Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The United States has established various policies to support a transition to biofuels from fossil fuels as part of its strategy to achieve energy security and independence. These policies include mandates, tax credits, and import tariffs aimed at developing the nascent biofuel industry. To compare the impact of various energy sources requires a comprehensive understanding of both direct and indirect effects. This chapter discusses some of the indirect effects, including land use change, fuel rebound effect, and balance of trade effect. It finds that due to the ubiquity of energy, indirect effects impact numerous markets and that an already noncompetitive energy market that is capital intensive exacerbates the challenge of introducing biofuels. While first-generation biofuels contributed to rural development and reduced dependency on imported fuel sources, they have failed to reduce GHG emissions significantly. Introduction of advanced biofuels is challenged by the blend wall in the US and high costs, there is much opportunity for them to contribute significantly to energy security but also reducing GHG emissions.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Babcock, B.A. 2011. The Impact of U.S. Biofuel Policies on Agricultural Price Levels and Volatility. International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development 35 (1): 1–26.
Babcock, B.A., and S. Pouliot. 2013. Price It and They Will Buy: How E85 Can Break the Blend Wall. CARD Policy Brief 13-PB 11, 2013. http://www.card.iastate.edu/publications/dbs/pdffiles/13pb11.pdf.
Babcock, B.A., and W. Zhou. 2013. The Impact on Corn Prices from Reduced Biofuel Mandates, vol. 13(543),1–15. WP: Center for Agricultural and Rural Development, Iowa State University.
Barrow, G., G. Hochman, D. Zilberman. 2012. Petroleum Refining and the Indirect Byproduct Effect of Biofuels. Presented at the 2012 Annual Meeting, August 12–14, 2012, Seattle, Washington. Available at http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/124698/2/AAEA.summer.2012.pdf.
Barrows, G., S. Sexton, and D. Zilberman. 2014. Agricultural Biotechnology: The Promise and Prospects of Genetically Modified Crops. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 99–119.
Braeutigam, J.R. 2009. Ethanol Blend Wall CEC Joint IEPR and Transportation Committee Workshop on Transportation Fuel. CEC Joint IEPR and Transportation Committee Workshop on Transportation Fuel Infrastructure Issues.
Brown, G. 2008. Review of Fuel Ethanol Impacts on Local Air Quality. Bioethanol for Sustainable Transport (BEST) Deliverable (D9): 14.
Budny, D. 2007. The Global Dynamics of Biofuel: Potential Supply and Demand for Ethanol and Biodiesel in the Coming Decades. Brazil Institute 3 (1): 1–8.
Chakravorty, U., M.H.Hubert, and L. Nostbakken. 2009. Fuel Versus Food. The Annual Review of Resource Economics 1 (NP): 645–663.
Chen, X., Ho Huang, and M. Khanna. 2012a. Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Implications of Biofuels: Role of Technology and Policy. Climate Change Economics 3 (3): 25. CrossRef
Chen, X., H. Huang, M. Khanna, and H. Onal. 2012b. Meeting the Mandate for Biofuels: Implications for Land Use, Food, and Fuel Prices. Selected Works of Xiaoguang Chen 1 (7): 223–267.
Crago, C.L., M. Khanna, J. Barton, E. Giuliani, and W. Amaral. 2010. Competitiveness of Brazilian Sugarcane Ethanol Compared to U.S. Corn Ethanol. Social Science Research Network 1 (1): 1–33.
Cui, J., H. Lapan, G. Moschini, and J. Cooper. 2011. Welfare Impacts of Alternative Biofuel and Energy Policies. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 93 (5): 1235–1256. CrossRef
de Gorter, H., and D.R. Just. 2009a. The Economics of a Blend Mandate for Biofuels. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 91 (3): 738–750. CrossRef
de Gorter, H., and D.R. Just. 2009b. The Welfare Economics of a Biofuel tax Credit and the Interaction Effects with Price Contingent Farm Subsidies. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 91 (2): 477–488. CrossRef
de Gorter, H., and D.R. Just. 2010. The Social Costs and Benefits of Biofuels: The Intersection of Environmental, Energy and Agricultural Policy. Applied Economic Perspective and Policy 32 (1): 4–32. CrossRef
Demirbas, A. 2009. Political, Economic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: A Review. Applied Energy 86 (1): 108–117. CrossRef
Du, X., L. Lu, and D. Zilberman. 2014. The Economics of Contract Farming: A Credit and Investment Perspective. Presented at The AAEA Meetings in Philadelphia Pennsylvania, January 2014.
Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007), (2007, December). In 110th Congress, 1st session, Public Law No 110–140. Available at https://www.congress.gov/bill/110thcongress/house-bill/6
Foster, H., R. Baron, and P. Bernstein. 2011. Impact of the Blend Wall Constraint with Complying with the Renewable Fuel Standard. Available at http://www.api.org/news-and-media/news/newsitems/2013/march-2013/~/media/Files/Policy/Alternatives/13-March-RFS/CRA_RSF2_BlendwallConstraints_Final_Report.pdf.
Gallagher, P., M. Dikeman, J. Fritz, E. Wailes, W. Gauther, and H. Shapouri. (2003). Biomass from Crop Residues: Cost and Supply Estimates. Agricultural Economic Report, Economic Research Service, US Department of Agriculture (819).
Gardner, B., and W. Tyner. (2007). Explorations in Biofuels Economics, Policy, and History: Introduction to the Special Issue. Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization 5 (2).
Hertel, T.W., A.A. Golub, A.D. Jones, M. O’Hare, R.J. Plevin, and D.M. Kammen. 2010. Effects of U.S. Maize Ethanol on Global Land Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Estimating Market-Mediated Responses. BioScience 60 (3): 223–231. CrossRef
Hochman, G., and D. Zilberman. Corn Ethanol and U.S. Biofuel Policy Ten Years Later: A Systematic Review and Meta-analyses. To be presented at the AAEA Meeting, July 29–August 2, 2016, Boston, MA.
Hochman, G., S.E. Sexton, and D. Zilberman. 2008. The Economics of Biofuel Policy and Biotechnology. Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization 6 (2).
Hochman, G., D. Rajagopal, and D. Zilberman. 2010. Are Biofuels the Culprit: OPEC, Food, and Fuel. The American Economic Review 100 (2): 183–187. CrossRef
Hochman, G., D. Rajagopal, G. Timilsina, and D. Zilberman. 2011a. Quantifying the Causes of the Global Food Commodity Price Crisis. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5744, 7 (52), August 2011.
Hochman, G., D. Rajagopal, and D. Zilberman. 2011b. The Effect of Biofuels on the International Oil Market. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 33 (3): 402–427. CrossRef
Hochman, G., G. Barrows, and D. Zilberman. 2013. U.S. Biofuels Policy: Few Environmental Benefits but Large Trade Gains. ARE Update 17 (2) (Nov/Dec 2013).
Keeney, R., and T.W. Hertel. 2009. The Indirect Land Use Impacts of United States Biofuel Policies: The Importance of Acreage, Yield, and Bilateral Trade Responses. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 91 (4): 895–909. CrossRef
Khanna, M., A. Ando, and F. Taheripour. 2008. Welfare Effects and Unintended Consequences of Ethanol Subsidies. Review of Agricultural Economics 30 (3): 411–421. CrossRef
Khanna, M., and C.L. Crago. 2012. Measuring Indirect Land Use Change with Biofuels: Implications for Policy. Annual Review of Resource Economics 4: 161–184. CrossRef
Koltz, R., A.M. Bento, and J.R. Landry. 2014. Key Economic Insights Required for Using Lifecycle Analysis for Policy Decisions. Presented at The AAEA meetings in Philadelphia Pennsylvania, January 2014.
Lapan, H., and G. Moschini. 2009. Biofuels Policies and Welfare: Is the Stick of Mandates Better than the Carrot of Subsidies, vol. 09010 (1), 1–40. Iowa State University Working Paper, WP.
Lapan, H., and G. Moschini. 2012. Second-Best Biofuel Policies and the Welfare Effects of Quantity Mandates and Subsidies. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 63 (2): 224–241. CrossRef
Miao, R., and M. Khanna. 2014. Are Bioenergy Crops Riskier than Corn? Implications for Biomass Price. Choices 29 (1): 6.
Miller, B.A., R.J. Schaetzl, F. Krist Jr. 2009. The Soil Fertility and Drainage Indexes: Taxonomically Based, Ordinal Estimates of Relative Soil Properties. Available http://foresthealth.fs.usda.gov/soils/Content/Downloads/The_Soil_Fertility_and_Drainage_Indexes_NRCS_poster.pdf. Last accessed 21 Jan 2014.
Rajagopal, D., S.E. Sexton, D. Roland-Holst, and D. Zilberman. 2007. Challenge of Biofuel: Filling the Tank Without Emptying the Stomach? Environmental Research Letters 2 (4): 044004. CrossRef
Rajagopal, D., G. Hochman, and D. Zilberman. 2011. Indirect Fuel Use Change (IFUC) and the Lifecycle Environmental Impact of Biofuel Policies. Energy Policy 30 (1): 228–233. CrossRef
Roberts, M.J., and W. Schlenker. 2013. Identifying Supply and Demand Elasticities of Agricultural Commodities: Implications for the U.S. Ethanol Mandate. American Economic Review 103 (6): 2265–2295. CrossRef
Rosegrant, M.W. (2008). Biofuels and Grain Prices: Impacts and Policy Responses, 1–4. NP: International Food Policy Research Institute.
Snow, W. 2013. EPA Acknowledges Blend Wall as It Proposes 2014 Biofuel Quotas. Oil and Gas Journal. Web 2013. Available at http://www.ogj.com/articles/2013/11/epa-acknowledges-blend-wall-as-it-proposes-2014-biofuel-quotas.html.
Sorda, G., M. Banse, and C. Kemfert. 2010. An Overview of Biofuel Policies Across the World. Energy Policy 38 (1): 6977–6988. CrossRef
Taheripour, F., T.W. Hertel, W.E. Tyner, J.F. Beckman, and D.K. Birur. 2009. Biofuels and Their By-Products: Global Economic and Environmental Implications. Biomass and Energy 10 (17): 1–12.
Thompson, W., S. Meyer, and P. Westhoff. 2009. Renewable Identification Numbers are the Tracking Instrument and Bellwether of U.S. Biofuel Mandates. The Agricultural Economics Society and the European Association of Agricultural Economists 8 (3): 43–50.
Timilsina, G.R., and A. Shrestha. 2010. Biofuels: Markets, Targets and Impacts, vol. 5364 (WP), 1–49. The World Bank Development Research Group Environment and Energy Team.
U.S. Energy Information Administration. http://www.eia.gov.
U.S. Energy Information Administration. 2012. Biofuels Issues and Trends no. October, 1–48. Available at papers2://publication/uuid/24B1B2ED-7BD8-41CB-9215-E749DD9CA356.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. https://www3.epa.gov/climatechange/ghgemissions/gases/n2o.html.
Yang, X., N.D. Paulson, and M. Khanna. 2015. Optimal Mix of Vertical Integration and Contracting for Energy Crops: Effect of Risk Preferences and Land Quality. Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, ppv029.
Yergin, D. 2006. Ensuring Energy Security. Foreign Affairs 85 (2): 69–82. CrossRef
Zhang, Z., C., Qiu, and M., Wetzstein. 2010. Blend-Wall Economics: Relaxing U.S. Ethanol Regulations Can Lead to Increased Use of Fossil Fuels. Energy Policy 38 (7). doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2010.02.016.
Zilberman, D., G. Hochman, D. Rajagopal, S. Sexton, and G. Timilsina. 2012. The Impact of Biofuels on Commodity Food Prices: Assessment of Findings. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 95 (2): 275–281. CrossRef
Zilberman, D., G. Barrow, G. Hochman, and D. Rajagopal. 2013. On the Indirect Effect of Biofuel. The American Journal of Agricultural Economics.
- US Biofuel Policies and Markets
- Springer New York
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta