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2022 | Buch

Urban Resilience: Methodologies, Tools and Evaluation

Theory and Practice

herausgegeben von: Octavio Francisco González Castillo, Valentina Antoniucci, Enrique Mendieta Márquez, Margarita Juárez Nájera, Alberto Cedeño Valdiviezo, Mariana Osorno Castro

Verlag: Springer International Publishing

Buchreihe : Resilient Cities

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Über dieses Buch

This book presents a select set of papers from an international and multidisciplinary approach, outlining the vanguard in the field of methodology, tools, and evaluation of the movement towards urban resilience.

Reflecting on and redesigning the guidelines that orient the planning and management of urban development has become, today, an issue of global scope and priority that demands the committed and determined participation of society. Faced with the formidable challenge of guiding our cities towards sustainability, it is necessary to develop new approaches, paradigms, models, methodologies, and tools that make it possible to assess and raise the resilience profile of urban socio-ecosystems. The experiences that are developed in this book offer a wide and diverse set of concepts, theories, methodologies, instruments, and casuistry, impregnated by resilience notion, to inspire, influence, and guide thinking and practice for architects, urban planners, government officials, businessmen, civil and research organizations.

In this book, the reader will be able to review either theoretical-methodology to organize notions on urban resilience, or application cases in a variety of areas and subsystems of a city but, being all of them inevitably and intricately linked through a complex matrix of structures and interactions that determine future, well-being, and resilience of urban socio-ecosystems in the global anthropo-environment.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter
Chapter 1. Searching a Resilient City: A Study About Theoretical-Conceptual Joints Between Smart City and Urban Resilience
Abstract
The relationship between cities and technologies has been developing over the centuries. The complexity of urban space, associated with population growth and the use of natural resources highlighted environmental, socioeconomic and spatial vulnerabilities. In this scenario, some technologies are now being developed to make the urban space more resilient and smarter. The recent spread of the term “smart city”, to designate cities that using technologies to assist in solving demands, suggests thematic approaches to urban resilience. This relationship, however, is not obvious and requires discussions on how these concepts are articulated and which aspects of smart cities make such cities more resilient. Considering this challenge, this paper aims to examine the relationship between the concepts of smart city and urban resilience, and asks how different conceptual approaches to smart cities contribute to enrich the debate on the improvement of urban resilience, focusing on studies about urban planning. To answer this question, we developed a correlational research, qualitative and documentary, which started with the search for convergences between the concepts and the construction of a frame from each one’s fundamental characteristics. It was observed that although the link exists academically, the concepts can be worked under different approaches. As such, the joint consideration is important and can contribute to more solidified, efficient, and participatory urban environments.
Tharsila Maynardes Dallabona Fariniuk, Alexandre Hojda, Marcela de Moraes Batista Simão
Chapter 2. Framing ‘Resilient Cities’: System Versus Community Focused Interpretations of Urban Climate Resilience
Abstract
Building urban resilience to climate change and other challenges will be essential for maintaining thriving cities into the future. Resilience has become very popular in both research on and practice of climate adaptation. However, people have different interpretations of what it means: what resilience-building contributes to, what the problems, causes and solutions are, and what trade-offs, side-effects and other normative choices are acceptable. These different ways of ‘framing’ climate resilience are hidden in the positive, but sometimes fairly vague, language used to promote it.
Analysis of the framing of ‘urban resilience’ can distinguish important contrasting preferences regarding the ‘most appropriate’ way to build urban resilience. This chapter explores two important frames of urban resilience: the ‘system resilience’ frame, focusing on maintaining urban functions and processes, and the ‘community resilience’ frame, emphasising urban life, community bonds and self-sufficiency.
The frames used by scientists, policymakers, and stakeholders reflect social uncertainties in climate adaptation, related to values, preferences, and goals. They entail different visions on the urban future, leading to different potential realisations of climate change adaptation. Leaving them implicit can result in a ‘dialogue of the deaf’, potentially leading to adaptation failure.
Urban decision-makers and stakeholders will need to investigate and develop a clear vision on what they mean by urban resilience: what are the goals, and who’s or what’s resilience are we talking about? Explicit exploration of the current and potential frames will help to cultivate meaningful discussion on the choices and trade-offs to be made in developing climate-resilient urban futures.
Arjan Wardekker
Chapter 3. Townscape Catalogues Toward Urban Resilience and Sustainability
Abstract
This paper gathers the findings of a series of research projects related to the Townscape Catalogues. Since their start in 2010, these projects have been conducted within the Facultad de Arquitectura [School of Architecture] at Universidad Católica de Córdoba.
This article springs from the need to define Catálogo de Paisaje Urbano [Townscape Catalogue] as an innovative instrument that applies a landscape-oriented strategy in the study of the city, develops the proposed methodology and defines the three phases it comprises. Before the conclusions, a series of considerations are noted presenting possible derivations of our proposal toward urban resilience and sustainability. The study of the landscape becomes fertile ground here for the convergence of the contributions of multiple disciplines, where, fittingly, we may propose alternative outlooks and perspectives.
As an open research field, urban resilience may encounter conceptual and methodological foundations in the Townscape Catalogues.
Lucas Períes, María Cecilia Kesman, Beatriz Ojeda
Chapter 4. Building Resilient and Sustainable Cities Starting from the Urban Transport System
Abstract
The concept of resilience is emerging as one of the hot topics in several sectors. One of the most challenging sectors is that of the critical infrastructures which are present in our cities and involve the day life of everybody. Among these critical infrastructures probably the most prominent is the urban transport system since it is typically used as a resource for many other social and economic activities, and also to rescue and move people in the case of threat. In this context the European Commission has launched a number of projects with the aim of defining the European Resilience Management Guidelines, ERMG. Among those projects working on ERMG, the “Resilience management guidelines and operationalization applied to Urban Transport Environment (RESOLUTE)” project is focussed on the resilience aspects of urban transport system, and contributes to the global scenarios creating the guidelines and putting them into play (e.g., operationalize) with a number of real executable tools connected with the urban data by following a big data approach. This chapter is focused on presenting the state of the art of resilience conceptual structure for Urban Transport System (UTS) and the main aspects of RESOLUTE EC H2020 project.
Emanuele Bellini, Paolo Nesi, Cristina Martelli, Evangelia Gaitanidou, Francesco Archetti, Antonio Candelieri, Jan-Paul Leuteritz, Pedro Ferreira, Laura Coconea
Chapter 5. Creating a Resilient City: A Community Focused Approach in Bogota, Colombia
Abstract
Resilience is utilised in various areas of academia: physics, economics, urban, individual, community, ecological and social-ecological. When it comes to urban environments, urban resilience often focuses on disaster management without consideration for the community. This article proposes the use of community resilience literature to aid in understanding the role of community within urban resilience. There have been many programs and initiatives, which have enabled cities to begin to address issues relating to resilience; one such city is Bogota. This article puts forward an ethnographic research project focusing on Bogota, Colombia and its relationship with resilience. Observations throughout Bogota were conducted from January to May 2015, supplemented by 15 interviews throughout this period with government officials and various stakeholders. Policy analysis was conducted throughout this period. The results show that through the Bogota Humana Plan, the city of Bogota has been able to draw on various resilience strategies from different academic fields, enhancing their urban, community, and cultural resilience. This article argues that community resilience literature should be utilised within urban resilience strategies, creating a more holistic, cross disciplinary approach which in the long term better for urban environments. The Bogota government provides a quality example of a city, which is implementing resilience strategies utilised within community resilience to establish a holistic resilience urban environment.
Shai Diner
Chapter 6. Resilience and Sustainability in Urban Socioecosystems: A Conceptual Reflection
Abstract
Chapter opens with a tight chronicle of 4.5 million years of evolution and humanization of the homo genus. In synchrony, the natural world in which it inhabits (real world or REALity) has also evolved, while a new and equally surprising world, of its creation, has emerged and has not stopped expanding its borders: its cultures or CONCEPTUALity. Since then, REALity and CONCEPTUALity have been intertwined, giving rise to authentic revolutions (agricultural, commercial, industrial, ICT, artificial intelligence, …) that, among other consequences, have enabled the exponential growth of their population, as well as the emergence—and since then, incessant growth—of the urban phenomenon. The rest of the chapter flows to answer the questions: what purposes has urban development served, under an anthropocentric approach? What new purposes should aspire to serve if development assumed a socioecocentric approach, oriented towards the resilience and sustainability of socioecosystems (wild, rural, and urban)? The author invites us to make the local and global crisis the starting point for the construction of a new development approach, one in which the final beneficiary for the development should be the socioecosystems, subject to a long-range planning and management (space, time, actors involved), in a participative orientation with an extended responsibility. To achieve this, the author concludes, it will be necessary to first change our cognitive and intervention approaches, as well as design novel methodologies and instruments to assess resilience and sustainability in socioecosystems.
Octavio Francisco González-Castillo
Chapter 7. System Approach to Resilience-Based Design: Political Decisions and Steps Towards Antifragility
Abstract
In recent years, natural disasters are recognized to be the cause of considerable human and socioeconomic losses, particularly in modern, infrastructure-dependent societies. For example, the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan have been one of the most devastating disasters of the past decades. Likewise, the Katrina hurricane was in the US east coast in 2005. On the other hand, climate change is considered a major issue nowadays and its consequences have been considered only recently in risk assessment. In this context, the concepts of “resilience of urban areas” and “resilient community”, have gathered the attention of researchers. On top of that, more recently, antifragile design came as an evolution of design for resilience (intended as the capacity to recover), or for structural robustness (a main dimension of resilience, intended as the ability of a structure to withstand events without being damaged to an extent disproportionate to the original cause). This study focuses on a modern approach in disaster resilience – including issues for the risk assessment in antifragile design – providing insight and a framework on important modelling aspects, in particular:
(i)
System representation, including hazard modelling and the time horizon of events;
 
(ii)
Decision representation (with specific reference to political decisions);
 
(iii)
Data collection, necessary for data-driven modelling.
 
The intention is to provide an umbrella framework and set of advises of correct practice that can help policy advisors and experts design for resilience in urban areas.
Konstantinos Gkoumas, Francesco Petrini, Franco Bontempi
Chapter 8. An Integrated Methodological Framework to Assess Urban Resilience
Abstract
The assessment of the urban resilience should be tackled with a systemic perspective that enables an integrated analysis of the environmental, social, economic and institutional factors and their interactions characterizing urban and other complex socio-ecological systems. Here we propose an integrated framework for such assessment with the following key components: (i) The hierarchical definition of resilience objectives and indicators. (ii) A dynamic system model taking into account the key socio-economic and environment factors and their interactions, in which resilience indicators are integrated. (iii) The assessment of model potential sources of uncertainty and their impact on model outputs. (iv) The analysis of vulnerabilities to exogenous drivers (scenario analysis) and the exploration of available management and planning options (policy assessment). (v) A multi-criteria procedure, in which indicators, resilience thresholds, model outputs and scenario and policy analysis are integrated to guide decisions for an improved urban resilience. The whole framework integrates a participative approach, mainly for the initial and final steps.
Julia Martínez-Fernández, Miguel Angel Esteve-Selma, Isabel Banos-Gonzalez, Noelia Guaita-García
Chapter 9. Sustainable and Resilience Descriptors for the Xochimilco-Tláhuac Lacustrine Area at México City
Abstract
Sustainability as well as resilience are dynamic, multidimensional concepts, subject to diverse interpretations; from a global perspective, they take into account different ways of life and local cultures, and require the development of capacities and the use of knowledge from different stakeholders, in order to build their social significance through interdisciplinary problem analysis. The objective of this work is to propose a set of action guides to drive the intervention of a conservation area (Xochimilco-Tláhuac polygon, XT-P), towards an idealized scenario of resilience and sustainability, while considering its relevant contribution as part of the region called ‘Green Horseshoe’, within Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). A set of descriptors, based upon a method named Plus Planning Cycle, originally designed by the International Centre for Sustainable Cities (ICSC, The sustainable cities: PLUS planning cycle of Calgary, Canada. Retrieved from http://​www.​icsc.​ca/​content/​dmdocuments/​plus_​planning_​cycle.​pdf, 2008) for a study case in Calgary, is proposed. These descriptors were distributed among the five kinds of sustainable domains used by ISCC: natural, built, economic, social, and governance. To support the proposal, a summary of the principles on which the descriptors were built, as well as specific action guides for each domain, are included.
Enrique Mendieta-Márquez, Octavio F. González-Castillo, Margarita Juárez-Nájera
Chapter 10. Eco-neighborhoods as a Way to Strengthen Urban Resilience
Abstract
Eco-neighborhoods – ecological settlements that began to emerge in the 1990s with the global impetus of sustainable development – are presented as a contribution to urban resilience, so that their knowledge and the possibility of Its reproduction. This article explores what makes a city habitable and sustainable, defines eco-neighborhoods, presents their objectives, and describes some examples in several nations.
Alberto Cedeño-Valdiviezo
Metadaten
Titel
Urban Resilience: Methodologies, Tools and Evaluation
herausgegeben von
Octavio Francisco González Castillo
Valentina Antoniucci
Enrique Mendieta Márquez
Margarita Juárez Nájera
Alberto Cedeño Valdiviezo
Mariana Osorno Castro
Copyright-Jahr
2022
Electronic ISBN
978-3-031-07586-5
Print ISBN
978-3-031-07585-8
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-07586-5