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Über dieses Buch

The book is a compilation of the papers presented in the International Conference on Emerging Trends in Water Resources and Environmental Engineering (ETWREE 2017). The high quality papers are written by research scholars and academicians of prestigious institutes across India. The book discusses the challenges of water management due to misuse or abuse of water resources and the ever mounting challenges on use, reuse and conservation of water. It also discusses issues of water resources such as water quantity, quality, management and planning for the benefits of water resource scientists, faculties, policy makers, stake holders working in the water resources planning and management. The research content discussed in the book will be helpful for engineers to solve practical day to day problems related to water and environmental engineering.



What Constitutes a Fair and Equitable Water Apportionment?

Water has been a source of conflict since time immemorial. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed for solving such conflicts but multiplicity of water uses and users along with self-serving definition of equitable, makes dispute resolution challenging. Doctrines advocating water appropriation based on the notion of equity and fairness are intuitively appealing. However, subjectivity of this concept impedes their translation to universal principles for water allocation as fairness quotient of any mechanism is determined unitedly by gamut of diverse factors. Thus, the present study critically reviews the connotations of equity and equality to arrive at a procedurally and distributionally just apportionment policy for real-world water conflicts. It seeks an equal opportunity paradigm for deservedness-based resource distribution that could be unanimously amenable to all stakeholders. The study is very apposite as there is a lurking fear of heightened water conflicts that could have bitter socio-political ramifications.
Himanshu Tyagi, A. K. Gosain, Rakesh Khosa

Impact of Anthropogenic Interventions on the Vembanad Lake System

Estuarine and coastal zone processes have always been topic of research due to their being prime centers of rich resources like diverse habitat and natural beauty. Other than ecological reasons these aquatic bodies act as important economic centers, tourist places, serve in navigational purposes, and fishing. One of the India’s most valued natural sites is the Vembanad Lake and estuarine system that lies on the western coast in the state of Kerala. This natural system, which comprises the lake, the Kuttanad wetland region and the Cochin estuary, is included in the Ramsar list of important wetland sites. Six major rivers, namely, Periyar, Muvattupuzha, Pamba, Manimala, Meenachil, and Achenkovil contribute to the system. The whole system has been vastly modified throughout the last couple of centuries owing to sedimentation and human-driven factors. On the other hand, there has been constant reclamation of the low-lying areas on the periphery of the lake and the wetlands, leading to reduction in the spread area. The special characteristics of these lands that lie to the east of the lake is that the ground level is lower than the lake water level. Therefore, the lake water easily serves for irrigational purpose in these adjacent lands. According to tentative proposals in the recent years it was intended to make further developments in the catchment areas for various purposes. The present paper takes a modeling approach to find out what would be the possible impact on the lake water profile as well as salinity/solute concentration if these proposals are implemented. The study has been carried out using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling software MIKE 21 with HD and AD modules. The results from the hydrodynamic model of the lake, although not fully representative, show that the lake water levels and salinity might face quantitatively relevant changes which can pose a threat to the natural environment.
Raktim Haldar, Rakesh Khosa, A. K. Gosain

Impact of Urbanization on Surface Runoff Characteristics at Catchment Scale

Increase in population and rapid urbanization are two main challenges to urban water management, especially for cities in developing countries like India. The assessment of changes in catchment surface runoff due to urbanization is critical for water resource planning and management. Uncertainty in rainfall and changing landuse pattern results from urbanization is difficult to correlate with present changing surface runoff conditions. This study has shown an approach to find a relation between these three by using a statistical term dynamic degree with application of the well-established tool, Curve Number (SCS-CN) method to observe surface runoff over the study area in conjunction with Geographic information system and remote sensing. This study assesses changes in runoff characteristics of Raipur catchment which has been delineated from a smallest sub-basin of Mahanadi River in Chhattisgarh, India. Pixel-based Runoff depth of each sub-catchment was estimated by incorporating digital elevation model, rainfall data, and Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) information for the years 1971–2015. Spatio-temporal variation in each sub-catchment has been computed and significant change in runoff has been observed. The motivation of this study aims to understand and to study the changing nature of urban growth pattern/sprawl, to quantify surface imperviousness and changes in surface runoff characteristics.
Manish Kumar Sinha, Triambak Baghel, Klaus Baier, Mukesh Kumar Verma, Ramakar Jha, Rafig Azzam

Special Considerations for Design of Storm Water Drainage System—A Case Study

Urban Floods are becoming more frequent owing to the lack of proper storm water drains. In this paper we discuss some of the important design features that need to be considered for design of storm water drainage system using a real-world case study. The flood events during September–December 2010 in the southern side of the Visakhapatnam city (INDIA) were considered. The recommendations are evolved through ground reconnaissance survey, hydro-meteorological and hydrological studies.
Kuppili Rajeswara Rao, Ponnada Markandeya Raju

Estimation of Reservoir Storage Using Artificial Neural Network (ANN)

The rapid growth in population increases water demand thus resulting in scarcity of water which is due to improper management rather than lack of resources. Reservoir is the most important source for surface water. So, reservoir storage plays a crucial role in efficient reservoir management. Artificial neural network (ANN) is capable of simulating reservoir storage capacity. So, in the present work five different feed forward back propagation ANN models by varying number of hidden layer neurons were developed for estimation of Harangi reservoir storage, Karnataka, India. The first 2 years (2010–12) data was used for supervised training and remaining data (2013–14) was used in prediction. The predictive accuracy using the statistical parameters like correlation coefficient (R) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were found within the acceptable limit. Result shows that, ANN model with five hidden neurons (i.e., network architecture of 6-5-1) is performing well compared to all other models for prediction of reservoir storage estimation.
P. Satish, H. Ramesh

Sediment Distribution Pattern Studies for Thandava and Konam Reservoirs in Visakhapatnam District

The life of any reservoir gets reduced due to deposition of sediment over a period. It is necessary in all reservoir operation plans to know the exact volume of water left after the sediment settles. Keeping this in view, two reservoirs in the Visakhapatnam district of state of Andhra Pradesh, viz; Thandava and Konam reservoirs have been selected. The main object of the present study is to identify the particular suitable theoretical method to predict sediment distribution pattern for selected catchments by comparing with the hydrographic survey results. Literature review has enabled the identification of two methods for determining the sediment distribution pattern. These methods are (a) Area-Increment Method (b) Empirical Area-Reduction Method. This exercise enables the identification of a suitable method for obtaining the sediment distribution in these reservoirs. Finally with the help of the method suitable for each of the selected reservoirs the current capacity (corresponding to year 2017) of the reservoirs is obtained.
J. Rangaiah, P. Udaya Bhaskar, V. Mallikarjuna

Geospatial Data Requirements, Software, and Analysis for the Study of Floods in Urban Catchments

High intense rainfall due to rapid change in climate creates abnormal threat to engineers and city planners throughout the world and resulting urban areas being inundated from hours to days. This results in damage to infrastructure, public, and risk of epidemics. The recent floods in Mumbai and Chennai are some incitements to the public and government. Geospatial technology in conjunction with Remote Sensing plays an important role in flood modeling and mitigation analysis. Geospatial data serves as an input for hydraulic simulation and thereby the simulated results can further transferred back to GIS system for real world graphical representation of the potential flood vulnerability zones. There are many GIS, satellite data processing and hydraulic simulation tools/software is available in the industry. This article highlights the advantage of using a combination of open source software to arrive the objectives of flood hazard mapping and modeling.
Ch. Ramesh Naidu

A Review on Stability of Caisson Breakwater

A Breakwater can be designed for several different purposes; the basic function of such kind breakwater is to protect the water region against waves. It provides a tranquility condition for ships to navigate, moor, and for cargo handling. These vertical structures (caisson) are more economical compared to the rubble mound breakwater, especially in deeper water depths. There is a demand to expand existing ports or to make them more profound, to provide a sufficient tranquil harbor basin in deep-water due to increasing draught of large vessels. The material required for rubble mound breakwaters increase quadratic with depth, but the volume of the caisson is less than that needed for a rubble mound breakwater because the latter increases with the square of water depth. This paper concerned the previous design and failure mechanism on caisson breakwater and highlights the future studies for such kind of breakwater.
Ajay Bhargav Gedda, Manu, Subba Rao

Application of Foam and Sand as Dual Media Filter for Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting System

This paper discussed the application of foam and sand as dual media filter for rooftop rainwater harvesting system for any residential or commercial building. The area selected for analysis is the new girl’s hostel building of VNIT Nagpur campus. A rooftop rainwater harvesting system is proposed using foam and sand as dual media for filtration and various tests are performed and results are find to provide solution to water scarcity and sustainable use of water for future.
Shilpa Mishra, A. R. Tembhurkar

Comparison of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity Methods for Sandy Loam Soil with Different Land Uses

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is a quantitative measure of saturated soil properties and it is essential for designing irrigation, drainage and waste water systems, modelling studies for understanding and prediting rates of infiltration, runoff, erosion, seepage, upflux, solute transport and migration of pollutant to groundwater. However, the accuracy of Ks is highly dependent on the method used, soil and surface characteristics. The objective of the study was to compare Ks methods such as two in situ [Double ring infiltrometer (DRI), air entry permeameter (AEP)] and one pedotransfer function (PTF) based methods for four different land uses such as paddy field (PADF), mango field (MANF), cashew field (CASF) and playground (PLAG). The Ks obtained from the DRI, AEP and PTF methods were used to study the effect of the method and land use on Ks and suitability of a method for a land use. It was observed that the measured Ks data using AEP and DRI of different land uses follow a log-normal distribution. The mean Ks were significantly different for both measuring technique and the land use. The AEP resulted highest (2.64 mm/h) and PTF lowest (1.59 mm/h) values of Ks, respectively for all land uses, whereas the Ks was highest (2.47 mm/h) and lowest (1.75 mm/h) for the land uses CASF and PLAG, respectively. For all land uses, the mean Ks were highest for AEP followed by DRI, and PTF methods. The order of Ks obtained for the land uses were CASF (2.51 mm/h), MANF (1.87 mm/h), PADF (1.82 mm/h) and PLAG (1.71 mm/h). Spatial variability of Ks was observed for DRI method and the land use PLAG. The selection of best suitable method for a particular situation can be obtained by optimizing the interdependent parameters, including method to be used, accuracy in instrument and measurement methods, soil condition and the numbers of practical constraints of the investigation (e.g., cost, availability of manpower, time requirement, portability of estimate, simplicity in measuring technique, operating condition).
Aminul Islam, D. R. Mailapalli, Anuradha Behera

A Study on Assessment of Groundwater Quality at Certain Industrial Zones in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh

The present work aims at the evaluation of groundwater quality at certain industrial areas in and around Bharat Heavy Electrical Limited (BHPV), Natural Thermal Power Corporation Ltd. (NTPC) and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Ltd. (HPCL) in Visakhapatnam city, Andhra Pradesh. Ground water samples are collected from all the three industrial zones and subjected to physico-chemical analysis for various parameters such as pH, Turbidity, Conductivity, Total Acidity, Total Hardness, Chlorides using standards of APHA. Water Quality Index is calculated by using the popular NSFWQI method and the quality of the water is rated as unfit for drinking. The data is subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS 20.0 software. The statistical methods used for the data analysis are Cluster Analysis and Factor Analysis. Based on the WQI and Statistical analysis, the contamination is observed due to the presence of excess amounts of hardness and chlorides.
P. V. R. Sravya, T. P. Sreejani, G. V. R. Srinivasa Rao

1D and 2D Electrical Resistivity Investigations to Identify Potential Groundwater Resources in the Hard Rock Aquifers

Hard rock aquifers develop significant groundwater potentials under favorable secondary porosity such as in fracture and fissures. However, identification of those zones is difficult due to their hydrogeological heterogeneities. The electrical resistivity methods are promising tools to identify the potential groundwater zones. In the present study, 1D and 2D electrical resistivity methods in the form of vertical electrical resistivity (VES) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) have been deployed for identifying potential groundwater zones in the Koppal district, Karnataka. The comparison of 1D and 2D resistivity results indicated that top soil, weathering zone, fissured and fractured zone and hard rock possessing resistivity values respectively <23, <230, <400 and >2000 ohm m. The low resistivity value <490 ohm m below hard rock in the area indicates the possibility of fracture zone underlying the hard rock. The weathered and fissured zone of 30 m thick is identified by a resistivity range of ~80 ohm m indicates a good groundwater potential in the study area. The location having weathering thickness of 10–20 m has been recommended for bore well drilling in the study which may yield about 200 m3/day.
L. Surinaidu

Evaluation of Utilization of Wavelet Denoising Approach in Calibration of Hydrological Models

Hydrological modeling can be very useful in studying the hydrology of the system and managing the water resources of the system in a sustainable way. Calibration of the hydrological model is an important step in model development and application. Calibration becomes difficult particularly when the input variables of the model is of poor quality and contaminated with noise. In order to improve the calibration and aid in modeling, denoising of the data has been used in past. In this study, a hydrological model for the Wainganga basin, India using SWAT coupled with wavelet denoising is developed. The model performance of the wavelet coupled SWAT model is compared with the simple SWAT model. For the purpose of the model calibration 8 years were used and the model validation was done using 3 years of data. The results from the study show that the wavelet-based denoising significantly improved the model performance and also aided model calibration.
Maheswaran Rathinasamy, Akash Choudary, Anuj Jaiswal

Hydrogeophysics and Numerical Solute Transport Modelling Techniques for Environmental Impact Assessment

The present study is carried out to assess the impact of upcoming Aluminium industry impact on groundwater quality. Hydrogeological, electrical resistivity tomography and numerical solute transport modelling techniques are deployed to understand aquifer nature and anticipated transport of contaminants impact on groundwater quality from the proposed red mud pond in the Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. The hydrogeological results revealed that the area possesses low infiltration rate that is range from 1.26 to 5.68 cm/h with moderated hydraulic conductivity range from 3.5 to 5.6 m/day. The groundwater quality is in good health within the range of drinking water standards of WHO/BIS. Geophysical data analysis revealed that weathered zone thickness range from 10 to 25 m from the surface to subsurface then it is underlain by fissured/fracture layer of 5–10 m thick followed by hard rock. The numerical solute transport modelling predicted that there would not be any significant increase in TDS concentration for next 50 years outside of the upcoming red mud pond under the observed hydrogeological conditions of the year 2009 and the range of assumed dynamic loading of pollution in terms of TDS. The techniques can be utilized to select the suitable site for waste disposals and impact assessment of existing contaminant source on groundwater.
L. Surinaidu, V. V. S. Gurunadha Rao, Y. R. Satyaji Rao

Poor Storm Water Drainage and Stripping on a Stretch of NH-1

Improper drainage facilities on a road can cause failure of its pavement. Accumulation of water on roads during monsoon/rains causes inconvenient and retarded traffic movement. It can result in loss of adhesive bond between aggregate and bitumen on the road surface resulting into stripping and threatens the durability of roads. Proper drainage system with adequate section of storm water drains can ensure the safety against above aspects. In this paper effect of poor drainage system on road pavement and adequacy of storm water drain on a stretch of NH-1 has been studied. It is found that the size/capacity of drain is sufficient but it is not able to drain the water due to poor maintenance of drains and adverse slope of the ground between drain and the road. It is also found that stripping value of bituminous mix increases with the increase in immersion time of aggregate in water.
Gourav Goel, S. N. Sachdeva

MATLAB Code for Linking Genetic Algorithm and EPANET for Reliability Based Optimal Design of a Water Distribution Network

Many researchers have developed different approaches for optimal design of water supply pipe networks. But, none of them provide a detailed coding for design procedure involved. Students and young researchers who are working in field of water distribution networks generally spend their valuable time searching for the procedure to link up Genetic Algorithm (GA) and EPANET. Therefore, in order to facilitate the young researchers and students, a detailed design procedure using EPANET solver with Genetic Algorithms in the MATLAB for reliability-based optimal design of water supply pipe networks is developed and presented in this paper with a case study.
S. Chandramouli

Regime-Wise Genetic Programming Model for Improved Streamflow Forecasting

Forecasting of stream flow plays a vital role in flood forecasting studies, design, and operation of reservoirs. Several approaches such as physical models, conceptual models and statistical/black-box models are used to model complex uncertain peak flows in rivers. In the past, Genetic Programming (GP) have been a widely used for different hydrological applications. In this study we propose a regime-wise genetic programming model for efficient forecasting of streamflow during peak flows. In this approach, we first classify the flows into three regimes such as low, med and high based on their flow magnitude and develop separate GP models. The proposed approach was applied to a case study from Godavari River Basin, India. The results obtained show that the proposed approach of separate models for high flows performs better than the single model for all regimes.
K. Bhavita, D. Swathi, J. Manideep, D. Sree Sandeep, Maheswaran Rathinasamy


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