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Wastes are discarded or unwanted materials resulting from the domestic and industrial activities of humans. Wastes carried in water are described as sewage. It is important to determine the quantity of carbon in sewage so as to know the most appropriate method to use for treating it. One of the most common methods is the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) which measures the oxygen consumed by microorganisms to degrade the carbon over a 5-day period. Other methods are chemical in nature and related to the potential of the microbial breakdown. These chemical methods are the Permanganate Value (PV) Test, the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), and Volatile Suspended Solids (VSS).
Aerobic methods for disposing of sewage are: the Activated Sludge System, the Trickling Filter, the Rotating Disks, and the Oxidation Pond. Anaerobic methods include the Septic Tank, the Imhoff Tank, and Cesspools. Advanced wastewater treatment (AWT) methods are expensive and used for producing water for specialized use. They include: Reverse Osmosis, Nanofiltration, Ultrafiltration and Microfiltration, Electrodialysis, Activated Charcoal, Ion exchange, UV Oxidation, and Precipitation.
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- Waste Disposal in the Aqueous Medium: Sewage Disposal
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