Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The idea that farm subsidies contribute significantly to obesity and that reducing these subsidies would go a long way toward solving the problem has been popular among the mainstream media and in policy circles. However, economists who have evaluated the issue have consistently found that farm subsidies have had negligible impacts on US obesity patterns. If anything, farm income support policies, including various subsidies and price supports, have made fattening food more expensive and reduced US obesity. New evidence from our updated economic simulation model reinforces that view and the conclusion that reformulation of farm subsidies would be ineffective and even counterproductive as a way of fighting US obesity.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Alston, J.M. 2007. “Benefits and Beneficiaries from U.S. Farm Subsidies,” in AEI Agricultural Policy Series: The Farm Bill and Beyond. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute, Available at: http://aic.ucdavis.edu/research/farmbill07/aeibriefs/20070515_alstonSubsidiesfinal.pdf.
Alston, J.M. 2010. “The Incidence of U.S. Farm Programs,” in E. Ball, R. Fanfani, and L. Gutierrez ed. The Economic Impact of Public Support to Agriculture: An International Perspective. New York: Springer.
Alston, J.M. 2012. “US Food and Nutrition Programs: Costs, Effectiveness, and Impact on Obesity,” in American Boondoggle: Fixing the 2012 Farm Bill. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
Alston, J.M., and P.G. Pardey. 2008. “Public Funding for Research into Specialty Crops.” HortScience 43(5): 1461–1470.
Alston, J.M., and D.A. Sumner. 2007. “Perspectives on Farm Policy Reform.” Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 32(1): 1–19.
Alston, J.M., D.A. Sumner, and S.A. Vosti. 2006. “Are Agricultural Policies Making Us Fat? Likely Links between Agricultural Policies and Human Nutrition and Obesity, and Their Policy Implications.” Review of Agricultural Economics 28(3): 313–322. CrossRef
Alston, J.M., D.A. Sumner, and S.A. Vosti. 2008. “Farm Subsidies and Obesity in the United States: National Evidence and International Comparisons.” Food Policy 33(6): 470–479. CrossRef
Anderson, K., and Y. Hayami. 1986. The Political Economy of Agricultural Protection. London: Allen & Unwin.
Anderson, K., and S. Nelgen. 2013. Updated National and Global Estimates of Distortions to Agricultural Incentives, 1955 to 2011. Washington, DC: World Bank, Available at: www.worldbank.org/agdistortions.
Anonymous. 2012. “For a Healthier Country, Overhaul Farm Subsidies.” Scientific American, May 1, 2012. Available at: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/fresh-fruit-hold-the-insulin/.
Anonymous. 2013. “FARM BILL 101: A Title-by-title Summary and Brief History of the Policies Known as the Farm Bill.” Available at: http://content.inboxgroup.com/fpf/Farm-Bill-101-3-21-13.pdf.
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW). 2003. “A Growing Problem: Trends and Patterns in Overweight and Obesity Among Adults in Australia, 1980 to 2001.” AIHW Bulletin, Issue 8, September.
Beghin, J.C., and A. Elobeid. 2015. “The Impact of the U.S. Sugar Program Redux.” Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 37(1): 1–33. CrossRef
Beghin, J.C., and H.H. Jensen. 2008. “Farm Policies and Added Sugars in US Diets.” Food Policy 33(6): 480–488. CrossRef
Bittman, M., M. Pollan, R. Salvador, and O. De Schutter. 2015. “A National Food Policy for the 21st Century.” Medium. Available at https://medium.com/@michaelpollan/a-national-food-policy-for-the-21st-century-7d323ee7c65f.
Brester, G.W. 2014. “20 Years in, NAFTA Finally Sours the U.S. Sugar Program.” AEI Research: American Enterprise Institute. Available at: http://www.aei.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/-20-years-in-nafta-finally-sours-the-us-sugar-program_162748881632.pdf.
Carter, C.A., G.C. Rausser, and A.D. Smith. 2016. “Commodity Storage and the Market Effects of Biofuel Policies.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 98(5): 1–15. CrossRef
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. 2013. 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Data, Dietary Interview—Individual Foods, First Day (DR1IFF_e). Hyattsville, MD, 2006. Available at: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/Nchs/Nhanes/Search/nhanes07_08.aspx.
Chavas, J.P., and T.L. Cox. 1995. “On Nonparametric Supply Response Analysis.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 77(1): 80–92. CrossRef
Christiansen, E., L. Garby, and T.I.A. Sørensen. 2005. “Quantitative Analysis of the Energy Requirements for Development of Obesity.” Journal of Theoretical Biology 234: 99–106. CrossRef
Floyd, J.E. 1965. “The Effects of Farm Price Supports on the Returns to Land and Labor in Agriculture.” Journal of Political Economy 73: 148–158. CrossRef
Franck, C., S.M. Grandi, and M.J. Eisenberg. 2013. “Agricultural Subsidies and the American Obesity Epidemic.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 45(3): 327–333. CrossRef
Gaouette, N. 2007. “Stirring Up Nutrition Goals for the Farm Bill.” Los Angeles Times. November 25, 2007. Available at: http://articles.latimes.com/2007/nov/25/nation/na-farmbill25.
Gardner, B.L. 1975. “The Farm-Retail Price Spread in a Competitive Food Industry.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 57: 339–409.
Gardner, B.L. 1987. The Economics of Agricultural Policies. New York: Macmillan.
Goodwin, B.K., V.E. Smith, and D.A. Sumner. 2011. “American Boondoggle: Fixing the 2012 Farm Bill.” Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute. Available at: http://www.aei.org/files/2011/11/03/-americanboondoggle_174848782104.pdf.
Grunwald, M. 2007. “Why Our Farm Policy Is Failing” Time Magazine. November 2, 2007. Available at: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1680139,00.html.
Hall, K.D., G. Sacks, D. Chandramohan, C Chow, Y.C. Wang, S.L. Gortmaker, and B.A. Swinburn. 2011. “Quantification of the Effect of Energy Imbalance on Bodyweight.” Lancet 378: 9793. CrossRef
Hendricks, N.P., A.D. Smith, and D.A. Sumner. 2014. “Crop Supply Dynamics and the Illusion of Partial Adjustment.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 96(5): 1469–1491. CrossRef
Loureiro, M.L., and R.M. Nayga. 2005. “International Dimensions of Obesity and Overweight Related Problems: An Economics Perspective.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 87: 1147–1153. CrossRef
MacEwan, J.P., J.M. Alston, and A.M. Okrent. 2014. “The Consequences of Obesity for the External Costs of Public Health Insurance in the United States.” Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy 36(4): 696–716. CrossRef
MacEwan, J.P., A.D. Smith, and J.M. Alston. 2016. “The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, Energy Balance, and Weight Gain.” Food Policy 61: 103–120. CrossRef
McDonald, D., R. Nair, T. Podbury. B. Sheldrick, D. Gunasakera, and B.S. Fisher. 2006. U.S. Agriculture without Farm Support. Research Report 06.10. ABARE (Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics), Canberra (September).
Miller, J.C., and K.H. Coble. 2007. “Cheap Food Policy: Fact or Rhetoric?.” Food Policy 32: 98–111. CrossRef
Morrison Paul, C.L. and J. MacDonald. 2003. “Tracing the Effects of Agricultural Commodity Prices and Food Costs.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 85(3): 633–646. CrossRef
Muth, R.F. 1964. “The Derived Demand Curve for a Productive Factor and the Industry Supply Curve.” Oxford Economic Papers 16: 221–234. CrossRef
Oaklander, M. 2016. “Many Foods Subsidized By the Government Are Unhealthy”. Time Magazine July 5 (updated July 6, 2016). Available at http://time.com/4393109/food-subsidies-obesity/.
Okrent, A.M. 2010. “The Effects of Farm Commodity and Retail Food Policies on Obesity and Economic Welfare in the United States.” PhD Dissertation, University of California, Davis. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses.
Okrent, A., and J.M. Alston. 2011. “Demand for Food in the United States: A Review of the Literature, Evaluation of Previous Estimates and Presentation of New Estimates of Demand.” Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics Monograph 48. Available at: http://giannini.ucop.edu/Monographs/48-FoodDemand.pdf.
Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). 2016. “Producer and Consumer Support Estimates, OECD Database 1986–2015.” Paris, France. Available at: http://www.oecd.org/tad/agricultural-policies/producerandconsumersupportestimatesdatabase.htm.
Paulson, A. 2007. “Farm Reform Fizzles in Congress.” Christian Science Monitor, November 16, 2007. Available at: http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/1116/p03s01-uspo.html.
Pollan, M. 2003. “The (Agri)Cultural Contradictions of Obesity.” The New York Times, October 12. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2003/10/12/magazine/12WWLN.html?pagewanted=all.
Pollan, M. 2007a. “You Are What You Grow.” The New York Times, April 22. Available at: http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/you-are-what-you-grow/.
Pollan, M. 2007b. “Weed it and Reap.” The New York Times, November 4. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/04/opinion/04pollan.html?incamp=article_popular.
Pollan, M. 2008a. “Farmer in Chief.” The New York Times, October 12. Available at: http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/farmer-in-chief/.
Popkin, B. 2009. The World Is Fat: The Fads, Trends, Policies and Products That Are Fattening the Human Race. New York, NY: Avery.
Popkin, B.M. 2011. “Agricultural Policies, Food and Public Health.” EMBO Reports 12(1): 11–18. CrossRef
Popkin, B.M., and W.R. Kenan Jr. 2016. Preventing Type 2 Diabetes: Changing the Food Industry. Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beem.2016.05.001.
Rickard, B.J., A.M. Okrent, and J.M. Alston. 2013. “How Have Agricultural Policies Influenced Calorie Consumption and Obesity in the United States?” Health Economics 22(3): 316–339. CrossRef
Schmidhuber, J. 2004. “The Growing Global Obesity Problem: Some Policy Options to Address It.” Electronic Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics 12: 272–290.
Senauer, B., and M. Gemma. 2006. “Why Is the Obesity Rate So Low in Japan and High in the US? Some Possible Economic Explanations.” Paper Presented at the Conference of International Association of Agricultural Economists, Gold Coast, Australia, August 12–18.
Siegel, K.R., K.M. Bullard, G. Imperatore, H.S. Kahn, A.D. Stein, M.K. Ali, and K.M. Narayan. 2016. “Association of Higher Consumption of Foods Derived From Subsidized Commodities With Adverse Cardiometabolic Risk Among US Adults.” JAMA Internal Medicine 176(8): 1124–1132. CrossRef
Smith, V.H., B.K. Goodwin, and D.A. Sumner editors. 2012. American Boondoggle: Fixing the 2012 Farm Bill. American Enterprise Institute Electronic Monograph. March
Smith, V.H., J.M. Glauber, and H. Dismukes. 2016. “Rent Dispersion in the U.S. Agricultural Insurance Industry.” IFPRI Discussion Paper 01532. Washington, DC: IFPRI, May. Available at: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2801268.
Stubbs, M. “Conservation Reserve Program (CRP): Status and Issues.” CRS Report R42783. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Available at: http://nationalaglawcenter.org/wp-content/uploads/assets/crs/R42783.pdf.
Sumner, D.A. 2003. “Implications of the USA Farm Bill of 2002 for Agricultural Trade and Trade Negotiations.” Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 47(1): 117–140. CrossRef
Sumner, D.A. 2005a. “Boxed In: Conflicts Between U.S. Farm Policies and WTO Obligations.” Cato Institute Trade Policy Analysis 32, December. Available at: http://www.freetrade.org/pubs/pas/pas.html.
Sumner, D.A. 2005b. “Production and Trade Effects of Farm Subsidies: Discussion.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 87(5): 1229–1230. CrossRef
Sumner, D.A., J.M. Alston, and J.W. Glauber. 2010. “Evolution of the Economics of Agricultural Policy.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 92(2): 403–423. CrossRef
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service (USDA, ERS). 2014. “Agricultural Act of 2014: Highlights and Implications.” Available at: http://www.ers.usda.gov/agricultural-act-of-2014-highlights-and-implications.aspx#.U1AdkOZdVfQ.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service (USDA, FNS). 2016. “Program Data Overview: Summary of Annual Data”. Available at http://www.fns.usda.gov/pd/overview.
U.S. Department of Commerce-Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2010. “National Income and Product Accounts, Underlying Detail Tables.” Available at: www.bea.gov/national/nipaweb/nipa_underlying/Index.asp.
U.S. Department of Commerce-Bureau of Economic Analysis. 2014. “2007 Benchmark Input-Output Detailed Use Table.” Available at: http://www.bea.gov/industry/io_annual.htm.
Wohlgenant, M.K. 1989. “Demand for Farm Output in a Complete System of Demand Functions.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 71: 241–252. CrossRef
Wohlgenant, M.K. 2001. “Marketing Margins: Empirical Analysis,” in B. Gardner and G. Rausser eds. Handbook of Agricultural Economics, Vol. 1. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science BV, pp. 934–970.
Alston, J.M., A.M. Okrent, and J.C. Parks. 2012. “U.S. Food Policy and Obesity,” Chapter 9 in J. Maddock ed. Public Health—Social and Behavioral Health. Croatia: InTech – Open Access Publishers. Available at: http://www.intechopen.com/books/public-health-social-and-behavioral-health/food-policy-and-obesity.
Okrent, A.M., and J.M. Alston. 2012. “The Effects of Farm Commodity and Retail Food Policies on Obesity and Economic Welfare in the United States.” American Journal of Agricultural Economics 94(1): 611–646. CrossRef
- US Farm Subsidies and Obesity
Julian M. Alston
Abigail M. Okrent
- Palgrave Macmillan US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Neuer Inhalt/© julien tromeur | Fotolia