This chapter provides examples of the extent to which Jordanian farmers (Fellaheen) and Bedouin have contributed to vegetation degradation in northeastern Jordan. Irrigated cultivation of marginal lands, deep ploughing of the fragile rangeland, overgrazing, cutting and uprooting of perennial xerophyte species for fire, and even deliberate burning, have in some areas led to a process of desertification.It is known that the rangeland in northeastern Jordan used to support large numbers of highly palatable species for grazing including Artemisia sieberi (syn. A. herba-alba), Salsola damascena (syn. S. vermiculata), Atriplex halimus, Achillea fragrantissima, Hamada eigii and Noaea mucronata. These species were dominant, provided a high degree of surface cover, and were widely distributed.At present, these palatable species are no longer found in northeastern Jordan, except in the Surra, Khanasri and Shaumari reserves. The palatable species, however, have been replaced by invader, segetal and thorny plants, such as Peganum harmala, Anabasis syriaca, Salsola jordanicola, Halthamnus hierochunticus, Xanthium spinosum, Onopordum macrocephalum, Chenopodium album and Chenopodium murale, and others.This phenomenon can be considered and used as an indicator of vegetation degradation in northeastern Jordan.
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- Vegetation Degradation in Northeastern Jordan
- Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen