The inertia property is one of the most critical aspects to maintain the frequency stability in a single (islanded) power system. Therefore, this chapter explains the dynamic performance and frequency characteristics of a single-area system with the deployment of virtual inertia control in addition to the primary and secondary control loops. The linearized frequency response model for virtual inertia, primary, and secondary controls is presented by using the state-space representation (i.e., mathematical model of a physical system). Dynamic and static performances of the virtual inertia response model are explained in terms of small-signal (dynamic) and state-space analysis. The effects of various parameters over inertia control-based frequency response are emphasized. A dynamic model of virtual inertia control is verified by a well-tested classical load-frequency control model in the varying operating conditions of the power system. Moreover, some experimental studies with a practical virtual inertia control in the laboratory environment are also demonstrated.
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