Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Although markets are widely promoted as an efficient tool for managing water, little critical attention has been directed to the legal and governance issues of water markets, including matters such as compliance and enforcement, water accounting, and the overall effectiveness of water trading. In response to these gaps, the chapter critically evaluates Australia’s cap and trade instrument, drawing on a review of the literature and survey and interview data collected from government and non-government stakeholders. The findings reveal achievements, including flexible responses to past and future droughts; efficiencies that contribute to economic and environmental benefits; and increasing trade and market functionality. Yet, the results also suggest cap and trade schemes are not functioning at the peak of their powers because of seven key flaws, namely a lack of robust regulatory underpinning; limited accuracy in water accounting; challenges in addressing universality of impact and source; queries over environmental benefits; lack of accounting for wider social impacts; windfall gains; and limited operation across Australia. Some of these flaws are correctable, and the chapter pinpoints relevant areas for market policy reform. However, a number of the identified flaws require water law and policy to look beyond markets. The chapter argues in these areas, such as groundwater, complementary regulatory tools are needed to ensure Australia’s future water security and sustainability.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Alston, M., & Whittenbury, K. (2011). Climate change and water policy in Australia’s irrigation areas: A lost opportunity for a partnership model of governance. Environmental Politics,20, 899–917. CrossRef
Arnason, R. (2012). Property rights in fisheries: How much can individual transferable quotas accomplish? Review of Environmental Economics and Policy,6, 217–236. CrossRef
Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2014). 5610.0–Water Account, Australia (2012–2013). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/4610.0Main+Features12012-13?OpenDocument.
Basin Plan 2012 (Cth).
Barr, N., & Cary, J. (2000). Influencing improved natural resource management on farms: A guide to factors influencing the adoption of sustainable natural resource management practices. Kingston: Bureau of Rural Sciences.
Bell, S., & Quiggan, J. (2008). The limits of markets: The politics of water management in rural Australia. Environmental Politics,17, 712–729. CrossRef
Bowmer, K. (2014). Water resources in Australia: Deliberation on options for protection and management. Australian Journal of Environmental Management,21, 228–240. CrossRef
Brooks, R., & Harris, E. (2014). Price leadership and information transmission in Australian water allocation markets. Agricultural Water Management,145, 83–91. CrossRef
Brooks, R., Harris, E., & Joymungul, Y. (2013). Price clustering in Australian water markets. Applied Economics,45, 677–685. CrossRef
Burdack, D., Biewald, A., & Lotze-Campen, H. (2014). Cap-and-trade of water rights: A sustainable way out of Australia’s rural water problems? GAIA Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society,23, 318–326. CrossRef
Burris, S., Drahos, P., & Shearing, C. (2005). Nodal governance. Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy,30, 30–58.
Carmody, E. (2013). The silence of the plan: Will the convention on biological diversity and the Ramsar Convention be implemented in the Murray-Darling Basin? Environmental Planning and Law Journal,30, 56–73.
Castree, N. (2010). Neoliberalism and the biophysical environment 2: Theorising the neoliberalisation of nature. Geography Compass,4, 1734–1746. CrossRef
Coase, R. (1960). The problem of social cost. Journal of Law and Economics,3, 1–44. CrossRef
Commonwealth of Australia. (2010). About Commonwealth environmental water. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from https://www.environment.gov.au/water/cewo/about-commonwealth-environmental-water.
Commonwealth of Australia. (2014). Report of the independent review of the Water Act 2007. Canberra: Australian Government.
Commonwealth of Australia. (2015). Our North, Our Future: White paper on developing Northern Australia. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Commonwealth of Australia. (2016). About commonwealth environmental water. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from https://www.environment.gov.au/water/cewo/about-commonwealth-environmental-water.
Connell, D., & Quentin Grafton, R. (Eds.). (2011). Basin futures. Acton: ANU E Press.
Convention on the Law of Non-Navigational Uses of International Watercourses, opened for signature 21 May 1997, UN Doc A/RES/51/229.
Cooper, B., Crase, L., & Pawsey, N. (2014). Best practice pricing principles and the politics of water pricing. Agricultural Water Management,145, 92–97. CrossRef
Council of Australian Governments (COAG). (1994). Council of Australian Governments’ Communiqué, 25 February 1994, Hobart. http://ncp.ncc.gov.au/docs/Council%20of%20Australian%20Governments%27%20Communique%20-%2025%20February%201994.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2017.
Council of Australian Governments. (2004). Intergovernmental agreement on a National Water Initiative signed 25 June 2004. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from http://www.nwc.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/24749/Intergovernmental-Agreement-on-a-national-water-initiative.pdf.
Cresswell, J., & Clark, V. P. (2011). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Los Angeles: Sage.
Curnow, P., & Fitzgerald, L. (2006). Biobanking in New South Wales: Legal issues in design and implementation of a biodiversity offsets and banking scheme. Environmental and Planning Law Journal,23, 298–308.
Cutting, R., & Cahoon, L. (2005). Thinking outside the box: Property rights as a key to environmental protection. Pace Environmental Law Review,22, 55–90.
Department of the Environment, Water Heritage and the Arts. (2009). National framework for non-urban water metering regulatory impact statement. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Department of Sustainability Environment Water Population and Communities. (2012). National framework for compliance and enforcement systems for water resources management. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia.
Dillman, D. (2007). Mail and internet surveys: The tailored design method. New York: Wiley.
Gardner, A., Barltett, R., & Gray, J. (2009). Water resources law. Chatswood: LexisNexis Butterworths.
Garrick, D., Whitten, S., & Coggan, A. (2013). Understanding the evolution and performance of water markets and allocation policy: A transaction costs analysis framework. Ecological Economics,88, 195–205. CrossRef
Godden, L. (2008). Property in urban water: Private rights and public governance. In P. Troy (Ed.), Troubled waters: Confronting the water crisis in Australia’s cities (pp. 157–185). Acton: ANU E Press.
Godden, L., & Foerster, A. (2011). Introduction: Institutional transitions and water law governance. Journal of Water Law,22, 53–57.
Godden, L., & Ison, R. (2010). From water supply to water governance. In M. Davis & M. Lyons (Eds.), More than luck: Ideas Australia needs now (pp. 177–184). Sydney: Centre for Policy Development.
Goesch, T., et al. (2011). The economic and social effects of the Murray-Darling Basin Plan: Recent research and next steps. Paper presented at the 41st Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences (ABARE) Outlook Conference, 1–2 March 2011.
Goulder, L., & Schein, A. (2013). Carbon taxes versus cap and trade: A critical review. Climate Change Economics,4, 1–28. CrossRef
Gómez-Baggethun, E., & Muradian, R. (2015). In markets we trust? Setting the boundaries of market-based instruments in ecosystem services governance. Ecological Economics,117, 217–224. CrossRef
Grafton, Q. R., & Horne, J. (2014). Water markets in the Murray-Darling Basin. Agricultural Water Management,145, 61–71. CrossRef
Grafton, Q. R., & Peterson, D. (2007). Water trading and pricing. In K. Hussey & S. Dovers (Eds.), Managing water for Australia: The social and institutional challenges (pp. 73–84). Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing.
Gross, C. (2011). Why justice is important. In D. Connell & R. Q. Grafton (Eds.), Basin futures (149–162). Acton: ANU E Press.
Gunningham, N., Holley, C., & Shearing, C. (2011). The new environmental governance. New York: Earthscan.
Gunningham, N., Grabosky, P., & Sinclair, D. (1998). Smart regulation: Designing environmental policy. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gunningham, N., & Sinclair, D. (2004). Non-point pollution, voluntarism and policy failure: Lessons from the swan-canning. Environmental and Planning Law Journal,21, 93–104.
Hamblin, A. (2009). Policy directions for agricultural land use in Australia and other post-industrial economies. Land Use Policy,26, 1195–1204. CrossRef
Hamstead, M. (2011). Improving water planning processes: Priorities for the next five years. In D. Connell & R. Q. Grafton (Eds.), Basin futures (pp. 339–350). Canberra: ANU EPress.
Hayek, F. (1945). The use of knowledge in society. American Economic Review,35, 519–530.
Holley, C., & Sinclair, D. (2013a). Compliance and enforcement of water licences in NSW: Limitations in law, policy and institutions. Australasian Journal of National Resources,15, 149–189.
Holley, C., & Sinclair, D. (2013b). Non-urban water metering policy: Water users’ views on metering and metering upgrades in NSW. Australasian Journal of Natural Resources,16, 101–131.
Holley, C., & Sinclair, D. (2014). A new water policy option for Australia? Collaborative water governance, compliance and enforcement and audited self-management. Australasian Journal of National Resources Law and Policy,17, 189–216.
Holley, C., & Sinclair, D. (2015). Water Extraction in NSW: Stakeholder Views and Experience of Compliance and Enforcement (UNSW Connected Waters Initiative Research Centre, Feb 2015), http://www.connectedwaters.unsw.edu.au/sites/all/files/Water-extraction-in-NSW-stakeholder-views-of-compliance-and-enforcement-survey-report.pdf.
Howes, R., Skea, J., & Whelan, B. (1997). Clean and competitive: Motivating environmental performance in industry. New York: Earthscan.
ICM Agriculture Pty Ltd & Ors v The Commonwealth Of Australia & Ors (2009) HCA 51.
Jackson, S., Tan, P.-L., Mooney, C., Hoverman, S., & White, I. (2012). Principles and guidelines for good practice in Indigenous engagement in water planning. Journal of Hydrology,474, 57–65. CrossRef
Karkkainen, B., Fung, A., & Sabel, C. (2000). After backyard environmentalism. American Behavioural Scientist,44, 692–711. CrossRef
Kiem, A. (2013). Drought and water policy in Australia: Challenges for the future illustrated by the issues associated with water trading and climate change adaptation in the Murray-Darling Basin. Global Environmental Change,23, 1615–1626. CrossRef
Krogh, M., Dorani, F., Foulsham, E., McSorley, A., & Hoey, D. (2013). Hunter catchment salinity assessment. Sydney: Environmental Protection Authority.
Lavau, S. (2013). Going with the flow: Sustainable water management as ontological cleaving. Environmental Planning D Society and Space,31, 416–433. CrossRef
Liverman, D. (2004). Who governs, at what scale and at what price? Geography, environmental governance and the commodification of nature. Annals of the Association of American Geographers,94, 734–738.
Matthews, K. (2017). Independent investigation into NSW water management and compliance—final report. Retrieved December 3, 2017, from https://www.industry.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0019/131905/Matthews-final-report-NSW-water-management-and-compliance.pdf.
McKay, C., & Gardner, A. (2013). Water accounting information and confidentiality in Australia. Federal Law Review,41, 127–162. CrossRef
McKibbin, W., & Wilcoxen, P. (2002). The role of economics in climate change policy. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 16, 107–129. CrossRef
Millar, I. (2005). Testing the waters: Legal challenges to water sharing plans in NSW. Paper presented at the ‘Water Law in Western Australia’ Conference 8 July 2005.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2014a). Handbook for practitioners: Water resource plan requirements. Canberra: Murray-Darling Basin Authority.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2014b). Murray-Darling Basin Authority annual report 2013–2014. Retrieved December 1, 2017, from https://www.mdba.gov.au/sites/default/files/pubs/Annual-Report-2013-14-MDBA.pdf.
Murray-Darling Basin Authority. (2017). The Murray-Darling Basin water compliance review. Retrieved December 1, 2017, from https://www.mdba.gov.au/sites/default/files/pubs/MDB-Compliance-Review-Final-Report.pdf.
National Water Commission (Abolition) Act 2015 (Cth).
National Water Commission. (2011). Water markets in Australia: A short history. Canberra: National Water Commission.
National Water Commission. (2010). The impacts of water trading in the southern Murray–Darling Basin: An economic, social and environmental assessment. Retrieved December 1, 2017, from http://webarchive.nla.gov.au/gov/20160615080824/; http://archive.nwc.gov.au/library/topic/rural/impacts-of-water-trading-in-the-southern-murray-darling-basin.
National Water Commission. (2013). Australian water markets: Trends and drivers 2007–08 to 2012–13. Retrieved March 27, 2017, from http://webarchive.nla.gov.au/gov/20140604112129/; http://www.nwc.gov.au/publications/topic/water-industry/trends-and-drivers-2012-13/section-2.
National Water Commission. (2014a). Australia’s water blueprint: National reform assessment 2014–Part one. Canberra: National Water Commission.
National Water Commission. (2014b). Water for mining and unconventional gas under the National Water Initiative. Canberra: National Water Commission.
Nikolakis, W., Quentin Grafton, R., & To, H. (2013). Indigenous values and water markets: Survey insights from northern Australia. Journal of Hydrology,500, 12–20. CrossRef
NSW Environment Defenders Office. (2010). Water management–Submissions. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from http://www.edonsw.org.au/water_management_policy.
NSW Irrigators’ Council. Submissions. (2017). Retrieved June 18, 2017, from http://www.nswic.org.au/news_submissions.shtml.
NSW Office of Water. (2010). NSW sustaining the Basin Program: Metering project socio economic assessment. Sydney: NSW Government.
NSW Office of Water. (2015a). NSW water take measurement Strategy–Water take measurement in NSW: A way forward. Discussion Paper, NSW Department of Primary Industries, July 2015.
NSW Office of Water. (2015b). Compliance policy. NSW Department of Primary Industries Office of Water. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from http://www.water.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/560192/compliance_policy_2015.pdf.
Parliament of Australia. (2012). The Murray Darling Basin Plan–Role of the Committee. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from http://www.aph.gov.au/Parliamentary_Business/Committees/Senate/Murray_Darling_Basin_Plan/Role_of_the_Committee.
Parsons, R., Lacey, J., & Moffatt, K. (2014). Maintaining legitimacy of a contested practice: How the minerals industry understands its ‘social licence to operate’. Resource Policy,41, 83–90. CrossRef
Raft, S., & Hillis, G. (2010). NSW sustaining the Basin Program: NSW metering project business case. Sydney: NSW Office of Water.
Rittel, H., & Webber, M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences,4, 155–169. CrossRef
Roma, A. (2006). Energy, money and pollution. Ecological Economics,56, 534–545. CrossRef
Rubenstein, N., Wallis, P., Ison, R., & Godden, L. (2010). Strengthening water governance in Australia. Briefing Paper National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility.
Shearing, C. (1993). A constitutive conception of regulation. In P. Grabosky & J. Braithwaite (Eds.), Business regulation and Australia’s future (pp. 67–80). Canberra: Australian Institute of Criminology.
Skurray, J., Pandit, R., & Pannell, D. (2013). Institutional impediments to groundwater trading: The case of the Gnangara groundwater system of Western Australia. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management,56, 1046–1072. CrossRef
Stavins, R. (1998). What can we learn from the grand policy experiment? Lessons from S02 Allowance Trading. Journal of Economic Perspectives,12, 69–88. CrossRef
Steffen, Will. (2015). Thirsty country: Climate change and drought in Australia. Climate Council of Australia.
Tan, P.-L., Bowmer, K., & Baldwin, C. (2012). Continued challenges in the policy and legal framework for collaborative water planning. Journal of Hydrology,474, 84–91. CrossRef
United Nations Environment Program. (2012). Global environment outlook 5. Retrieved June 18, 2017, from http://www.unep.org/geo/pdfs/geo5/GEO5-Global_PR_EN.pdf.
Water Act 2007 (Cth).
Water Charge (Termination Fees) Rules 2009 (Cth).
Water Market Rules 2009 (Cth).
Wei, Y., Langford, J., Willett, I. R., Barlow, S., & Lyle, C. (2011). Is irrigated agriculture in the Murray Darling Basin well prepared to deal with reductions in water availability? Global Environmental Change,21, 906–916. CrossRef
Wentworth Group of Concerned Scientists. (2017). Review of water reform in the Murray-Darling Basin. Retrieved December 1, 2017, from http://wentworthgroup.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/Wentworth-Group-Review-of-water-reform-in-MDB-Nov-2017.pdf.
Wheeler, S., Zuo, A., & Hughes, N. (2014a). The impact of water ownership and water market trade strategy on Australian irrigators’ farm viability. Agricultural Systems,129, 81–92. CrossRef
Wheeler, S., Loch, A., Zuo, A., & Bjornlund, H. (2014b). Reviewing the adoption and impact of water markets in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. Journal of Hydrology,518, 28–41. CrossRef
Wheeler, S., Zuo, A., & Bjornlund, H. (2014c). Investigating the delayed on-farm consequences of selling water entitlements in the Murray-Darling Basin. Agriculture Water Management,145, 72–82. CrossRef
Whitehead, I. (2014). Better protection or pure politics? Evaluating the ‘water trigger’ amendment to the EPBC Act. Australian Environmental Law Digest,1, 23–36.
World Meteorological Organization, ‘Development Issues for the 21st Century: the Dublin Statement and Report of the Conference’ (Report of the International Conference on Water and Development, Dublin Ireland, 26–31 January 1992).
- Water Markets and Regulation: Implementation, Successes and Limitations
- Springer Singapore
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Neuer Inhalt/© julien tromeur | Fotolia