Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Progress of the Indian economy is threatened by the impact of climate change. Generation of urban heat islands (UHIs), waning of urban green cover, increase in carbon emissions and air pollution deteriorate the living environment. Rise in urban temperatures and heat stress induced mortality remain major concerns. Although the National Action Plan on Climate Change emphasises the national missions of ‘enhanced energy efficiency’, and ‘green India’, little research has been devoted to explore the passive cooling potential of urban greenery in India, thus lending uniqueness to this study. The manifestations of unplanned urban development (UHIs, escalated carbon emissions, air pollution) are discussed and corroborated with identification of contributory factors. Contemporary greening practices and bye-laws in four major Indian cities (New Delhi, Pune, Chennai, and Visakhapatnam) are analysed and compared with global best practices. The findings are used to propose planning guidelines which are expected to assist in consolidating natural sustainability of emerging economies.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Aggarwal, M. 2015. Environment ministry proposes India’s first tree census. Retrieved May 20, 2015, from, http://www.livemint.com/Politics/rifIxLLgYAjDoInX2v01MO/Environment-ministry-proposes-Indias-first-tree-census.html.
Akbari, H., M. Pomerantz, and H. Taha. 2001. Cool surfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improve air quality in urban areas. Solar Energy. 70: 295–310. CrossRef
Alexandri, E., and P. Jones. 2008. Temperature decreases in ana urban canyon due to green walls and green roofs in diverse climates. Building and Environment. 43: 480–493. CrossRef
Ansar, S., C.R. Dhanya, G. Thomas, et al. 2012. A study of urban/rural cooling rates in Thiruvananthapuram. Journal of Indian Geophysical Union. 16: 29–36.
Atkinson, R. 2000. Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx. Atmospheric Environment 34: 2063–2101. CrossRef
Attri, S.D., and A. Tyagi. 2010. Climate profile of India, contribution to the Indian network of climate change assessment (National Communication-II). New Delhi: Government of India.
Bansal, N.K., S.N. Garg, and S. Kothar. 1992. Effect of exterior surface colour on the thermal performance of building. Building & Environment. 27: 31–37. CrossRef
CDC. Extreme Heat Prevention Guide—Part 1. 2015. Retrieved 23 September, 2015, from http://emergency.cdc.gov/disasters/extremeheat/heat_guide.asp.
Centre for Science & Environment, New Delhi, India. 2014. Energy and Buildings. Retrieved December 23, 2014, from http://www.cseindiahttp://www.cseindia.org/userfiles/Energy-and-%20buildings.pdf.
Chaturvedi, A., R. Kamble, N.G. Patil, and A. Chaturvedi. 2013. City-forest relationship in Nagpur: One of the greenest cities of India. Urban Forestry & Urban Greenery. 12: 79–87. CrossRef
Chaudhry, P., and V.P. Tewari. 2010. Role of public parks/gardens in attracting domestic tourists: An example from city beautiful of India. Tourismos: An International Multidisciplinary Journla of Tourism 5: 101–109.
Chaudhry, P., B. Singh, and V.P. Tewari. 2007. Non-market economic evaluation in developing countries: Role of participant observation method in CVM analysis. Journal of Forest Economics. 13: 259–275. CrossRef
Chaudhry, P., K. Bagra, and B. Singh. 2011. Urban greenery status of some Indian cities: A short communication. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development. 2: 1–4.
Chaudhry, P., M.P. Sharma, G. Singh, and A. Bansal. 2013. Valuation of urban environmental amenities in developing countries—A case study from Chandigarh, India. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research 13: 1–13.
City of Sydney, Council of City of Sydney-Sydney, Australia. 2012. Greening Sydney Plan. Retrieved May 28, 2014, from http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/135882/GreeningSydneyPlan.pdf.
CNN. 2015. Extreme weather-India heat wave kills 2330 people as millions wait for rain. Retrieved September 16, 2015, from http://edition.cnn.com/2015/06/01/asia/india-heat-wave-deaths/.
Coutts, A.M., E. Daly, J. Beringer, and N.J. Tapper. 2013. Assessing practical measures to reduce urban heat: Green and cool roofs. Building and Environment. 70: 266–276. CrossRef
Delhi Development Authority (DDA). 2015. Master plan for Delhi—2021. [online] Accessed 18 May 2015.
Deosthali, V. 2000. Impact of rapid urban growth on heat and moisture islands in Pune city, India. Atmospheric Environment. 34: 2745–2754. CrossRef
Devdas, M.D., and Lilly Rose A. 2009. Urban factors and the intensity of heat island in the city of Chennai. In The seventh international conference on urban climate. Yokohama, Japan.
Devi, S.S. 2006. Urban heat islands and environmental impact. In 86th American meteorological society annual meeting. Atlanta, Georgia.
Dongre, P. 2011. Role of social forestry in sustainable development—A micro level study. International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanity Studies. 3: 351–364.
Dwivedi, P., C.S. Rathore, and Y. Dubey. 2009. Ecological benefits of urban forestry: The case of Kerwa Forest Area (KFA), Bhopal. India. Applied Geography. 29: 194–200. CrossRef
Energy Alternatives, India. 2014. Environmentalists welcome Chennai Corporation’s plan to conduct tree census. Retrieved October 23, 2014, from http://www.eai.in/360/news/pages/11994.
Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO). 1998. Urban forestry in the Asia-Pacific region: status and prospects. Retrieved September 4, 2013, from http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x1577e/x1577e06.htm.
Gangopadhyay, K., and K. Balooni. 2012. Technological infusion and the change in private urban green spaces. Urba Forestry & Urban Greening. 11: 205–210. CrossRef
Garg, A., P.R. Shukla, S. Bhattacharya, and V.K. Dadhwal. 2001. Sub-region (dstrict) & sector level SO2 & NOx emissions for India: assessment of inventories & mitigation flexibility. Atmospheric Environment. 35: 703–713. CrossRef
Gopinath, R., V. Akella, and P.R. Bhanumurthy. 2014. Distinguishing between global warming and urban warming with the aid of statistical analysis. American International Journal of Research in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics. 6: 57–60. CrossRef
Government of India. 2015a. Alphabetical list of towns and their population. Retrieved May 22, 2015, from http://censusindia.gov.in/towns/ap_towns.pdf.
Government of India. 2015b. Census of India 2011. Retrieved October 1, 2015, from http://censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2/data_files/Gujrat/6-pop10-28.pdf.
Government of India, Planning Commision. 2014. ANEXURE—Farm & agroforestry in India - Policy & legal issues. Retrieved May 22, 2014, from http://planningcommission.nic.in/reports/articles/ncsxna/index.php?repts=agroannx.htm.
Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, India. 2014a. Extent of forest and tree cover. Retrieved May 22, 2014, from http://www.delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/doit_forest/Forest/Home/Forests+of+Delhi/.
Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi, India. 2014b. The Delhi Preservation of Trees Act 1994. Retrieved May 22, 2014, from http://delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/d0e4d00045196834bdbefd985fe6f3a9/AR_DelhiPreservationofTreesAct,1994.pdf?MOD=AJPERES&lmod=-46935701&CACHEID=d0e4d00045196834bdbefd985fe6f3a9.
Government of NCT of Delhi. 2015. Tree plantation. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://www.delhi.gov.in/wps/wcm/connect/environment/Environment/Home/.
Greater London Authority, London. 2011. The London plan. Retrieved May 28, 2014. from https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/planning/publications/the-london-plan.
Greater Vishakapatnam Municipal Corporation (GVMC). 2015. GVMC Horticulture. Retrieved May 18, 2015, from https://www.gvmc.gov.in/gvmc/index.php/menu-styles/horticulture.
Gupta, V., and G. Mythili. 2010. Valuation of urban environmental amenities: A case study. International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics 19: 20–32.
Harlan, S.L., A.J. Braze, L. PRashad, et al. 2006. Neighbourhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress. Social Science & Medicine. 63: 2847–2863. CrossRef
Government of India-MOEFCC. 2014. Forest Conservation. Retrieved September 10, 2015, from http://envfor.nic.in/sites/default/files/4-7-2014-4%20fencing%20of%20sefety%20zone.pdf.
Hoyano, A. 1988. Climatological uses of plants for solar control and the effects on the thermal environment of a building. Enery and Buiding 11: 181–199.
Huang, Y.J., H. Akbari, H. Taha, and H. Rosenfeld. 1987. The potential of vegetation in reducing summer cooling loads in residential buildings. American Meteorological Society. 26: 1103–1116.
MOEF, India. 2010. India: Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2007. Indian Network for Climate Change Assessment.
Jaganmohan, M., L.S. Vailshery, D. Gopal, and H. Nagendra. 2012. Plant diversity and distribution in urban domestic gardens and apartments in Bangalore. India. Urban Ecosystem. 15: 911–925. CrossRef
Jim, C.Y. 2012. Sustainable urban greening strategies for compact cities in developing & developed economies. Urban Ecosystem. 16: 741–761. CrossRef
Khan, F.I., and S.A. Abbasi. 2000. Attenuation of gaseous pollutants by greenbelts. Environmental Modelling & assessment. 64: 457–475. CrossRef
Kisku, G.C., S. Pradhan, A.H. Khan, and S.K. Bhargava. 2013. Pollution in Lucknow City and its health implication on exposed vendors, drivers and traffic policemen. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. 6: 509–515. CrossRef
Kocic, K., T. Spasic, M.A. Urosevic, and M. Tomasevic. 2014. Trees as natural barriers against heavy metal pollution and their role in the protection of cultural heritage. Journal of Cultural Heritage. 15: 227–233. CrossRef
Kontoleon, K.J., and E.A. Eumorfopoulou. 2010. The effect of the orientation and proportion of a plant-covered wall layer on the thermal performance of a building zone. Building and Environment. 45: 1287–1303. CrossRef
Mckinsey & Company, McKinsey Global Institute. 2010. India’s Urban Awakening: building inclusive cities, Sustaining economic growth. Retrieved January 26, 2014, from http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/urbanization/urban_awakening_in_india.
Mcpherson, E.G., J.R. Simpson, and M. Livingston. 1989. Effects of three landscape treatments on residential energy and water use in Tucson. Arizona. Energy and Buildings. 13: 127–138. CrossRef
Ministry of Environment & Forests, India. 1988. National forest policy. New Delhi: Ministry of Environment & Forests- Government of India.
Ministry of Environment—Forest & Climate Change, Government of India. 2014. Forest conservation. Retrieved December 10, 2014, from http://envfor.nic.in/division/forest-conservation.
Ministry of Home Affairs, India. 2011. List of million plus cities. Retrieved June 6, 2014, from http://censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Population/List_of_Million_Plus_Cities.aspx.
Ministry of Law, India. 1927. The Indian Forest Act, 1927. Retrieved September 10, 2015, from http://forest.and.nic.in/ActsNRules%5CIFA-1927.pdf.
Ministry of Law & Justice, India. 2010. The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010. Retrieved September 8, 2015, from http://www.greentribunal.gov.in/Writereaddata/Downloads/NGT-fin.pdf.
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, India. 2012. Road Transport Year Book (2009–2010 & 2010–2011). Government of India.
Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, India. 2013. Road Transport Year Book (2011–2012). Government of India.
Ministry of Statistics & Program Implementation, Government of India. 2013. Energy Statistics 2013. New Delhi: Central Statistics Office, NSO, Ministry of Statistics & Program Implementation, Govt. of India.
MoEF- India. 1986. The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from http://envfor.nic.in/legis/env/env1.html.
MoEFCC-India. 2014. Forest conservation. Retrieved September 10, 2015, from Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change: http://envfor.nic.in/sites/default/files/4-7-2014-4%20fencing%20of%20sefety%20zone.pdf.
MoEFCC-India. 1980. Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980 with Amendments Made in 1988. Retrieved September 10, 2015, from http://envfor.nic.in/legis/forest/forest2.html.
MoEFCC-India, Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change. 2002. Biodiversity. Retrieved September 9, 2015 from http://envfor.nic.in/division/biodiversity.
MoEF-India. 1972. Wildlife (Protection) Act 1972. Retrieved September 9, 2015, from http://india.gov.in/wildlife-protection-act-1972-3.
MoEF-India. 2006. National Environment Policy 2006. Retrieved September 9, 2015 from http://www.indiaenvironmentportal.org.in/content/265376/national-environment-policy-2006/.
MoEF-India. 2013. The Wildlife (Protection) Amendment Bill, 2013. Retrieved September 9, 2015, from http://www.moef.nic.in/sites/default/files/WildlifeProtectionAmendmentBill2013.pdf.
MoEF-India, Ministry of Environment Forests. 2006. The Environment Impact Assessment (EIS) Notification, 2006. Retrieved September 9, 2015, from https://ec.maharashtra.gov.in/files/ecproc.pdf.
MoEF-India, Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change, Government of India. 2013–2014. Annual Report 2013–2014. Delhi: Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Changes, Government of India.
Mohan, M., Y. Kikegawa, B.R. Gurjar et al. 2009. Assessment of urban heat island intensities over Delhi. In: The seventh international conference on urban climate. Yokohama, Japan.
Mohan, M., Y. Kikegawa, B.R. Gurjar, et al. 2012. Urban heat island assessment for a tropical urban airshed in India. Scientific Research. 2: 127–138.
National Parks Board-Singapore, Singapore Government. 2009. Handbook on Tree Conservation & Tree Planting Provision for Development Projects. Retrieved May 28, 2014 from http://www.nparks.gov.sg/cms/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=36&Itemid=150#Handbook.
Nayak, J.K., A. Srivastava, U. Singh, and M.S. Sodha. 1982. The relative performance of different approaches to the passive cooling of roofs. Building & Environment. 17: 145–161. CrossRef
New York City, NYC. 2014. About Million Trees NYC. Retrieved December 25, 2014, from http://www.milliontreesnyc.org/html/about/about.shtml.
New York City Department of Parks & Recreation, NYC. 2015. How the tree census works. Retrieved June 2, 2015. from http://www.nycgovparks.org/trees/treescount/about.
NHB, National Housing Bank. 2015. Need For Programme. Retrieved May 13, 2015, from http://www.ee-homes.com/en/theprogramme/needforprogramme/dok/31.php.
Nowak, D.J. 1994. Air pollution removal by Chicago’s Urban Forest. In Chicago’s urban forest ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project, 63–83. Pennsylvania: US Department of agriculture-Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.
Oke, T.R. 1987. Boundary layer climates. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.
Onishi, A., X. Cao, T. Ito, et al. 2010. Evaluating the potential for urban heat-island mitigation by greening parking lots. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening. 9: 323–332. CrossRef
Padmanabhamurty, B. 1990/1991. Microclimates in Tropical Urban Complexes. Energy and Buildings. 15–16: .83–92.
Padmavathi, P., J. Cherukuri, and M.A. Reddy. 2015. Ambient air pollutant levels in the vicinity of NTTPS thermal power plant. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 9: 56–60.
Pandey, P., D. Kumar, A. Prakash, et al. 2012. A study of urban heat island and its association with particulate matter during winter months over Delhi. Science of Total Environment. 414: 494–507. CrossRef
Parikh, J., M. Panda, A. Ganesh-Kumar, and V. Singh. 2009. CO 2 emissions structure of Indian economy. Energy. 34: 1024–1031. CrossRef
Peper, P.J., E.G. Mcpherson, J.R. Simpson et al. 2007. New York City, New York Municipal Forest Resource Analysis. New York.
Pokorny, J. 2001. Dissipation of solar energy in landscape-controlled by management of water and vegetation. Renewable Energy 24: 641–645. CrossRef
Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC). 2014. Pune Municipal Corporation—Garden department notification. Retrieved May 18, 2015, from http://www.punecorporation.org/informpdf/Garden/Expression_of_Interest_for_divider_Islands_&_Gardens.pdf.
Prime Ministers Council on Climate Change-India. 2008. National Action Plan on Climate Change. Retrieved November 21, 2014, from http://www.moef.nic.in/downloads/home/Pg01-52.pdf.
Ramachandra, T.V., and U. Kumar. 2010. Greater Bangalore: Emerging urban heat island. Geospatial World. 10: 89–95.
Ramanathan, V., C. Chung, D. Kim, et al. 2005. Atmospheric brown clouds: Impacts on South Asian climate and hydrological cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 5326–5333. CrossRef
Rao, M.J., J.S. Kumar, B.S.P. Rao, and P.S. Rao. 2003. Geomorphology and land use pattern of Visakhapatnam urban–industrial area. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing. 31: 119–128. CrossRef
Reserve Bank of India, Government of India. 2013. Number & percentage of people below poverty line. Retrieved December 21, 2014, from http://www.rbi.org.in/scripts/PublicationsView.aspx?id=15283.
Santamouris, M., A. Synnefa, and T. Karlessi. 2011. Using advanced cool materials in the urban built environment to mitigate heat islands and improve thermal comfort conditions. Solar Energy. 85: 3085–3102. CrossRef
Sarma, A.A.L.N., and B.V.H.N. Sainath. 1990/1991. Studies on urban climatic variations. Energy and Buildings. 15–16: 119–128.
Sharma, A.R., S.K. Kharol, and K.V.S. Badarinath. 2010. Influence of vehicular traffic on urban air quality- A case study of Hyderabad. India. Transportation Research Part D. 15: 154–159. CrossRef
SIEMENS. 2014. Mumbai is one of the densest cities in Asia with 27 000 people per square kilometer, as per the Asian Green City Index. Retrieved December 31, 2014, from http://www.siemens.co.in/en/news_press/index/feb14.htm.
Singh, V.S., D.N. Pandey, and P. Chaudhry. 2010. Urban Forests and open green spaces: lessons for Jaipur, Rajasthan, India. Retrieved September 7, 2015, from http://www.urbanforestrysouth.org/resources/library/citations/urban-forests-and-open-green-spaces-lessons-for-jaipur-rajasthan-india/?searchterm=URBAN%20FORESTS%20AND%20OPEN%20GREEN%20SPACES:%20LESSONS%20FOR%20JAIPUR,%20RAJASTHAN,%20INDIA.
Singh, S., S. Nath, R. Kohli, and R. Singh. 2005. Aerosols over Delhi during pre-monsoon months: Characteristics and effects on surface radiative forcing. Geophysical Research Letters. 32: 1–4.
SInha, R.S. 2013. Urban forestry: Urbanisation and greening of Indian cities—Efforts for green Delhi. Retrieved May 18, 2015, from http://www.teriuniversity.ac.in/mct/pdf/assignment/Rama-Shankar-Sinha.pdf.
Srivastava, A., A.E. Joseph, and S. Devotta. 2006. Volatile organic compounds in ambient air of Mumbai-India. Atmospheric Environment. 40: 892–903. CrossRef
Srivathsan, A. 2013. Where is our patch of green, Mr. Mayor?. Retrieved May 22, 2015, from http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/chennai/where-is-our-patch-of-green-mr-mayor/article3223739.ece.
Sudha, P., and N.H. Ravindranath. 2000. A study of Bangalore urban forest. Landscape and Urban Planning. 47: 47–63. CrossRef
Sudhira, H.S., T.V. Ramachandra, and K.S. Jagadish. 2004. Urban sprawl: Metrics, dynamics & modelling using GIS. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation 5: 29–39. CrossRef
Sustainability Outlook. 2012. Open Spaces for Urban Sustainability. Retrieved September 24, 2015, from http://sustainabilityoutlook.in/content/open-spaces-urban-sustainability.
Taha, H., H. Akbari, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Huang. 1988. Residential cooling loads & the urban heat island—The effects of albedo. Building & Environment. 23: 271–283. CrossRef
Taha, H., S. Konopacki, and S. Gabersek. 1996. Modelling the meteorological & energy effects of urban heat islands & their mitigation: A 10 region study. Berkeley, CA: Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
Tan, P.Y., J. Wang, and A. Sia. 2013. Perspectives on five decades of the urban greening of Singapore. Cities. 32: 24–32. CrossRef
The Hindu. 2013. Jayalalithaa launches tree plantation drive. Retrieved May 18, 2015, from http://www.thehindu.com/news/national/tamil-nadu/jayalalithaa-launches-tree-plantation-drive/article4435278.ece.
The Times of India. 2015. Heat wave sweeps across India, 335 people dead. Retrieved May 24, 2015, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Heatwave-sweeps-across-India-335-people-dead/articleshow/47401544.cms.
Times of India. 2014a. No second life for old vehicles in Delhi. Retrieved December 2, 2014, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/delhi/No-second-life-for-old-vehicles-in-Delhi/articleshow/45342183.cms.
Times of India. 2014b. Trust to plant 10 lakh trees in Vizag district. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/visakhapatnam/Trust-to-plant-10-lakh-trees-in-Vizag-district/articleshow/45018369.cms.
Times of India, and Madaan N. 2013. NGO completes planting of 50 000 trees in Pune. Retrieved December 12, 2014, from http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/pune/NGO-completes-planting-of-50000-trees-in-Pune/articleshow/21730046.cms.
Tree Delhi. Government of Delhi & Tree Planting/Tree Ambulance. Retrieved June 2, 2015, from http://www.treedelhi.org/govt_and_tree_planting.php.
Troy, A.R., J.M. Grove, J.P.M. O’Neil-Dunne, et al. 2007. Predicting opportunities for greening & patterns of vegetation on private urban lands. Environ Manage. 40: 394–412. CrossRef
United States Environment Protection Agency (EPA). 2015. Global greenhouse gas emissions data. Retrieved September 6, 2015, from http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/global.html.
UN-DESA. 2012. World Urbanisation Prospects, The 2011 Revision. New York: UN.
Upadhyay, V.P., R. Ranjan, and J.S. Singh. 2002. Human-mangrove conflicts: the way out. Current Science. 83: 1328–1336.
Vailshery, L.S., M. Jaganmohan, and H. Nagendra. 2013. Effect of street trees on microclimate and air pollution in a tropical city. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 12: 408–415. CrossRef
Vanum, G., and K.M. Hadgu. 2012. Land use/land cover changes through the application of GIS and remote sensing and the applications on sustainable land management. Internationnal Journal of Geology, Earth and Environmental Sciences. 2: 136–147.
Weiler, S.K., and K. Scholz-Barth. 2009. Green Roof Systems—A guide to planning, design, & construction of landscapes over structure, vol. 7. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Wong, N.H., D.K.W. Cheong, H. Yan, et al. 2003. The effects of rooftop garden on energy consumption of a commercial building in Singapore. Energy and Buildings 35: 353–364. CrossRef
World Bank. 2014 The. Data-Road density (km of road per 100 sq. km of land area). Retrieved May 28, 2014, from http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.ROD.DNST.K2.
Yu, C., and W.N. Hien. 2006. Thermal benefits of city parks. Energy and Buildings 38: 105–120. CrossRef
- Urbanisation and greening of Indian cities: Problems, practices, and policies
Aabshar U. K. Imam
Uttam Kumar Banerjee
- Springer Netherlands
Fallstudie Überschwemmungskarten/© Thaut Images | Fotolia