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Irrigation with wastewater has been practiced for millennia in areas facing water scarcity because it does not require water of the highest quality and wastewater contains nutrients needed for crops. Wastewater is also recycled for industrial uses and there is increasing interest in its use to augment potable water supplies. Some areas facing water scarcity are now investigating indirect and direct potable reuse of wastewater, which would have been unthinkable a couple of decades ago. Wastewater also has the characteristic of being a very reliable supply of water. Wastewater can be treated to produce water of virtually any desired quality. Wastewater managed aquifer recharge (MAR) opportunities include augmentation of overall groundwater supplies (groundwater banking), providing additional treatment through natural aquifer contaminant attenuation processes, seasonal storage of reclaimed water for later reuse, and as a water source for salinity barrier systems. MAR is used as an environmental buffer in some indirect potable reuse systems in which it can both improve water quality and increase public acceptance.
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- Wastewater MAR and Indirect Potable Reuse
Robert G. Maliva
- Chapter 22