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Über dieses Buch

Vehicle Dynamics and Control provides a comprehensive coverage of vehicle control systems and the dynamic models used in the development of these control systems. The control system applications covered in the book include cruise control, adaptive cruise control, ABS, automated lane keeping, automated highway systems, yaw stability control, engine control, passive, active and semi-active suspensions, tire-road friction coefficient estimation, rollover prevention, and hybrid electric vehicles. In developing the dynamic model for each application, an effort is made to both keep the model simple enough for control system design but at the same time rich enough to capture the essential features of the dynamics. A special effort has been made to explain the several different tire models commonly used in literature and to interpret them physically.

In the second edition of the book, chapters on roll dynamics, rollover prevention and hybrid electric vehicles have been added, and the chapter on electronic stability control has been enhanced.

The use of feedback control systems on automobiles is growing rapidly. This book is intended to serve as a useful resource to researchers who work on the development of such control systems, both in the automotive industry and at universities. The book can also serve as a textbook for a graduate level course on Vehicle Dynamics and Control.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
The use of automobiles is increasing worldwide. In 1970, 30 million vehicles were produced and 246 million vehicles were registered worldwide (Powers and Nicastri, 2000). By 2011, approximately 72 million vehicles are expected to be produced annually and more than 800 million vehicles could be registered.
The increasing worldwide use of automobiles has motivated the need to develop vehicles that optimize the use of highway and fuel resources, provide safe and comfortable transportation and at the same time have minimal impact on the environment. It is a great challenge to develop vehicles that can satisfy these diverse and often conflicting requirements. To meet this challenge, automobiles are increasingly relying on electromechanical sub-systems that employ sensors, actuators and feedback control. Advances in solid state electronics, sensors, computer technology and control systems during the last two decades have also played an enabling role in promoting this trend.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 2. Lateral Vehicle Dynamics

Abstract
The first section in this chapter provides a review of several types of lateral control systems that are currently under development by automotive manufacturers and researchers. The subsequent sections in the chapter study kinematic and dynamic models for lateral vehicle motion. Control system design for lateral vehicle applications is studied later in Chapter 3.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 3. Steering Control for Automated Lane Keeping

Abstract
Kinematic and dynamic models for lateral vehicle dynamics were discussed in the previous chapter. This chapter discusses lateral control systems used to control a vehicle to stay in the center of its lane.
The chapter is organized as follows. Control design by state feedback is discussed first in section 3.1. Steady state errors and the steady state steering angle required to negotiate a curved road are analyzed in sections 3.2 and 3.3. The subsequent sections of the chapter concentrate on control design by output feedback (sections 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.9 and 3.10).
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 4. Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics

Abstract
The control of longitudinal vehicle motion has been pursued at many different levels by researchers and automotive manufacturers. Common systems involving longitudinal control available on today’s passenger cars include cruise control, anti-lock brake systems and traction control systems. Other advanced longitudinal control systems that have been the topic of intense research include radar-based collision avoidance systems, adaptive cruise control systems, individual wheel torque control with active differentials and longitudinal control systems for the operation of vehicles in platoons on automated highway systems.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 5. Introduction to Longitudinal Control

Abstract
The term “longitudinal controller” is typically used in referring to any control system that controls the longitudinal motion of the vehicle, for example, its longitudinal velocity, acceleration or its longitudinal distance from another preceding vehicle in the same lane on the highway. The throttle and brakes are the actuators used to implement longitudinal control.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 6. Adaptive Cruise Control

Abstract
An adaptive cruise control (ACC) system is an extension of the standard cruise control system. An ACC equipped vehicle has a radar or other sensor that measures the distance to other preceding vehicles (downstream vehicles) on the highway. In the absence of preceding vehicles, the ACC vehicle travels at a user-set speed, much like a vehicle with a standard cruise control system (see Figure 6-1). However, if a preceding vehicle is detected on the highway by the vehicle’s radar, the ACC system determines whether or not the vehicle can continue to travel safely at the desired speed. If the preceding vehicle is too close or traveling too slowly, then the ACC system switches from speed control to spacing control. In spacing control, the ACC vehicle controls both the throttle and brakes so as to maintain a desired spacing from the preceding vehicle.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 7. Longitudinal Control for Vehicle Platoons

Abstract
Automated highway systems are the subject of intense research and development by several research groups, most notably by the California PATH program at the University of California, Berkeley. In an automated highway system (AHS), the objective is to dramatically improve the traffic flow capacity on a highway by enabling vehicles to travel together in tightly spaced platoons. The system requires that only adequately instrumented fully automated vehicles be allowed on this special highway. Manually driven vehicles cannot be allowed to operate on such a highway. Figure 5-2 in chapter 5 shows a photograph of eight fully automated cars traveling together in a tightly spaced platoon during a demonstration conducted by California PATH in August 1997. More details on this experimental demonstration are described in section 7.9 of this chapter.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 8. Electronic Stability Control

Abstract
Vehicle stability control systems that prevent vehicles from spinning and drifting out have been developed and recently commercialized by several automotive manufacturers. Such stability control systems are also often referred to as yaw stability control systems or electronic stability control systems.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 9. Mean Value Modeling of SI and Diesel Engines

Abstract
The engine models presented in this chapter are useful in the development of control systems for cruise control, adaptive cruise control and other longitudinal vehicle control applications.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 10. Design and Analysis of Passive Automotive Suspensions

Abstract
An automotive suspension supports the vehicle body on the axles. A “full car” model of a suspension with 7 rigid body degrees of freedom is shown in Figure 10-1. The vehicle body is represented by the “sprung mass” m while the mass due to the axles and tires are represented by the “unsprung” masses m u1, m u2, m u3 and m u4. The springs and dampers between the sprung and unsprung mass represent the vehicle suspension. The vertical stiffness of each of the 4 tires are represented by the springsK t1,K t2,K t3andK t4
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 11. Active Automotive Suspensions

Abstract
The analysis of passive automotive suspensions in the last chapter showed that there are significant trade-offs in performance between the ride quality, rattle space and tire deflection transfer functions. Improvements in any one of the three transfer functions in the case of passive suspensions is often obtained at the expense of deterioration in the other two transfer functions. In this chapter, we look at the use of active suspensions in which electronically controlled actuators placed in the suspension are used to provide significantly superior performance. Alternate control laws are analyzed and the performance that active suspensions can provide is studied and compared with that of passive suspensions. The factors that limit the performance of active suspensions are studied. The analysis of “invariant points” is used to understand these performance limitations. A simple control law called sky-hook damping which needs only a few sensor measurements and can provide most of the benefits of full state feedback control laws is discussed. Finally, the chapter looks at actual experimental implementation issues, including the dynamics of hydraulic actuators used to provide the active force.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 12. Semi-Active Suspensions

Abstract
A semi-active suspension system utilizes a variable damper or other variable dissipation component in the automotive suspension. An example of a variable dissipator is a twin tube viscous damper in which the damping coefficient can be varied by changing the diameter of the orifice in a piston.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 13. Lateral and Longitudinal Tire Forces

Abstract
Forces and moments from the road act on each tire of the vehicle and highly influence the dynamics of the vehicle. This chapter focuses on mathematical models for describing these tire forces and moments.
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 14. Tire-Road Friction Measurement on Highway Vehicles

Abstract
This chapter focuses on real-time tire-road friction coefficient measurement systems that are aimed at estimating friction coefficient and detecting abrupt changes in its value. The main type of friction estimation systems presented here are systems that utilize longitudinal vehicle dynamics and longitudinal motion measurements. The algorithms and experimental results presented in this chapter are largely adapted from the paper published by Wang, et al. (2004).
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 15. Roll Dynamics and Rollover Prevention

Abstract
Vehicle rollovers account for a significant fraction of highway traffic fatalities. While only 3% of vehicle accidents result in rollovers, 33% of all fatalities have vehicle rollover as a contributing factor (NHTSA, 2011). Hence there is significant research being conducted on development of rollover prevention technologies (Liu, et al., 1997, Odenthal, et al., 1999, Chen and Peng, 2001, Carlson and Gerdes, 2003, Liebemann, et al., 2004, Yoon, etal., 2007, Piyabongkarn, et al., 2010).
Rajesh Rajamani

Chapter 16. Dynamics and Control of Hybrid Gas Electric Vehicles

Abstract
A hybrid automobile is one that has two or more major sources of propulsion power. Most hybrid vehicles currently available to consumers are gas-electric hybrids. They have both gasoline engines and electric motors and can be powered by either power source or both sources at the same time.
Rajesh Rajamani

Backmatter

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