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Water pollution is an emerging challenge in developing countries like India, which try to achieve rapid economic development without adequate/effective environmental management facilities. In recent years, the pollution load discharged by different sectors (domestic, industrial and agriculture) has increased, some times beyond the carrying/assimilative capacity of the environment. Fresh water sources (rivers, lakes and aquifers) are one of the major victims of pollution, whose impact on health and livelihood of millions of poor people is critical, besides the physical deterioration of the aquatic ecosystem. Hence, pollution hampers development in a significant manner. Though various pollution management measures have been attempted over a period of time, significant progress has not been achieved. In this regard, a more realistic and integrated approach (with emphasis on appropriate water pollution policies, strict enforcement, multi-stakeholders’ initiatives and cooperation, affordable technology development and application of economic instruments) needs to be implemented.
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- Water Pollution: Extent, Impact, and Abatement
- Chapter 8
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