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2023 | Buch

Urban Transformational Landscapes in the City-Hinterlands of Asia

Challenges and Approaches

herausgegeben von: Debnath Mookherjee, George M. Pomeroy, Le Thi Thu Huong

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Advances in 21st Century Human Settlements


Über dieses Buch

In the context of mounting challenges stemming from a rapid transformation of the urban-regional landscapes in many Asian countries, this book highlights a multifaceted array of issues that increasingly engage the academic and planning communities in search of viable solutions to complex problems facing us. Even though cities continue to dominate development studies, urbanization of Asia is evolving toward a hybrid urban-rural nexus beyond the cities. This volume considers these shifting dynamics of Asian urbanization, including urban spatial transformations and their ramifications in the context of sustainability and planning. Through the lens of a set of empirical studies across diverse disciplines, geographies and methodologies. yet with an overarching concern for sustainability in varied (but interconnected) areas such as climate change, land use planning, infrastructure and urban mobility, and quality of life, these studies examine a range of important topics (e.g., flooding, transportation, housing, open space/ green space, urban garden and such) in city/regional settings. Together, they add insights into varied transformational processes or patterns at work on the urban-regional landscapes in a number of Asian countries while offering innovative approaches or alternatives. The proposed volume fills a gap in urban/regional studies in context of South and Southeast Asia that will be of interest to all stakeholders (e.g., planners, administrators, academicians and the citizenry), particularly those interested in sustainability and planning paradigms. It should be a timely and valuable addition to the Asian urbanization literature.




Asian Urban Transformation: The Shifting Paradigms

Asia is undergoing an urban transformational process whose complexity and variability in scale, form, pace, and intensity across diverse landscapes pose formidable challenges. Collectively, the empirical studies presented in this volume offer insights into diverse aspects of this complex process, but individually, they can be described as single-focus snapshots, fixed in space and time. In this introductory chapter to the volume, I introduce a space–time perspective to the perusal of these studies, drawing attention to some space–time effects, as well as to signs of changing conceptual paradigms, including the search for common ground and integrative approaches. Both shifting paradigms and spatiotemporal variations have important implications for Asian urban developmental planning, including, but going beyond, livability, sustainability, and land and infrastructural considerations. I offer some perspectives on the interrelated discourses that arise in the context of land and infrastructural agenda-setting, in recognition of a nexus between these and other conversations taking place in recent years. A brief overview of the collection of papers, in terms of study areas and placement in the volume, followed by a few words on overall organizational structure, concludes the chapter.

Debnath Mookherjee

Approaches and Issues

Planning Traditions and Urban Development in the Transformational Landscapes of Asia: An Overview of Presented Papers

In this introductory chapter to Part II, I present a set of nineteen papers that highlight planning, governance, and jurisdictional issues viewed through the lens of changing planning traditions. In this context, I offer a few observations on the evolution of planning traditions toward more integrative or hybridized approaches, discussing the chapters in terms of their (typically implicit) theoretical frameworks and drawing attention to how they represent a wider cross-section of theoretical perspectives. I recognize some areas of consilience, particularly with respect to the concepts of livability and sustainability, and note some challenges for Asian developmental planning. A question raised, but not addressed, is how planning-related research can inspire and inform further innovations in planning theory.

George M. Pomeroy
Travel Behavior of Residents in Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) Neighborhoods: A Study of Two Neighborhoods in Shenzhen, China

Transit-oriented development (TOD) has been widely considered an effective urban development strategy and transportation planning instrument to address urban sprawlUrban sprawl, land-use segregation, traffic congestion, and environmental degradation in cities. Based on data collected from local subway authorities, field observations, and surveys, this study aims to assess TOD practice in Shenzhen by investigating how the TOD implementation has influenced residents’ travel behavior at the neighborhood level in the Grand Theatre Station area, which is located in the old urban center, and the Houhai Station area, which is newly developed. The study finds that both areas have illustrated a significant increase in subway ridership. Comparing residents’ travel behavior in these subway station areas has resulted in suggestions for future TOD neighborhood improvements in China, including a reasonable mixture of residential and commercial land uses, better walkability and connectivity, and improved subway services.

Zhu Qian
An Evaluation of Public Spaces in the Peri-Urban Areas of Hanoi in the Urbanization Process, 2008 to Present: Comparative Studies in Three New Wards of Hanoi, Vietnam

Public spacesPublic space play an important role in urban social life and have a dramatic impact on the quality of lifeQuality of Life for residents. However, regardless of whether or not the quantity and quality of public spaces can meet the growing demand, both aspects of public spaces have become a critical issue for the urbanized regions of many developing countries in Asia, and Vietnam is not an exception. In Hanoi’s peri-urban areas, where a significant spatial transition and socio-demographic change can be noted, examining and evaluating public spacesPublic space as well as re-conceptualizing public spaces for people are essential for planning and development. This chapter aims to clarify the definition of public spaces in the context of Vietnam and to analyze various patterns of public spaces in the peri-urban wards of Hanoi city. Of special concern is the typology of public spacesPublic space in selected wards where it is necessary to evaluate the quality of such spaces in these areas. Based on the analyzes of some of the most significant theoretical studies and outstanding practical projects, the authors have established a set of indicators to assess the quality of public spaces in peri-urban areas in the Vietnamese context, including accessibility, comfort, meaningful activities, safety, and inclusiveness. The public spaces in three peri-urban wards of Hanoi are analyzed by means of on-site observations and questionnaire surveys. Finally, a number of recommendations based on the survey outcomes offer valuable input for city planners, urban designers, and project managers in terms of improving the quality of public spacesPublic space toward the goal of sustainable urban developmentSustainable urban development.

Ta Quynh Hoa, Nguyen Quang Minh, Doan The Trung, Nguyen Manh Tri, Dinh Thi Dieu, Chu Ngoc Huyen, Phan Tien Hau
Land Commodification and the Changing Landscape of Peri-Urban Villages in Hanoi, Vietnam

Under the processes of urbanization, globalization, and marketizationMarketization after economic reform, peri-urban villagesVillageperi-urban village in Hanoi are now “becoming urban” and witnessing significant changes in their spatial organizational structure. With the inflow of new migrants and the transactional activities of space, the spatial density and population in the peri-urban villages are rapidly increasing. This process witnesses the transformation from living spaces associated with agricultural livelihoods toward a new type of urban housing. At the same time, traditional and locally significant public spacesPublic space have been gradually reduced and invaded. We argue that the disorder in the landscape is being created by a rapidly changing market and urbanization dynamics in the production of spaceProduction of Space. Furthermore, the regulations which maintain the order of space have evolved from informal institutions, such as “the village’s rules,” to the new logic ofLandcommodification land commodificationLand commodification in the Doi Moi era. Our fieldwork for this project reveals a fierce competition for limited land resources, a lack of clarity in the boundaries of property rights, and the inability of the local government to maintain spatial order in peri-urban villagesVillageperi-urban village. A case study of Trieu KhucTrieu Khuc Village in Hanoi shows this transformational process of spatial production and reveals the challenges for future planning and urban management in Vietnam.

Minh Khue Le, Hoang Linh Nguyen, Le Mau Duy Quang
Establishing Legal Norms in Vietnam for Compulsory Land Acquisition for Purposes of Economic Development: The Balancing of Public and Private Interests

According to the Constitution of Vietnam, the State can exert compulsory land use rights for national defense and security, and for socioeconomic development for public interests. However, Vietnamese law has no specific guidance for the definition or interpretation of “socioeconomic development for public interests.” As a result, some provincial governments abuse their power to acquire land for development that is not genuinely intended for public purposes, causing difficulties for the livelihoods of the land users. In some extreme cases, there are conflicts between the land users and the provincial governments. This situation evokes a need to review the theoretical background about keeping a balance between public and private interests in cases of compulsory land acquisitionCompulsory land acquisition Phan (Phan HT (2009) In: Phan HT, The law of compulsory acquisition of land—striking a balance between public and private interests in the United Kingdom and Viet Nam. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, Germany, p 106–107). In reviewing the existing literature, first, an examination is made of comparative legal philosophies in western countries. Various legal concepts and traditions related to property rights are considered. Second, some practical cases of compulsory land acquisitionLandacquisition are considered. Given the discussion, a solution on how to more appropriately balance the rights of land users against the interests of the State is presented. Thus, land lawLand Law, 2013 as it relates to compulsory acquisition may be improved in a manner that respects democraticGovernancedemocratic governance principles ofLandmanagement land managementLand management in Vietnam and enables sustainable development.

Hien Trung Phan
Issues with Transformations in Land Management: Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

In the nearly five decades since Doi Moi (economic reform) in Vietnam, there has been rapid social-economic transformation accompanied by rapid urbanization and dramatic changes in land use. Equally, dramatic has been the changing legal landscape related to land use planning, land use lawLandland use laws, and the evolution of property rights. This chapter reviews changes in property rights, land use lawLandland use laws, land use management, and planning policy in Vietnam, particularly in Ho Chi Minh City. Contentious issues related to the assessment of property values, ownership rights, and regulations, and other planning issues are discussed and analyzed. From the analysis, a set of policy considerations is offered.

Phan Hai Ho
Urban Growth and Multi-seasonal Land Cover Classification of Dhaka, Bangladesh: An Approach Using Google Earth Engine

Land cover change strongly influences environmental change and local climate variability and therefore can tamper with improvements in local, regional, and global policies. Cities of the world with rapid land cover and demographic change require strong adaptation and mitigation policies to maintain a healthy environment. One such global city is Dhaka, the capital of BangladeshLand Cover and Land Use (LCLU)Dhaka, Bangladesh and the third most densely populated city in the world. Dhaka has grown uncontrollably, creating many economic, logistic, and environmental challenges. To quantify the growth of Dhaka city and assess the impact of land cover changes on the environment, the popular and traditional method of overlaying anniversary remotely sensed images was implemented. Twenty-four Landsat images for each year were overlaid, covering ten years from 2008 to 2018 with a 5-year interval (2008, 2013, 2018) using the Google Earth EngineLand Cover and Land Use (LCLU)Google Earth Engine (GEE), importance of tool, to assess and quantify the land use and land coverLand Cover and Land Use (LCLU)land cover changes of Dhaka. The classificationLand Cover and Land Use (LCLU)land cover and regression tree (CART)Land Cover and Land Use (LCLU)Classification and Regression Tree (CART) algorithm was used to classify the land cover. The study highlighted that except for urban built-upDhaka, Bangladeshurban built-up, which had a 16% steady increase over the ten years, all other categories showed dips and rises. The ten-year expansion pattern shows that initially, the growth was close to Buriganga River, but gradually, the city expanded to the north and east, away from the river. We believe that our research approach provides better insight into a multi-seasonal land cover classification for planners and policymakers to utilize in city improvements.

S. M. Shihab Nur, Chandana Mitra
Beating the Traffic: Civil Society Participation in Transport Reforms and Innovations in Metro Manila, Philippines

Traffic congestion is synonymous with Metro Manila, the capital of the PhilippinesPhilippines. With a population of almost 13 million people, travel usually takes a grueling amount of time as they traverse the gridlocked roads and cram into the very limited supply of public transport modes. Meanwhile, cars reign supreme in occupying much of this metropolis’s hardly expanding road networks. While the government, foreign creditors, and big corporations plan for new and expensive transport infrastructure and public utility vehicle modernization as ways to solve the traffic problem, they tend to focus only on increasing economic gains and prioritizing technocratic expertise in transport planning and decision-making. They tend to marginalize the meaningful participation of civil societyCivil Society in co-creating transport solutions. This is why this research provides examples of good practices of collaborative initiatives to address traffic problems. Through my interviews with government transport agencies, private sector representatives, and civil society, as well as my auto-ethnographic account navigating around Metro Manila’s complicated transport system, I present two examples of civil society-led transport reform initiatives in Pasig CityMetro Manila, the PhilippinesPasig City. These examples contribute to reconstituting urban transportTransportationurban transport as a projectGovernanceshared responsibility of “shared responsibility” among the diverse constituents of the transport system. It builds upon a post-development discourse and the urbanism of Jane Jacobs in understanding modernity and urban development. In this way, the research contributes to how meaningful collaborationDiscourse, in the context ofspatial planningcollaboration” in transport reforms and innovations can make possible sustainable and less interventionist solutions to the transport problems of metropolitan cities in the Global South.

Gina Rocafort Gatarin
Urban Low-Income Housing in Thailand, Manifests on Thai Democratization

In 2003, the Thai government ambitiously plannedHousingplanned housing project to deliver one million low-cost housing units by 2008. The government assigned the National Housing Authority (NHA) to deliver 600,000 We Care Housing Program (Baan Eua-Arthorn or BEA) low-cost subsidizedBaan Eua-Arthorn (BEA) Project units and the Community Organization Development Institute (CODI) to deliver 300,000 Secure Housing Program (Baan Mankong or BMK) slumBaan Mankong (BMK) Project improvement units throughout ThailandThailand. This paper observes that Thai political and democraticGovernancedemocratic governance evolution to its present conundrum provides a framework for understanding the housing projects. The major finding of the paper is the conflicting character of Thai democratizationDemocratization, presented in the 1997 People’s Constitution, as manifested in these two contrasting public mega-projects. The top-down and fast-track We Care Housing Project is responsive to policy-driven electoral democracy. In contrast, the bottom-upGovernancebottom-up governance practice of “Secure Housing Project” reflects participative democracy and involves complex, difficult processes of stakeholder empowerment, and collaboration that do not synch with election cycles.

Kitapatr Dhabhalabutr
Perseverance in the Face of Water Scarcity in Hot Summer Seasons: A Case Study of Slum Communities in Indore, India

According to a report by the National Institution forTransforming India (NITI) Aayong report Transforming India (NITI) Aayog, Government of India (Composite water management index: a tool for water management. , 2019), nearly 600 million people in India face extreme water stress. The problem is exacerbated in the hot summer months, when slumSlums dwellers in particular face formidable challenges in accessing and storing water for meeting their basic needs, with women typically bearing the brunt of these burdens. The purpose of this study was to assess the challenges, short-term measures, and coping mechanisms in regard to water access, and to suggest ways of improving water accessibility during the summer seasons for the slum population living in the city of IndoreIndore, India, India. Qualitative methods such as field observation and interviews and/or focus group meetings with female slumSlums residents, municipal authorities, and frontline health workers were utilized in achieving these objectives. The findings revealed that the slum population has a high dependency on private water sources, as well as on other informal and local mechanisms for accessing and storing water during the summer. The study also highlighted different ways in which the slum communities negotiate with municipal authorities and private players for gaining accessibility to water. In the light of increasing water scarcity, as evident in India and other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the findings herein should be of use to civil societyCivil Society organizations, municipal authorities, academics, and other stakeholders as they work to develop equitable water provisions for the slumSlums communities.

Siddharth Agarwal, Kanupriya Kothiwal, Shabnam Verma, Neeraj Verma, Kailash Vishvakarma
Influence of Planning on Physical Activity in Public Spaces: A Case Study of Chirag Delhi Ward, New Delhi, India

This chapter explores the ways in which the state influences the physical activitiesPhysical Activity of a city by governing public spacesPublic space. By taking the example of open public spaces such as public parks and open gymsOpen gym, it aims to evaluate the techniques and methods of influencing/governing the physical activities in the city being studied. The study was conducted in the Chirag Delhi ward of South Delhi, India. By deploying a mix of qualitative methods such as multi-sited ethnography and in-depth, unstructured interviews, the study sheds light on the uneven distribution of gyms, associated politics, and governance challenges faced by the cities of the Global South. The study uses the Human Capital ModelHuman Capital Model (HCM) of Physical ActivityPhysical Activity to argue that across unplanned and planned areas, the nature, methods, and spatiality of physical activity varies. Through a critical reading of legal planning documents such as the Master Plan of Delhi, it situates public spaces and physical activities within the contours of planning in the city. By discussing recurring themes surrounding physical activitiesPhysical Activity in the city, such as the role of language and the influence of the male gazeMale Gaze, it touches upon issues that have been underexplored in the scholarship on physical activity and governance. The chapter shows that the influence of the state through the Master Plan in both planned and unplanned territories is contested and negotiated in the everyday life of the city. Given that urban planning has been recognized as a multi-sectoral action aimed at achieving an active or healthy city, the informalized nature of planning in India not only defines the characteristics of such a plan but also the ways in which it influences the nature and execution of those physical activitiesPhysical Activity.

Limitations of Public Open Spaces in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam: Some Perspectives from the Elderly

An increase in the proportion of elderly residents in cities raises the need for increased attention to public open spacesHo Chi Minh City, VietnamPublic Open Spaces (POS) for socialization, outdoor activities, and exercise, universally acknowledged as vital for the mental and physical well-being of the elderly. With a sharp change in its demographic profile towards the aged and aging population since 2011 and a projection for this trend to continue, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in Vietnam is a prime candidate for a well-planned system of age-friendly public open spaces (POS). However, a shortage of space—with an estimated green area of only about 1.36 m2 of land per capita—and other problems, especially in terms of spatial quality that limit the use of the POSHo Chi Minh City, VietnamPublic Open Spaces (POS) by the elderly, this topic is gaining urgency. This paper is an attempt to address this issue. We used first-hand observation and a questionnaire survey in selected POS locations to explore the limitations of public open spacesHo Chi Minh City, VietnamPublic Open Spaces (POS) in HCMC from the perspective of the elderly. Their response shows that although most of them are generally happy with public open spaces, many have considerable concern over issues such as accessibility, proximity, cleanliness, natural condition, security issues, and exercise equipment. We conclude with a set of proposed solutions based on the findings of our study as well as on good practices in other countries as gleaned from the literature.

Le Thi Thuy Hang, Le Thi Thu Huong
Tourist Development and Spatial Transformation of Mekong Delta Flower Villages: A Case Study of Tan Quy Flower Village, Vietnam

The Tan Quy DongTan Quy Dong Commune is a long-standing community in the Mekong DeltaMekong Delta region that has the distinction of being a flower village. Due to the low-lying terrain, this area’s landscape changes seasonally and is influenced by tides of the Sa Dec River. Residential development is interwoven with the cultivated areas to form a unique and recognizable urban space. Urban growthUrban growth and tourist development, however, are driving changes in economic structure and spatial form in this flower village, particularly in the relation to the dwellings and the canals. This research asks how village space is changing under the impacts of urban development. Combining spatial analysis using Web-based GIS with site survey, this paper will explore the relationship between economic-tourism development and the transformation of the Tan Quy Dong flower craft village. Planners and other city government officials can use this analysis to inform urban design that balances landscape preservation with development.

Huynh Trong Nhan, Mai Thanh Binh, Le Hoang Thien Long
Tracing the Evolution of Resilience in Planning Practices—A Case Study of Taichung, Taiwan

The notion of resilience has gained increased attention in academic and policymaking discourse in recent years. In practice, however, the interpretation of resilienceDiscourse, in the context ofresilience remains confusing, especially because current uses of the terminology express minimal new ideas. This study focuses on the evolution of resilience in discourse on planning for spatial development—to what extent the notion was adopted in shaping coalitionsDiscourse, in the context ofspatial planningcoalition and how it reshapes planning in practice. The empirical study is based on resilient waterfront projects in the city center of TaichungTaichung, Taiwan, Taiwan, which is experiencing an economic downturn due to urban extension. Data for the study were mostly based on interviews conducted over the past two years, as well as on supplementary resources for policy analysis. Following a brief introduction, Sect. 2 sets up a theoretical groundwork for assessing the evolution of the notion of resilience in discourse, while Sect. 3 presents the empirical study. It traces the notion of resilienceDiscourse, in the context ofresilience in discourse in the policymaking process, resulting in practical implementation. All the analyses lead to Sect. 4, which addresses the evolution of discourse and the directive factors in policymaking. We conclude that it is difficult, or may be impossible, for the notion of resilience to be “dis-contextual;” resilient planning, in practice, is very much related to the particularities of a local context.

Peiwen Lu, Sheng-Yu Yang, Lihsiung Lin
A New Inner-Hanoi via Old Industrial Facilities: From Urban Renewal to Re-urbanization and Urban Regeneration

Urbanization in Vietnam is closely linked with administrative, spatial, economic, population, and welfare transitions. Along with the development of sprawl and the continuous peri-urban transformations creating new urban fringe belts, inner-Hanoi, withHanoi, urban transformation ofurban renewal its radio-centric structure, is also witnessing significant conversion of old housing areas, industrial facilities, public facilities, and specific functional areas that can no longer meet the current needs of the city. In this chapter, we analyze the trends of severalHanoi, urban transformation ofreurbanization urbanization processes, suchHanoi, urban transformation ofresidentialization as “residentializationResidentialization”, urban renewalUrban renewal, regeneration, reurbanizationReurbanization, andHanoi, urban transformation ofgentrification gentrificationGentrification in Hanoi by comparing specific elements in its developmental context as they relate to both the opportunities and values of these older industrial facilities. To that end, we offer a summary review of legislation and the legislative process involving urban renewalUrban renewal and land readjustment in Hanoi from the viewpoint of both the central and local government and consider ten typical projects for the conversion of old industrial facilitiesHanoi, urban transformation ofold industrial facilities during the past ten years. Our research reveals a large gap between policy and practice and suggests that the time has come for Hanoi and other Vietnamese cities to initiate more sustainable and comprehensive development planning strategiesPlanningstrategies instead of the current focus on individualHanoi, urban transformation ofurban renewal urban renewalUrban renewal projects.

Minh Tung Tran, Phan Tien Hau, Ngoc Huyen Chu
Local Government Decision-Making and Public Participation in District 8, Ho Chi Minh City: Do We Know What Works?

Public participation is a core component of democratic governanceGovernancedemocratic governance. The Government of Vietnam has encouraged and promoted public participation, especially at local levels to enhance the government’s transparency and accountability. Common issues that required public participation in District 8Ho Chi Minh City, VietnamDistrict 8 include environmental cleaning, clearance, resettlement and compensation, construction of new public works, and development planning. This chapter reviews the degree to which local citizens are involved in local government decisions in District 8 of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The study conducted for this chapter used a questionnaire-based survey to collect data from local citizens participating in their local government decision-making processes. Data were collected from a sample of 640 local citizens across 16 wards in District 8 using a convenience sampling method. The survey also examined the perceptions of citizens about these initiatives, and the expectations of greater empowerment for citizens. The key findings indicate that citizens most desire to be involved in local government decision-makingGovernancelocal government decision making through participation from individuals, small groups, and large scale community organizations. Increased public participation was also found to benefit city planning, create an informed community consensus, and lead to committed community development.

Ha Minh Tri, Tran Hoang Nam, Nguyen Mai Trung, Le Dinh Minh Tri
Agricultural Transformation Towards Urbanization: A Study of the Peri-Urban Area in Da Lat City, Vietnam

Some cities in developing countries are currently experiencing a maelstrom of rapid, uncontrolled urban sprawlUrban sprawl. While some of the peri-urban regionsPeri-urban region are transition zones between urban areas and natural forest areas, most of them comprise farm areas with various agricultural activities. The geographical characteristics of peri-urban areas, including the availability of vast agricultural land, have advantages for sustainable development, mainly when incremental increases in conservation are considered the key to sustainability. The transformation of agriculture, based on land conversionLand conversion, andLandconversion the shift in profitability, can become a significant issue in sustainable development discourse. Conversion of prime agricultural land into other forms and strong investment in commercial activities bring about changes in community perception. Based on evidence from the local community, this chapter aims to address the issue of the transformation of land and agricultural activities. The chapter also defines how all of the transformations contribute to and are affected by the urbanization process. Research is conducted in Da Lat city, where the government promotes the implementation of “city in the forest, forest in the city” and high-quality tourism. After reviewing the urbanization process from the perspectives of planning policies, the chapter briefly outlines some of the unique features of agricultural development. It also reflects the perceptions of selected key local stakeholders that emerged through interviews and questionnaires. By looking into a local community with real involvement in this transformation process, the study is expected to offer some requirements for possible planning approaches with an eye toward sustainable development.

Dieu Nguyen Thi Minh
Urban Flooding in the Context of Climate Change in Ho Chi Minh City: A Case Study of Nha Be District

Located by Nha Be River and within 30 km of the South China Sea, the Nha Be District is one of the outer districts of Ho Chi Minh City that has suffered severe urban flooding. For a comprehensive understanding of urban floodingUrban flooding in this district within the larger context of global climate change, this quantitative study aims to describe the frequency, intensity, and impacts of floods on the locals as well as summarize multi-scale responses. In surveying 210 households in the Nha Be District, and by conducting 14 in-depth interviews with community representatives andLandmanagement land managementLand management officers, the study found that rapid urbanization and climate variability in the last ten years have contributed to the complexity of flooding in this area, which is characterized by low-lying terrain and an interlocking waterway system. Among the surveyed households, half of them have frequently faced flooding throughout the year, and 39.4% of them have been impacted at one time. Flood intensity is variable, with the average depth at approximately 20 cm. Since flooding has negatively influenced living quality, commuting, and housing quality, several solutions have been implemented by homeowners, the community, and the local government to cope with the growing impacts of flooding. Despite certain approaches taken by different stakeholders, it is critical to propose further approaches for dealing with urban floodingUrban flooding in Nha Be District. These approaches might take into account the solutions relating to flood-proof housing and urbanHousing and urban settlements areas in response to urban floodingUrban flooding in the context of climate change.

Le-Minh Ngo, Dao Chi Vo, Le Thi Kieu, Pham Thi Ngoc Diep, Hai-Yen Hoang
Vulnerability and Flood Risk Analysis for Urban Areas—A Case Study of Ho Chi Minh City

Along with rapid growth, urban floodingUrban flooding has become a widespread phenomenon and a major concern for Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) in recent years. This chapter aims to present a review of current approaches to sustainable flood managementFloodingsustainable flood management in context of the HCMC. Three major elements related to potential damagesFloodingflood damage from flooding, namely, vulnerabilityFloodingflood vulnerability, exposure, and risk, are discussed, and the interaction between hazard, vulnerability, and exposureFloodingexposure, indicative of the risk level of urban areas, is examined. Using information gained from a combination of methods such as data-based analyses, on-site investigation, and questionnaire surveys, risk maps with different scenarios, in combination with hazard, vulnerability, and exposure maps, are constructed for HCMC, and a framework for flood risk managementRisk management in a river system connected to the city is proposed. This study recognizes the potential for interaction between the engineering-based approaches and those based on land-use planning and socioeconomic vulnerabilityFloodingflood vulnerability. The chapter also assesses how current challenges relate to an agenda for interdisciplinary risk managementRisk management science and contend that science-based decision-making can contribute much to risk management in the context of urban floodingUrban flooding in vulnerable Asian cities such as HCMC.

Pham Van Song, Bui Thi Minh Ha, La Vinh Trung
Climate Migrants in the Dhaka Metropolitan Region: The Process of Livelihood Adaptation

Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries in the world to the impact of climate change, evidence of which seems to be present all over the country. The cities and towns also face severe impacts. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh and one of the largest metropolitan regions in the world, is facing many adverse impacts of climate change, both directly and indirectly. Dhaka accommodates many internally displaced populations, along with other impacts from climatic hazards. From this perspective, the present research aims to explore the context of migrationMigration to Dhaka due to climate change and environmentally induced problems, as well as the adaptationClimate Changeadaptation strategies of the migrants as they arrive at the city. This study is based on primary data collected from a large census of 12,078 migrant households in the Dhaka Metropolitan Region. Around 20.9 percent of these households were identified as having left their place of origin due to climate change-induced factors. A random sample of 553 households was selected from this sub-group of “climate change-induced migrants” (climate migrantsClimate Changeclimate migrants) for a sample survey in the final phase of the analysis. Our study revealed that immediately after migrationMigration, the majority of the mostly unskilled jobs found by this group was in the informal sector although, over time, the migrants tried to upgrade to more skilled sectors. More than two-thirds of the surveyed households enhanced their income after a prolonged stay in the city although some failed to reach their pre-migration level of income. The study findings reveal that despite a lack of institutional support, Dhaka City remains the major destination point for climate migrantsClimate Changeclimate migrants and that the city ultimately accommodates them, enabling them to earn livelihoods in their adopted metropolitan environment. Our research hopes to draw attention to the multifaceted issues connected to climate change-induced migrationMigration to the big cities, where a well-coordinated approach is needed to address them.

Nurul Islam Nazem, A. Q. M. Mahbub, Md. Anwar Hossain

Fresh Looks and Alternative Perspectives

Multifaceted Ideas and Approaches: An Overview of Presented Papers

The ongoing urban transformation process in some Asian countries appears to be intensifying over the last two decades, and the negative effects of which are affecting urban livability and raising concerns about a sustainable urban future. In line with the shifting trends in the theoretical and planning paradigms in the Asian context, as discussed earlier in the volume, a tendency to search for more inclusive and innovative approaches to address the complex, inter-connected, and universal (yet contextual) issues facing Asian cities is becoming more evident in the literature. In this introductory chapter to Part III, I present a set of twelve studies, which in one form or another, reflect several aspects of these changing outlooks, including an integrative, trans-sectoral, and participatory planning focus, and attention to environmentally friendly ‘green’ infrastructure and amenities. About half of the contributions are more focused on the physical and practical aspects of urban livability, while the rest are more non-physical or conceptually oriented. However, despite the diversities in scale, context, topic, method, and focus of research, urban livability concerns, as well as the integrative focus of the sustainability principles, are either readily apparent or implicitly present in most papers. Overall, the contributions support the idea that the search for sustainably optimizing urban livability of the large cities and their hinterlands in Asia will require collaborative, integrative, and fresh approaches to addressing urban developmental issues.

Le Thi Thu Huong
Urban Sustainability and Urban Resilience Indicators: Preliminary Framework for a Methodology to Combine Both Approaches in a Common Indicator Set

Urban sustainabilityUrban sustainability (US) and urban resilienceUrban resilience (UR) are two of the main approaches commonly used by cities, urban policymakers, and scientists to adapt urban areas with future requirements. Indicator sets measuring multidisciplinary performance levels are fundamental to the evaluation of the status and progress of urban areas in the domains of either sustainability or resilience. IndicatorsSustainabilitysustainability indicators enable us to agglomerate large amounts of complex and heterogeneous information in tangible and simplified values. The aim of this chapter is to establish an overview of the commonalitiesAsian urbanizationcommonalities and differences between urban sustainabilityUrban sustainability and urban resilience as well as between the topics and sectors valued by each perspective. It will then investigate the characteristics of different indicator sets used to assess the performance of the studied factors in the domains and sectors valued by either UR or US. This chapter also proposes a conceptual framework for defining possible intersections and combinations between the concepts of UR and US using the example of the water supplySustainabilitysustainable water supply sector.

Audrey Bourgoin, Hans-Joachim Linke
Convivial Cities: Alternative to Cities of Consumers: An Exploratory Note

Urban centers were/are happening places. They are centers of innovation, knowledge, economic wealth, and political power. Cities such as Shanghai, Mumbai, and Karachi wield more power in China, India, and Pakistan, respectively, than the national capitals in these countries. Cities such as Seoul, Shanghai, Mumbai, and Karachi, to mention only a few urban centers in Asia, don't only contribute in generating large volume of capital through national and international sources, but these centers have also emerged as drivers of information technology and real estate. They are valorized as the fulcra of development and modernization. Such constructions were based on the experiences of European countries, which were possible mainly through exploitation of natural and human resources from the colonies with the help of modern technologies. These technologies (machines) were developed to replace slaves but converted men into slaves of machines. To expect that these machine-based models of development under different nomenclature (e.g., Subaltern UrbanismSubaltern urbanismurbanism) will yield favorable results in the post-colonial countries is preposterous. Convivial citiesConvivial cityBarefoot College have the potential to cause a paradigm shiftParadigm shifts in alternative urbanizationSubaltern urbanismurbanization in post-colonial countries, mostly in Asia, South America, and Africa. The shift is in the nature of creating autonomous and creative intercourse among the stakeholders of development and modernization: market, society, culture, environment, technology, etc. The present research is based on experiences of the barefoot doctors and engineersBarefoot Collegedoctors and engineers atTilonia, India TiloniaBarefoot CollegeTilonia, India, Indian Desert. It is a model of development in which skill is imparted through doing and learning: age, language, and gender differences do not put restrictions on acquiring skills, and certification of competence comes through demonstrating practical solutions to numerous day to day problems. Solutions such as provision of safe drinking water, electrification (solar lanterns), solar cookers, and bio-gas energy plants, rainwater harvesting, handicrafts, and night school for working housewives are put in place. Female entrepreneurs lead in these convivial cities. This model is so successful that it has been adopted by over 43 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America with the help of barefoot doctors and engineers trained at Tilonia, which has emerged as an alternative to cities including Mumbai and Shanghai that value modern skills highly vulnerable to obsolescence. Moreover, high consumption of diverse resources imported from other places and leaving behind large volumes of non-biodegradable toxic waste and pollutants in the environment have become synonymous with the cities of consumers. This paper attempts to start a discourse centering on the concept of convivial cities as an alternative to the cities of consumers.

Balbir Singh Butola
Assessing the Livelihood Capacity of Workers and Planning Orientation for Residential Areas Toward Sustainable Livelihood of Workers in Industrial Zones Around Hanoi, Vietnam

The massive development of industrial zonesIndustrial Zones (IZs) in Vietnam in recent years has resulted in a significant wave of migrant workersMigrant workers from rural areas. Apart from facing a lack of adequate housingHousinglow-income housing, these workers have to face social problems such as low income, precarious work, and difficulty in social integration. The number of workers over 30 years old being laid off after a period of working in industrial zones has increased dramatically in recent years, becoming an alarming phenomenon. The assessment of the livelihood capacityLivelihood capacity of workers and the corresponding orientations for the planning of residential areas aimed at sustainable livelihood is a crucial study. The study objectives are indicators that can be used to evaluate the capacity of employees to sustain a livelihood. The research methodology includes spatial research and quantitative sociological methods based on DFID’s sustainable livelihood framework. The authors surveyed five industrial zones around Hanoi with 300 questionnaire forms and assessed workers’ housing conditions as well as their livelihoods. The results show that the livelihood capitalCapitallivelihood capital of workers is rather low. The authors point out that while natural capitalCapitalnatural capital is unlikely to be improved, human capitalCapitalhuman capital, social capitalCapitalsocial capital, and physical capitalCapitalphysical capital can improve significantly if there are reasonable housing policies and planning solutions for the workers. This study provides a new perspective on the development of social housingHousingsocial housing for low-incomeHousinglow-income housing workers in Vietnam: housing development not only increases the number of housing units available, but also helps fulfill the purpose of developing resources that support human livelihood.

Lan-Huong Le, Anh-Vu Nguyen
Evolutionary Livability of New Urban Areas in Hanoi: From Plan(ning) to Market(ing)

LivabilityLivability concerns reflect a natural evolution of planning priorities to meet the needs of a relatively affluent post-industrial society. In Vietnam, after the socioeconomic reform in 1986, livability became a norm in urban development policies. As for Hanoi, this concept was first mentioned in its master plan publicized in 2011. A large number of housing projects were set up hastily and unceasingly along the peri-urban belts of the city, where the development of new urban areasKhu Do Thi Moi (KDTM) (Khu Do Thi Moi—KDTM in Vietnamese) appreciably improved both the quality and quantity of urban housing. From being a social welfare good in the plannedHousingplanned housing project economy, housing has become a commodity traded in competitive real estate markets of the market-oriented economy. As livability of a KDTM is closely related to living conditions and effectively reflects its residents’ perceptions, this paper analyzes the change of a livabilityLivability-forming viewpoint in new housing projects and provides updates on Hanoi-(re)making trends since 1954. By studying two casesLinh Dam (Linh Dam, with the “KDTMKhu Do Thi Moi (KDTM) Model” title awarded in 2009, and Ecopark, “The best KDTM” title awarded in 2018), this paper also explores the differences among methods of livability-making in KDTMs of Hanoi from plan(ing) to market(ing). Opinions of residents on the improvement of livability aspects in these two KDTMsKhu Do Thi Moi (KDTM) are also quoted, and analyses were done for such feedback.

Minh Tung Tran, Thanh Hung Nguyen, Ngoc Huyen Chu
Is Linh Dam Still a Livable New Town? How to Make It Work Well Again?Please check and confirm if the chapter title is correctly identified. Amend if necessary.Yes.

In 1999, Linh DamLinh Dam was officially inaugurated as the first complete urban housing and service complex in Hanoi and welcomed its first residents. This 184-hectare new townNew town was a pioneering housing project constructed by Housing and Urban Development CorporationHousing and Urban Development Corporation (HUD) (HUD) with a brand-new concept imported from several countries in Southeast Asia. Systematically plannedHousingplanned housing project and properly designed, as well as having the many advantages of a well-chosen site, Linh Dam became a prototype of a “livable living quarter” in Hanoi and a “dream to strive for” among millions of city inhabitants. This coveted status remained unsurpassed for the first ten years (1999–2009). Recently, however, this residential area has changed considerably (and negatively) in many aspects, including increased traffic, land use, building density, population size, cityscape, and poor environmental quality, among other criteria. After 20 years, Linh Dam should be re-evaluated to see how “livable” it really is. Based on on-site observations, expert and public opinion surveys, and, particularly, a rating system encompassing seven key criteria (environment, landscape, public spacePublic space, technical infrastructure, housing quality, social services, and communal activities), a re-development scenario has been proposed to restore some of the so-called lost values of livabilityLivability without upending residents’ everyday activities, before putting another (and much better) plan into action for a long-term pathway toward a truly livable living quarter and a more sustainable future.

Nguyen Quang Minh, Ngo Thi Ha Thanh, Ly Quoc Son
Future of Prospective Smart Cities Outside Metro Manila

The smart-city concept is a multi-pronged strategy in addressing the challenges of future urban settlements. This study aimed to identify cities and municipalities beyond Metro Manila, the PhilippinesPhilippines’ main seat of political and economic power, that have potential to transform into smart cities over the next two decades. It characterizes the urban settlementsMetro Manila, the Philippinesurban settlements of three Luzon regions that serve as spillover for Manila’s economic activities and are home to about third of the national population. Factors that enable or impede development of smart cities, as well as national and local development and urban policies, were gathered and analyzed. Survey and secondary data supported the analysis. In the survey, leadership and governance, visionMetro Manila, the Philippinesvision and goals, and collaboration between private and public agencies emerged as the top three sets of factors “extremely likely” to facilitate smart-city development. Guided by the PhilippinesPhilippines’ long-term vision for 2040 and sustainable development pillars, recommended directions include strengthening leadership capacity and championing leaders while ensuring a clear role for the people, private and academic sectors, and proper technology that would enable and sustain smart-city development.

Christine Joyce B. Mendoza, Christirose Jireh R. Betia
Review of a Green Infrastructure Approach in Urban Flood Management and Its Possible Application in Binh Duong Province

Green InfrastructureGreen infrastructure (GI) isInfrastructuregreen a concept that incorporates vegetation, natural processes, and land use into the built environment. This concept is considered an effective intervention for stormwater runoffUrban Flood Managementrunoff water minimization in urban flood managementFloodingmanagement. In the context of increased flooding in many Vietnamese cities, the paper has carried out an overall review onInfrastructuregreen GIGreen infrastructure, its advantages and constraints in urban flood management. Then, it tried to identify possible applications in the urban areas of Binh DuongBinh Duong, Vietnam province. The literature review shows that GI can bring many positive effects, such as reducing stormwater runoff, improving water quality, mitigating the impacts of climate change, and maintaining healthy and sustainable communities. However, the practical utilization of GI in urban flood managementFloodingmanagement is still overwhelmed by traditionalInfrastructuregray gray infrastructureFloodinginfrastructure such as roads, drainage pipe networks, and sewage treatment or water treatment systems, etc., which generally offer low sustainability, as shown in the literature. The main reasons are the uncertainties ofInfrastructuregreen GIGreen infrastructure hydrological performance, service delivery, and lack of appropriate decision-making supports for its multiple-benefit assessment. A review of the current situation on policy, authorities, and community awareness, along with the natural conditions of Binh Duong, was proposed to define the possibilities for applying GI in the province. There is a need for further studies on the technical deployment of GI solutions through experiments, methods, and tools for their performance assessment compared to the traditional gray solutions.

Tran Nguyen Thien An, Le Thi Thu Huong
Stakeholder Analysis Framework and Ongoing System Review for the Possibility of Green Infrastructure Application to Hanoi Urban Stormwater Management

Green infrastructureGreen infrastructure (GI), whileInfrastructuregreen long recognized around the world as a useful alternative to conventional engineering solutions, remains a relatively novel concept and a rarely employed solution for water infrastructure development in Vietnam. This chapter focuses on exploring possibilities of GIGreen infrastructure application into urban stormwater managementStormwater managementurban stormwater management in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. A key objective of the study was to shed light on stakeholders’ perceptions of Hanoi urban stormwater management, particularly in terms of GI application. A stakeholder analysisStakeholder analysis was performed using a three-stage process of (1) identifying key stakeholders and their stake(s), (2) differentiating and categorizing the stakeholders, and (3) investigating stakeholder relationships. Preliminary results demonstrate that much of the stormwater management efforts in Hanoi fall into traditional engineering solutions, while not enough concern is expressed for the adoption of GIGreen infrastructure. TheInfrastructuregreen key stakeholders have been identified, classified, and analyzed in the proposed systematic stakeholder framework, among which municipal departments can be recognized as the most important. In addition, the study also found that the feasibility of GI application requires adequate education and consultation with other beneficiary groups. Last but not least, the success of the GIGreen infrastructure projectInfrastructuregreen likely depends on active civil societyCivil Society engagement and proper cooperation with the Hanoi government.

Doan Thi Thao Linh, Nguyen Thanh Tu
Open Space Use Under Elevated Road Infrastructure: Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and Bangkok, Thailand

In big cities in Southeast Asia, the living quality of their citizens is negatively impacted by a lack of green spacesGreen spaces. Seeking vacant land to develop more green spacesGreen spaces is the conventional solution to this issue; however, it is not applicable when land availabilityLandavailability becomes more and more limited. Instead, optimizing the capacities of existing open spaces can be a better alternative for green development and certain additional public functions. Therefore, this paper aims to carry out a case study research on open spaces under traffic infrastructure and identify opportunities for renewal or further development. Due to the similarities in urban density, demand for green space, and potential ways to utilize the unused spaces under roadways in the cities, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, BangkokBangkok, Thailand, and Thailand were chosen as case studies for this paper. The study found that in both cities, many spaces under bridges and highways can be further developed into public green spacesGreen spaces. Certain conceptual solutions are proposed for the selected spaces to diversify their landscape as well as improve their functions. These solutions, even at the conceptual stage, ultimately will help increase the cities’ greeneryGreen space(s)greenery and open spaces to improve their environment.

Le Thi Thu Huong, Le Thi Kieu
Potentials for Vertical Gardening in Cities: A Case Study of Shophouse Facades in the Inner City of Da Nang, Vietnam

Insufficient green areas often cause negative impacts on the environment, public health, and even the economic development of a city. Due to land scarcity, it stands to reason that greenery in the city should be developed not only on horizontal spaces but should also utilize vertical spaces. Accordingly, vertical gardeningVertical garden—a strategy that allows vertical urban surfaces to be utilized—has been investigated as an improvement option for facades in built environments. This paper aims to investigate areas that vertical gardensVertical garden might cover, as well as their benefits in context of an urban neighborhood in Da Nang City, Vietnam. To this end, our research focuses on the utility of greenery development for the study area, potential locations for vertical gardensVertical garden based on an inventory of building facades in the neighborhood, and the possible values gained from such development. Based on a set of mixed methods of data collection and analysis, our study explores the usefulness of greenery at different urban scales (building—neighborhood—city) that may have implications for similar urban environmentUrban environments within and beyond Vietnam. The green coverage produced by vertical gardening is expected to bring multiple environmental, economic and social benefits to dense cities in Asia, while requiring consideration of cost and maintenance, risk managementRisk management, judicious selection of plants, and involvement of stakeholders.

Le Thi Kieu, Stefan Schäfer
The Effect of Urban Vegetation Patterns on Land Surface Temperatures in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

Land cover change and climate change lead to rising land surface temperaturesLandsurface temperatures. An abundance of research demonstrates that urban vegetationUrban vegetation, known asInfrastructuregreen green infrastructureGreen infrastructure, can reduce land surface temperatures. However, there is little research determining how the spatial structureSpatial structure and pattern of urban vegetationUrban vegetation affects land surface temperatureLandsurface temperatures. This research focuses on investigating the effects of urban vegetationUrban vegetation patterns on land surface temperaturesLandsurface temperatures by comparing classification maps, spatial patternsSpatial pattern of vegetation, and the land surface temperature contour maps. Eight areas that have similar land cover ratios but different spatial patterns have been selected. The results show that large vegetation patches reduce surface temperature better than small vegetation patches. A large vegetation patch has the ability to decrease surface temperature only in the patch itself, and at a distance of 60–120 m surrounding the patch. However, built-up and bare soil areas that reside next to the green patch still retain a high surface temperature. On the other hand, the maximum temperature of areas comprising the small vegetation patches is lower than the large patch. Overall, small, scattered vegetation patches reduce the surface temperature not only on the patches themselves but also in a wider area. It seems that small, scattered vegetation patches benefit the urban areas by reducing land surface temperatureLandsurface temperatures more than a large vegetation patch. However, both large and small, scattered vegetation patches should be combined to most efficiently decreasing urban land surface temperatureLandsurface temperatures. The findings of the research can be applied to Bangkok’sBangkok, Thailand green infrastructureGreen infrastructure planningInfrastructuregreen to improve the quality of lifeQuality of Life for the people and make the city more resilient.

Mingkwan Nantavisai, Danai Thaitakoo
Enhancing Urban Mobility Through a Powered Two-Wheeler Lane System: An Empirical Study in Ho Chi Minh City

In developing countries in Asia, especially Vietnam, powered two wheelers (PTWs) are a dominant transportation mode and often share lanes with automobiles. Though PTWs contribute the highest share of road accidents, they enhanceTransportationurban mobility urban mobilityUrban mobility because of their high capacity. Separating PTWs from automobiles might help increase mobility, maximize capacity, and reduce or mitigate accidents. However, how to design andTransportation InfrastructurePTW lanes regulate PTW lanesTransportation InfrastructurePTW lanes in the local context has not been fully addressed. This paper aims to analyze the characteristics of PTW-only lanes in comparison with mixed traffic lanes to show the advantages or even necessity of introducing PTW lanes, as well as to recommend guidelines for designing PTW-only lanes in urban areas. To study the efficacy of PTW lanes, video-based observations were conducted on three PTW-only roads and one mixed traffic road in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, to ascertain the fundamental relationships between traffic volume, speed, and density. A microscopic simulation model using VISSIM was calibrated to simulate the operational characteristics of traffic flowsTraffic Flow, fundamental. The capacity of a PTW lane was then determined with respect to the number of lanes and lane width. The state of the practice on a PTW lane system was reviewed to establish a set of components and design and evaluation principles for the system in Vietnam. The study outcomes support efficient reallocation of existing road spaces and effective design of new roads for better urban mobilityUrban mobility.

Tuan Anh Vu, Nguyen Duc Huynh, Hung Viet Khuat

Concluding Thoughts

Asian Urban Transformation: Emerging Impressions and Future Research

This volume represents a selection of contemporary research studies on aspects of Asian urban transformation by a diverse, multidisciplinary group of Asian scholars. In this concluding chapter, we offer a succinct account of our impressions gained from these contributions, along with a look to the future. Signs of shifting theoretical and planning paradigms relating to Asian urban transformation and a search for interconnections among the discourses, as discussed in chapters “ Asian Urban Transformation: The Shifting Paradigms ”, “ Planning Traditions and Urban Development in the Transformational Landscapes of Asia: An Overview of Presented Papers ”, and “ Multifaceted Ideas and Approaches: An Overview of Presented Papers ”, are recognizable in many of the papers, albeit often implicitly. We observe that a phenomenon at the intersection of scholars, practitioners, and stakeholders may be taking place in many Asian countries, which may play a catalytic role in blurring dualisms and propelling these changes. We note a mix of five major foci, issues, and approaches that emerge in the volume, pointing to some common frameworks within the complex transformative patterns in the evolving urban landscapes of Asia. Together, they suggest the need for collaborative and comprehensive urban development research within the intra- and interregional contexts of Asian countries. To this end, we conclude with a proposal for an Urban Research Consortium, in the belief that a well-focused and concerted research base, as a prerequisite for informed and evidence-based strategic planning approaches to Asian cities and their hinterlands, can help meet the formidable challenges of a transforming Asian landscape.

George M. Pomeroy, Debnath Mookherjee
Urban Transformational Landscapes in the City-Hinterlands of Asia
herausgegeben von
Debnath Mookherjee
George M. Pomeroy
Le Thi Thu Huong
Springer Nature Singapore
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