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Über dieses Buch

This Brief is devoted to clean drinking water, which is (one of) the most important asset(s) in the food and beverage industry. In the present time of increasing water scarcity in many areas of the world, supply of clean water especially in the production and packaging chain of foods and beverages, is a crucial issue. This Brief hence outlines why functioning purification and reuse systems for wastewater are becoming more and more interesting and promising technologies in solving the challenge.

Readers find in this Brief an introduction to different innovative treatment methodologies. The authors discuss key parameters (such as the water volume to be treated, types and chemical and physico-chemical characteristics of pollutants, but also the intended use of the recycled water) and present various methodologies, such as separation or concentration systems, centrifugation, evaporation, filtration, flotation, gravity separation, membrane techniques, aerobic and anaerobic biological treatments, as well as combined or hybrid systems. Selected specific methods are presented in detail, specifically a new adsorption method for the removal of metal ions.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Water Reuse in the Food Industry: Quality of Original Wastewater Before Treatments

Abstract
This chapter introduces one of the most important emergencies in the world of food and non-food industries: the availability of clean and drinking water. Water use has more than tripled globally since 1950: water quality and its scarcity are increasingly recognised as one of the most important environmental threats to humankind. In addition, the food and beverage processing industry requires copious amounts of water. For these reasons, direct and indirect water reuse systems are becoming more and more interesting and promising technologies. Different reuse guidelines have been recently issued as the result of risk assessment and management approaches linked to health-based targets. Chemical and biological features of wastewaters originated from different food processing environments have to be carefully analysed and adequate countermeasures have to be taken on these bases in relation to the specific food processing activity.
Marcella Barbera, Giovanni Gurnari

Chapter 2. Wastewater Treatments for the Food Industry: Physical–Chemical Systems

Abstract
This chapter provides a general overview of physical–chemical wastewater remediation systems in the food industry. Water reuse systems are becoming more and more interesting and promising technologies, depending on merely quantitative estimations, physical and chemical features of pollutants and the variability of these characteristics, week after week. Different systems are available for the food industry, depending on the final destination or water effluents and peculiar chemical–physical and biological features of the fluids before treatment. Several of these remediation systems can be subdivided into different groups, depending on the desired amount of gross removed matters, or into four categories depending on the peculiar removal operation (physical, chemical, thermal or biological procedures). This chapter is dedicated to the description of physical–chemical wastewater remediation systems only. Biological procedures are not considered here, while physical–chemical techniques are discussed with the possibility of ‘hybrid’ solutions including biological treatments, if applicable.
Marcella Barbera, Giovanni Gurnari

Chapter 3. Wastewater Treatments for the Food Industry: Biological Systems

Abstract
This chapter provides a general overview of biological wastewater remediation systems in the food industry. Water reuse systems are becoming more and more interesting and promising technologies, depending on merely quantitative estimations, physical and chemical features of pollutants and the variability of these characteristics, week after week. Different systems are available for the food industry. Several of these remediation systems may be subdivided into four categories depending on the peculiar removal operation, including biological systems. Biological techniques aim to reduce organic loads and the remaining suspended materials in wastewaters from primary processes (after a preliminary removal of oils and solids) by means of aerobic, anaerobic or hybrid solutions. Soluble and non-soluble pollutants and nutrients based on nitrogen and/or phosphorus are biologically degraded and converted in different and less hazardous compounds.
Marcella Barbera, Giovanni Gurnari

Chapter 4. Quality Standards for Recycled Water: Opuntia ficus-indica as Sorbent Material

Abstract
In recent years, increased industrial and agricultural activities and the correlated population growth led to overexploitation of natural resources and the increased generation of various types of pollutants. For these reasons, the hazardous pollution of wastewater is one of the most important environmental problems worldwide. A wide range of wastewater treatment technologies are available; however, some disadvantages are often reported. Hence, there is a constant need to search for an efficient, low-cost and alternative wastewater treatment. Recently, several biosolids have been considered for pollutant removal from wastewaters, including Opuntia ficus-indica. This chapter focuses on wastewater treatment strategies involving material parts in sewage containing high levels of chemical oxygen demand and turbidity, heavy metals and pesticides.
Marcella Barbera, Giovanni Gurnari
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