rates which, for the actualization of environmental externalities, are different from the rates that weigh strictly financial components. Both economic and environmental discount rates have a declining structure for projects with long-term effects. The analysis model, which defines environmental quality as a function of energy indicators, is implemented to estimate both economic and environmental declining discount rates for Germany, the main European economy. The results obtained, also compared with those already obtained for other economies, show that the use of environmental discount rates can affect the process of allocating resources for energy policy interventions.
Gabriella Maselli, Antonio Nesticò
Urban Regeneration Through Valuation Systems for Innovation
herausgegeben von
Francesca Abastante
Marta Bottero
Chiara D’Alpaos
Luisa Ingaramo
Alessandra Oppio
Paolo Rosato
Francesca Salvo
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