Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
We analysed the relationship between drug use and wellbeing using data from the Crime Survey for England and Wales. We focused on cannabis use, the most commonly used drug, but also controlled for use of other drugs, alcohol consumption and a range of potential confounds. Measuring life satisfaction on a 0–10 scale, linear models found that people who had never used cannabis had significantly higher scores than current users (0.54). Never having used other types of drugs was also associated with 0.37 extra life satisfaction points. Moderate alcohol use (1–2 days per week) was associated with higher life satisfaction than abstainers or more regular drinkers. Following the “life satisfaction approach”, we estimated the extra income that would be needed to compensate for the wellbeing loss associated with cannabis use. Accounting for income endogeneity, our results suggested that being a current cannabis user may cost an individual over £5600 per year, in terms of lost wellbeing, while being a current user of other drugs may cost approximately £4000 per year. While acknowledging possible reverse causality, we estimated the annual population cost of drug use may be as high as £10.7bn in terms of lost wellbeing.
Baumberg Geiger, B., & MacKerron, G. (2016). Can alcohol make you happy? A subjective wellbeing approach. Social Science and Medicine, 156, 184–191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.03.034. CrossRef
Bennet, T. H., & Holloway, K. R. (2015). Drug use among college and university students: Findings from a national survey. Journal of Substance Use, 20(1), 50–55. https://doi.org/10.3109/14659891.2013.878762. CrossRef
Bennet, T. H., Holloway, K. R., & Farrington, D. (2008). The statistical association between drug misuse and crime: A meta-analysis. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 13, 107–118. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2008.02.001. CrossRef
Brook, D., Brook, J., Zhang, C., Cohen, P., & Whiteman, M. (2002). Drug use and the risk of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence and substance abuse disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1039–1044. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.11.1039. CrossRef
Cross, J., Johnson, B. D., Davis, W. R., & Liberty, H. J. (2001). Supporting the habit: income generation activities of frequent crack users compared with frequent users of other hard drugs. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 64, 191–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00121-1. CrossRef
Davies, L., Jones, A., Vamvakas, G., Dubourg, R., & Donmall, M. (2009). The drug treatment outcomes research study (DTROS): Cost- effectiveness analysis. Research Report, 25. London: Home Office.
Dietze, P., Jenkinson, R., Aitken, C., Stoové, M., Jolley, D., Hickman, M., et al. (2013). The relationship between alcohol use and injecting drug use: Impacts on health, crime and wellbeing. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 128, 111–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2012.08.013. CrossRef
Donmall, M., Jones, A., Davies, L., & Barnard, M. (2009). Summary of key findings from the drug treatment outcomes research study (DTORS). Research Report, 23. London: Home Office.
Easterlin, R. A., & Onnicha, S. (2009). Happiness and we assume economic growth: Does the cross section predict time trends? Evidence from developing countries. IZA discussion papers, No. 4000
Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A. (2005). Income and well-being: An empirical analysis of the comparison income effect. Journal of Public Economics, 89, 997–1019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2004.06.003. CrossRef
Fujiwara, D. (2013). The social impact of housing providers. HACT. www.hact.org.uk. Accessed October 2016.
Fujiwara, D., Kudrna, L., & Dolan, P. (2014). Quantifying and valuing the wellbeing impacts of culture and sport. Report for Department of Culture, Media and Sport. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/304899/Quantifying_and_valuing_the_wellbeing_impacts_of_sport_and_culture.pdf. Accessed October 2016.
Gardner, J., & Oswald, A. J. (2007). Money and mental wellbeing: A longitudinal study of medium-sized lottery wins. Journal of Health Economics, 26, 49–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2006.08.004. CrossRef
Gil-Lacruz, A. I., & Gil-Lacruz, M. (2010). Does alcohol consumption reinforce mental problems in adolescence? The Journal of Socio-Economics, 39, 223–232. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2009.12.010. CrossRef
Golden, L., & Wies-Tuers, B. (2006). To your happiness? Extra hours of labor supply and worker well-being. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 382–397. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.039. CrossRef
HM Treasury (2011). The green book: Appraisal and evaluation in central government. Treasury guidance. HM Treasury, London. Available online at https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/220541/green_book_complete.pdf. Accessed December 2015.
Levy, A. (2008). A theory of entrenched socioeconomic deprivation and addiction to strong mind-altering substances. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37, 1756–1767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2007.12.007. CrossRef
Lievens, D., Vander Laenen, F., Verhaeghe, N., Putman, K., Pauwels, L., Hardyns, W., et al. (2017). Economic consequences of legal and illegal drugs: The case of social costs in Belgium. International Journal of Drug Policy, 44, 50–57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.03.005. CrossRef
MacDonald, Z., & Pudney, S. (2000). Illicit drug use, unemployment, and occupational attainment. Journal of Health Economics, 19, 1089–1115. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-6296(00)00056-4. CrossRef
Miller, P., & Plant, M. (2002). Heavy cannabis use among UK teenagers: An exploration. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 65, 235–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716(01)00165-X. CrossRef
Moore, T. H. M., Zammit, S., Lingford-Hughes, A., Barnes, T. R. E., Jones, P. B., Burke, M., et al. (2007). Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: A systematic review. Lancet, 370, 319–328. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61162-3. CrossRef
Nash, R., & Featherstone, H. (2010). Cough up: Balancing tobacco income and costs in society. Policy Exchange Research Note, March 2010. Available online at https://www.policyexchange.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/cough-up-march-10.pdf
ONS. (2014a). Drug misuse: Findings from the 2013/14 crime survey for England and Wales. London: Home Office.
ONS (2014b). Personal well- being estimates geographical breakdown, April 2013 to March 2014. Dataset available at http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/wellbeing/datasets/personalwellbeingestimatesgeographicalbreakdown. Accessed August 2017
ONS. (2015a). User guide to crime statistics for England and Wales—October 2015. London: Home Office.
ONS (2015b). The effects of taxes and benefits on household income. ONS Dataset available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/personalandhouseholdfinances/incomeandwealth/datasets/theeffectsoftaxesandbenefitsonhouseholdincomefinancialyearending2014. Accessed November 2016
ONS. (2016a). Drug misuse: Findings from the 2015/16 crime survey for England and Wales. London: Home Office.
ONS (2016b). Population estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. ONS Dataset available at: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/datasets/populationestimatesforukenglandandwalesscotlandandnorthernireland. Accessed November 2017.
ONS (2017). Family spending in the UK: Financial year ending March 2016. Statistical Bulletin. Available from: https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/personalandhouseholdfinances/expenditure/bulletins/familyspendingintheuk/financialyearendingmarch2016. Accessed August 2017.
ONS and TNS (2014). The 2013/14 crime survey for England and Wales (Vol. 1). Technical Report.
Orlowski, J., & Wicker, P. (2015). The monetary value of social capital. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 57, 26–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2015.04.007. CrossRef
Peretti-Watel, P. (2006). Cognitive dissonance and risk denial: The case of cannabis use in adolescents. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 1032–1049. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2005.11.023. CrossRef
Pischke, J. S. (2011). Money and happiness: Evidence from the industry wage structure. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, 17056. https://doi.org/10.3386/w17056.
Powdthavee, N. (2008). Putting a price tag on friends, relatives, and neighbours: Using surveys of life satisfaction to value social relationships. The Journal of Socio-Economics, 37, 1459–1480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2007.04.004. CrossRef
Powdthavee, N., & van den Berg, B. (2011). Putting different price tags on the same health condition: Re-evaluating the well-being valuation approach. Journal of Health Economics, 30, 1032–1043. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhealeco.2011.06.001. CrossRef
Qary, S. (2014). Marriage, adaptation and happiness: Are there long-lasting gains to marriage? Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 50, 29–39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socec.2014.01.003. CrossRef
Rivera, B., Casal, B., & Currais, L. (2017). The social cost of illicit drugs use in Spain. International Journal of Drug Policy, 44, 92–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.03.012. CrossRef
Tartaglia, S., Gattino, S., & Fedi, A. (2017a). Life satisfaction and alcohol consumption among young adults at social gatherings. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-017-9907-5.
Tsurumi, T., & Managi, S. (2016). Monetary valuations of life conditions in a consistent framework: The life satisfaction approach. Journal of Happiness Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-016-9775-4.
Walker, K., Bowen, E., & Brown, S. (2013). Psychological and criminological factors associated with desistance from violence: A review of the literature. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 286–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.021. CrossRef
WHO Regional Office for Europe, & OECD. (2015). Economic cost of the health impact of air pollution in Europe: Clean air, health and wealth. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.
Office for National Statistics, May 2015. Crime Survey for England and Wales, 2013–2014 [computer file]. 2nd Edition. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor]. SN: 7619. https://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-7619-2.
Office for National Statistics, May 2015. Crime Survey for England and Wales, 2013–2014: Special Licence Access, Low-Level Geographic Data [computer file]. 2nd Edition. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor]. SN: 7620. https://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-7620-2.
Office for National Statistics, January 2015. Crime Survey for England and Wales, 2013–2014: Special Licence Access, Drinking Behaviour Module [computer file]. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor]. SN: 7622. https://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-7622-1.
Office for National Statistics, January 2015. Crime Survey for England and Wales, 2013–2014: Special Licence Access, Drug Use Module [computer file]. Colchester, Essex: UK Data Archive [distributor]. SN: 7623. https://doi.org/10.5255/UKDA-SN-7623-1.
- Valuing the Relationship Between Drug and Alcohol Use and Life Satisfaction: Findings from the Crime Survey for England and Wales
Mathew P. White
- Springer Netherlands
Journal of Happiness Studies
An Interdisciplinary Forum on Subjective Well-Being
Print ISSN: 1389-4978
Elektronische ISSN: 1573-7780