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2022 | Buch

Water Resources Management and Sustainability

herausgegeben von: Dr. Pankaj Kumar, Dr. Gaurav Kant Nigam, Manish Kumar Sinha, Dr. Anju Singh

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe : Advances in Geographical and Environmental Sciences


Über dieses Buch

Water is the elixir of life and is crucial for sustainable development. Earlier, it was considered to be a limitless or at least a fully renewable natural resource. During the past 20 years, however, there has been tremendous pressure on this precious natural resource mainly due to rapid urbanization, industrialization and the increase in the human population. Together, these have resulted in increasing demand for irrigation, industrial, and household purposes to meet supply-chain requirements. Keeping in mind the scarcity of available water resources in the near future and its impending threats, it has become imperative on the part of scientists in hydrology and allied disciplines such as geography, landscape planning, sustainability science etc. Regional planners and supply chain management experts also must be involved in studying the spatial and temporal nature of the growing demand for water and the future availability for its judicial use and sustainable management.
A primary intent of the book is to provide comprehensive scientific knowledge base on water resource management and sustainability. It covers geo-engineering and scientific problems, case studies, and sustainable solutions in the water resources management domain. Additionally and of equal importance, the chapters of the book provide in-depth coverage on water resource vulnerability, water quality, wastewater treatment, application of remote sensing and geographical information systems hydrological modeling and harvesting, climate variability and runoff, sediment discharge and irrigation planning, community participation in water governance, internet of things and machine learning applications for sustainable water resources management.
This practical, state-of-the-art reference book is a valuable resource for students, researchers, scientists, policymakers, spatio-temporal designers of water resource systems, various stake holders interested in hydro-climatology and sustainable water resources management.


Chapter 1. Water Resources, Livelihood Vulnerability and Management in Rural Desert Communities of Jaisalmer, India
Water is the lifeblood of natural life on our planet. Climate change and augmented use of the resource has goaded it to scarcity. Given its dearth, it is imperative to understand how water can be managed in order to sustain human populations. The concept, need and various approaches to manage water sustainably have been incorporated in this chapter. An empirical case study using mixed methods of research has been delivered to illustrate the Livelihood Vulnerability Index (LVI) of rural communities in the desert region of Jaisalmer, with special attention to vulnerability of people in terms of water. The LVI is constructed by using IPCC’s 3 major dimensions: exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Seven major components and 42 sub-components have been included to conduct this research. Various local water management practices applied by the rural desert communities to sustain water have been briefly covered. Primary data collection through household and group surveys indicates how vulnerable these communities are present which indicates how their condition could worsen in the coming decades. Suggestions have been drawn to help ease the plight.
Pankaj Kumar, Shreya Ojha, Gaurav Kant Nigam, Anju Singh, Manish Kumar Sinha
Chapter 2. Mining Related PCB in Wetland Sediments of the River Lippe (North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany)
This study aims to detect PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) and their distribution in river sediments of the river Lippe near a discharge point of mine drainage water raised from the coalmine Haus Aden. Recommendations from former literature studies, European and German-Industry-Standards (DIN) standards were followed to conduct a reproducible field study. The sampling, processing, and analysis of the sediment and core samples were delineated in detail explored in order to open up a new discussion about the methodical execution of environmental examinations of PCB. The results show that the normally executed standardization processes to interpret PCB concentrations do not work as assumed. This refers especially to the normalization of the content of organic carbon in the sediment. The heterogeneity of observed concentrations dominates and the concentration fluctuates enormously instead of following an often-described correlation between PCB and organic carbon or the percentage of fine grain. Congener profiles, which show the amounts of the six indicator congeners, do not show an obvious trend or indicate one corresponding contamination source. The findings invoke a new debate and examinations concerning deposition and adsorption processes of PCB in sediments, especially against the background of flooding the derelict mines of the Ruhr district in the coming decades.
Sarah Ohlemacher, Claudia Post, Klaus Baier
Chapter 3. Wastewater Treatment Plants Advantage to Combat Climate Change and Help Sustainable Water Management
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) can provide water and nutrients for plant growth for small scale agricultural farming. Cultivation is possible if the parameters in wastewater treatment plants are available within the usable range. The waste treatment plants use wastewater mainly originating from underground, which is less affected by climate change than surface water and can be used for several purposes even during climate change. This chapter aims to assess the characteristics of treated wastewater at waste treatment plants and discuss its possibility to use the water, surrounding space and nutrients for small scale agricultural purposes. We assessed systematically the worldwide open sources works and use selected four wastewater treatment plants data of Kumamoto city of Japan. The previous results and our data analysis of the pollutant load per capita to the plant and pollutant discharge per capita from the plant showed that all plants are efficiently reduced the pollutants loads. Still, there are variations in nitrogen and phosphorous concentration in the final effluent discharge. On that basis, we found that the treated water is useful for agricultural purposes, and moreover, the nitrates and phosphate values released by all plants are adequate to cultivate microalgae.
Kapilkumar Nivrutti Ingle, Mulugeta Chanie Fenta, Koichi Harada, Akash Sopan Ingle, Atsushi Ueda
Chapter 4. Assessment of Community Participation in Water Governance in the Wassa Amenfi East District of the Western Region, Ghana
This paper investigates the effectiveness of water governance at the local level using selected communities in the Wassa Amenfi East District of Ghana as a case study. Descriptive design was employed and eighty (80) respondents were selected by purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Interview guide and questionnaire were used in collecting data. Results indicate that chiefs and the traditional set up (informal actors) are the main architects involved in water governance in the selected communities and traditional management practices such as taboos and cultural practices were employed and considered effective and sustainable. Local decisions on water utilization were shaped by traditional or bottom-up water management principles with little or no assistance from the Government. The study, therefore, recommends awareness campaigns on the policy and the legal framework regulating access and control of water resources. This will ensure sustainable utilization and management of water resources. Traditional water management approaches should be evaluated, documented and used to complement scientific water resources management regimes.
Kofi Adu-Boahen, Ishmael Yaw Dadson, Faustina Ankomah, Sender Kyeremeh
Chapter 5. Impact of Evaporation Losses from On-Farm Reservoirs on the Economics of the Farming System
This study explored the change in farm economics when evaporation losses (EL) from on-farm reservoir (OFR) were saved. A generic framework was developed wherein water balance simulations of soil and OFR was integrated with multi-stage mathematical programming. Five scenarios of EL in different sizes of OFR were created to access the change in irrigation potential. For a study system, the simulation results suggested that the conservation of EL would enable more options for production plans, scope of crop diversification and an improvement in farm income. Moreover, if 100% EL were saved, the volume of water available for one season of Rabi cultivation increased by 280 m3, 468 m3 and 704 m3 while income increased by INR 15,200, INR 25,900 and INR 32,600 for OFR size 400 m2, 625 m2 and 900 m2 respectively. The framework and results are useful for farmers and government agencies to plan water resources at farm level.
Aniket Deo, Amit Arora, Subhankar Karmakar
Chapter 6. Estimating Sediment Rate Through Stage-Discharge Rating Curve for Two Mountain Streams in Sikkim, India
Sediment transport in streams is associated with a wide variety of environmental and engineering issues. Rates of sediment discharge are related to the sources, transport, and storage of sediment and erosion hazards within a watershed, which are related to the tectonic regime, climate, land cover, land use, and river setting. In the present study, an attempt has been made to estimate the rates of sedimentation in two tributaries Ranikhola and Busuk-khola of the Teesta River in Sikkim, India. The river water sampling was done on weekly basis for monsoon months, and suspended sediment concentration was estimated. To obtain rates of sedimentation, river discharge is required. For this purpose, a stage-discharge rating curve was developed by measuring flow discharge (Q) using standard current meter method, whereas stage (h) obtained by automatic water level recorder. The developed stage-discharge rating curve equations h = 1.8196 Q0.168 (Ranikhola) and h = 1.9184 Q0.156 (Busuk-khola) are useful for computing flow discharge from the river stages that will aid in the estimation of sediment discharge in the rivers. The result shows that the total sediment load in the Ranikhola and Busuk-khola rivers was ranged between 18.00–4071.51 and 1.92–603.73 tonnes per day, respectively.
Sonu Kumar, Santosh Rangrao Yadav, Triambak Baghel
Chapter 7. Relative Contribution of Climate Variables on Long-Term Runoff Using Budyko Framework
Climate change and anthropogenic activities and their intensification have unprecedented alterations to hydrological cycle. The quantification of relative contribution of climate variable and vegetation changes to streamflow alteration is essential for water resources sustainability and management, but also challenging. The purpose of this study is to assess the relative contribution of climate variables and their effects on long-term annual runoff using Budyko framework induced by climate change. The result exhibits that the snow ratio has decreased, but this does not influence the annual runoff significantly as compared to precipitation, but region may receive less precipitation as snowfall in future. Precipitation is the major factor that affects the runoff changes with the ranges of 2–19% over the region. The study highlights that the change in precipitation can affect the temporal variation of intra-annual runoff, which can cause the increase in chance of flood disasters in spring season and water crises in summer.
Uttam Puri Goswami, Manish Kumar Goyal
Chapter 8. Irrigation Planning with Fuzzy Parametric Programming Approach
The present book chapter deals with tackling of uncertainty and vagueness involved in the irrigation planning problem with the concept of sustainability. Multi Objective Fuzzy Linear Programming (MOFLP) models have been developed using Fuzzy Parametric Programming (FPP) approach and applied it to the case study of Jayakwadi Project Stage-I, Maharashtra State, India. The various objectives such as NB, CP, EG, and MU, which are maximized. The involvement of Decision Maker (DM) is permitted in the proposed model to handle the fuzziness in the resources, technological coefficients, and coefficients of objective function. The results of the study show that the level of satisfaction (λ) is maximum when the precision level (µ) is minimum and vice versa. It is also seen that for each level of precision which is varying from 0 to 1 with an interval of 0.1, the aggregated level of satisfaction (λ) is above 68%. The obtained results help to provide insight into various alternative optimal cropping patterns with different degree of precision and allow the DM to take judicious decision(s) in the context of the socio-economic development of a particular region.
J. B. Gurav, R. U. Kamodkar, D. G. Regulwar
Chapter 9. Application of High Resolution Hydrological and Hydraulic Models for Sustainable Water Resources Management
Rapidly declining water quality in India has become a major cause of concern, with several sources citing the country’s water quality among the poorest across the globe. A framework is needed to reverse the situation. The approach presented here would involve collecting very fine resolution data using state of the art technologies such as remote sensing from satellites and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology supplemented by locally placed sensors or from sensors mounted and flown on drones. Hydrological and hydraulic models need to be developed to generate flow paths and pollutant flows. High resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEM) need to be developed using input from remote sensing data. Flow monitoring plan and rainfall measurement methodologies will be developed as a part of this approach. The primary goal is to develop framework that allow urban water managers to reinstate water quality of rivers as they leave an urban centre to the same (or better) state as compared to the water quality with which they entered the area.
Sangameswaran Shyamprasad
Chapter 10. Development of a Three-Dimensional Mathematical Groundwater Flow Model in Raipur City Area, Chhattisgarh, India
Groundwater is one of the most important natural resources. In the current situation, it is important to consider the condition of groundwater to suggest a proper exploration pattern and management strategy to fulfill the need of society without changing its natural characteristics. Among the methods suggested for the overall assessment of aquifer characteristics, groundwater modeling is considered as is an effective management tool to study the aquifer response with different hydrological stress conditions. This present study is concentrating on the study of aquifer conditions in Raipur city with the suggestion of a fruitful management strategy. In order to understand the causes of water table declination, a two-layered finite-difference flow model was formulated for the region by using Visual MODFLOW software. Water level data of 21 well have been collected from all over the study area. Data such as, hydrological data, empirical values, and equations were used for the development of the groundwater transient flow model, water budget estimation, and to know the impact of over-pumping on the aquifer system.
Suvendu Kumar Sahu, D. C. Jhariya
Chapter 11. Flood Modelling Using HEC-RAS for Purna River, Navsari District, Gujarat, India
The small and medium river banks are seriously flooded due to high-intensity of rainfall in monsoon seasons. The floods threatened human safety, life and property. This paper presents a process of 1D steady flow analysis used Hydrologic Engineering Center River Analysis System software. The one-dimensional modelling is applied on research Purna River, this river is one of the non-perennial rivers in Gujarat. This work contains flood model in which station, elevation of each cross-section was assessed at a particular section of the study reach. Steady flow analysis and hydraulic design analysis were carried out and after providing slope and discharge (flood event) at particular cross section software will compute the water surface elevation, depth of water and velocity of the water. The result from the research analysis could be used by flood management authorities to mensurate the flood at various cross-section of the study region.
Darshan J. Mehta, Yennam Varun Kumar
Chapter 12. Hydrological Parameter Estimation for Water Balance Study Using SWAT Model
In recent years water demad has been increased due to a large population base, continued population growth and climate change uncertainties. To deal with issues of water management, quantification and estimation of different hydrological components are important. This study investigates hydrological parameter estimations using a semi-distributed physical-based model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The model was tested on a monthly basis for simulating the rate of streamflow, using rainfall and other climatic parameters in the basin. The watershed boundaries, sub-basins, slope, soil and land use maps, and streams were generated using Geographic Information System (GIS). Sensitivity of parameters was checked by p-value and t-stat. To check uncertainty in hydrological parameter, model was calibrated and validated for streamflow using the SWAT-Calibration and Uncertainty Program (SWAT-CUP). Model efficiency for calibration and validation was checked by different statistical parameters. Model uncertainty was analyzed by P factor and R factor. Results indicated R2, NSE, and PBIAS were 0.62, 0.62, and 3.92, respectively, for the calibration period and also it was satisfactory with performance indicators R2, NSE, and PBIAS as 0.64, 0.64, and 11.4 for the validation period. The study would be very useful for water resources community to take managerial actions in the watershed area.
Sushmita Gouraha, Ishtiyaq Ahmad
Chapter 13. Groundwater Potential Mapping Using Maximum Entropy
Maximum entropy (MaxEnt) is a widely used general-purpose machine learning approach for species distribution modeling. However, in recent years, other researchers have used MaxEnt in other areas such as disease risk mapping, flooding risk assessment, and fire hazard analysis among others. This study demonstrates the use of MaxEnt to map groundwater potential in the province of Marinduque, the Philippines using groundwater wells location and different environmental variables. These environmental variables include elevation, slope, topographic wetness index, drainage density, distance from faults, distance from rivers, rainfall during the wettest month, and annual rainfall. Based on the results, elevation and annual rainfall were the variables with the highest contribution in predicting the groundwater potential in the province.
Arnold R. Salvacion
Chapter 14. Application of Remote Sensing and GIS in Floodwater Harvesting for Groundwater Development in the Upper Delta of Cauvery River Basin, Southern India
People living in semiarid areas with inadequate rainfall are frequently affected by water scarcity. Upper delta region of Cauvery River Basin (CRB) in southern India was selected to search suitable areas for floodwater harvesting to induce artificial recharge that improves the groundwater level. The aim of this study is floodwater harvesting based on the technical design and identification of the appropriate locations for artificial recharge structures. Remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) were used to produce the flood hazard map and recommend suitable areas for floodwater harvesting. Thematic layers were prepared and overlaid to determine the flood vulnerable zones and suitable recharge structures were identified based on the hazard map. Burrowing and flooding are the most favorable artificial recharge structures should be implemented in all parts of CRB, whereas battery wells near to the river banks should be built to improve the groundwater level. Hydrologists, decision-makers, and planners will use this appropriate map to quickly identify the locations with the greatest potential for flood water collection. This study concludes that geospatial technology becomes very effective for flood vulnerable zone mapping, floodwater harvesting, and suggesting management plans to improve groundwater level for sustainable development.
Kongeswaran Thangaraj, Sivakumar Karthikeyan
Chapter 15. Strategic Evaluation of Water Quality Monitoring Network Using GIS-AHP Model in a Large River System
Mahanadi River and its tributaries are passes through the various important cities of Chhattisgarh and Odisha state in India. It serves as the valuable source of water for its domestic, agricultural and industrial need. To monitor river water quality, analytical hierarchy process-based water quality index (WQI) has been adopted to reveal the general status of water quality spatio-temporally. Along the length of the river variation of quality is modelled by interpolation in GIS platform. It is found that the 13.11% of observed stations located nearby major cities of Chhattisgarh and Odisha are extremely bad in general status. The water is of these locations cannot be used as drinking source even after the conventional treatment and disinfection. 4.91% of location lie under very bad status with controlled waste disposal. 22.95% of location identify as bad status of its quality. 54.09% falls for the medium status and the remaining 4.91% stations are having good class of general status that can be used as drinking source after conventional treatment. This study results the overall WQI in Mahanadi River basin and also gives a strategic evaluation of various water quality monitoring network in a large river system.
Preeti Rajput, Manish Kumar Sinha, Gaurav Kant Nigam
Chapter 16. Application of RS and GIS for Determination of Various Criteria Causing Drying of Kanari River System
Uncontrolled ground water extraction is the basic cause and foremost problem of ceasing effluent discharge into the water stream. To revive Kanari River in Jabalpur district using various technical approaches and determining the root causes of drying of the same is the main objective of this study. The technical advance toward the study was integration of LULC map by ERDAS imagine and ArcGIS which subsequently aimed of assessing the spatial and quantum recharge requirement for revival of river. The LULC classification was done on the grounds of satellite imagery of Landsat 5 thematic mapper (TM) from 1990, Landsat 8 enhanced thematic mapper (ETM) data from 2004, 2009, and Sentinel 2B data from 2019 that were used for visual assessment of development and land use trends within the area. The runoff was also calculated by the integration of ArcGIS and SCS-CN method which finally depicted the runoff in the area kept on increasing as rainfall kept on increasing following a linear trend which predicted that the infiltration opportunity decrease and ultimately resulting in decreased infiltration rate causing decreased baseflow resulted in drying of river.
Ayushi Trivedi, Manoj Kumar Awasthi, Malay Singh
Chapter 17. Impacts of Climate Variability on Urban Rainfall Extremes Using Statistical Analysis of Climatic Variables for Change Detection and Trend Analysis
Importance of extreme weather events under climate variability on design rainfall to design a hydraulic structure is very important to mitigate the risk of disasters. This study yields an approach to identify the changes in Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) using statistical trend analysis and change detection test on climatic parameters of Raipur City, a capital of Chhattisgarh state in India. Extreme events are often described by their expected frequency of recurrence; hence frequency analysis of shorter duration (15 min) rainfall has been conceded using Gumbel’s Extreme Value-I distribution. The results of change-point analysis indicated a climate shift nearly in year 1993, that has been taken as standard change-point which has split the data series and three different periods. Results concluded the temperature was the main factor which was causing the effect of changing rainfall pattern in Raipur city. Frequency analysis results Intensity–Duration–Frequency (IDF) curve for Raipur city which was influenced by changing climate pattern in Raipur urban area. Design intensities of rainfall were corrected using results of trend analysis and change-point test. The result attributes the effect of urbanization, rapid development of industrial and commercial activity which altered natural ecology and environment in Raipur city.
Manish Kumar Sinha, Klaus Baier, Rafig Azzam, Mukesh Kumar Verma, Sunil Kumar
Chapter 18. An Analysis of Textural Characteristics and Depositional Environment of Sediments in the Gumti River, Tripura, India
Grain size analysis is an essential parameter to understand the depositional environment of sediments. In the present study, grain size analysis of bed sediments of the Gumti River has been done. Sediments samples were collected from 20 locations and processed using standard sieving method to calculate the statistical parameters like mean, standard deviation, skewness, and kurtosis. It has been found that the mean size of sediments ranges between medium to fine sand which are mainly moderate to well sorted in nature. Medium sand is mostly present in the upper and middle courses of the river Gumti, while the lower course is dominated by fine sands. The skewness value shows that most of the sediment samples are fine to very fine skewed in nature, whereas kurtosis of the samples varies from leptokurtic to paltykurtic nature of sediments. From frequency distribution curve, it has been observed that almost all the samples are unimodal in nature with peak of the curve located in size 2 to 3 phi. CM diagram has been prepared to understand the energy condition of the depositional medium and dominant mode of sediment transportation. It reveals two modes of sediment deposition, i.e., bottom and graded suspension under tractive force.
I. Ahmed, N. Das (Pan), J. Debnath
Chapter 19. Morphometric Analysis and Geohydrological Inference of Bhilangna Drainage Basin, Uttarakhand (India) Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques
Morphometric analysis is the method of studying landforms using quantitative techniques. The Bhilangna river of Uttarakhand Himalaya has been selected for analysis which provides a perennial source of irrigation and holds a significant place in the economic scenario of Uttarakhand. In this study, the quantitative analysis of morphometric parameters has been examined under linear, areal and relief aspects. The basin has elongated in shape and sloping down from north-east to south-west direction sharing with gentle slope (0°–5°) to very steep slope (up to 79°) which comprise 88.3% of total area. The stream order values run from 01 to 06. The drainage density has been found to be moderate in the basin, which indicate permeability of the surface strata. The bifurcation ratio (Rb) varies 0.76 to 2.33. The hypsometric integral of Bhilangna drainage basin is 0.42 which indicate that the basin is passing through late mature stage of development. Therefore, the present study not only enhances the detailed knowledge of morphological and a geohydrological characteristic of drainage basin, but it also helps in better understanding and sustainable utilisation of water resources. Results can be useful for policy formation, plan development and sustainable management of the region.
Sourav Bhadwal, Naresh Kumar Verma, Sanjit Kumar, Manish Kumar, Pankaj Kumar
Chapter 20. Geospatial Analysis of Kosi River Course from 1998 to 2018
Kosi River is one of the major left bank tributaries of the River Ganga and is rising at an altitude of over 7500 m above MSL (mean sea level) in the Himalayan kingdom of Nepal and Tibet. Ancient Sanskrit name for Kosi pronounced as Kaushiki in Vedas is one of the most sacred ancient rivers of India. In this paper, we have taken two years in 1998, and 2018 to study the channelization of the stream through group pixel formation. Unsupervised classification and stroller stream order methodology has been used in this study to analyze the stream return of the river during the years 1998 and 2018. The longitudinal profile of the river Kosi has been generated in this study by using the tool provided in the software Erdas Imagine. It has been observed through the study that there is a noticeable decrease in the sinuosity of the river and an increase in the channel belt areas.
Rajan Kumar, Netrananda Sahu, Martand Mani Mishra
Chapter 21. Internet of Things and Machine Learning Application for a Remotely Operated Wetland Siphon System During Hurricanes
Wetlands have been traditionally used to store water during rainfall events. However, during extreme events like floods and storm surge (during hurricanes), wetlands may exceed their storage capacity leading to overflow of water that sometimes results in flooding. This amplifies the problem as the purpose of wetlands is not fulfilled, and it also becomes difficult to visit the wetland site to improve upon the existing capacity. The flooding occurs because the wetlands are not used effectively. Therefore, an interconnected wetland system can be employed among the available wetlands for flood mitigation. This study discusses the latest methods to operate these wetlands remotely using machine learning (ML) techniques integrated with the Internet of Things (IoT). IoT is used to establish a secure connection between the siphon system and the control center. ML is used to check the robustness of the structural siphon system. The software interface is used to operate the siphon system manually or automatically. This provides an economical solution to access the wetland side and operate the siphon system remotely. This study provides direction to engineers/researchers with improving the horizon of such techniques for water resources applications.
Vivek Verma, Krishna Sai Vutukuru, Sai Srinivas Divvela, Surya Srikar Sirigineedi
Chapter 22. AHP Based Site Suitability Analysis for Water Harvesting Structure Using Geospatial Technique
Betul Chhindwara is undulating region experiences less water holding capacity due to hard rock terrain with maximum structural origin and high relief zone. Moreover, construction of major irrigation projects has limited scope due to topographical, social, financial, and environmental constraints. Hence, small structure like Check Dams, Percolation Tank, Bore Well, Nala bandh, and Farm Pond can be suitable structure for the water harvesting in various parts of Betul-Chhindwara region. The present study comprises of a four watersheds delineated in the region as Tapi River (WS 1), Kanhan river (WS 2), Pench River (WS 3), and Tawa River (WS 4) in Betul-Chhindwara district. The present study is carried out by GPS, Survey of India toposheet i.e., NF 43-8, NF 44-5, NF 43-12 and NF 44-9 on scale of 1:250,000, Aster DEM data for creation of DEM and satellite imagery of Sentinel-2. The criteria like third order stream, 2–5° slope of land, sandy-clay soil, Lineament zone, Physiography division is considered and various techniques of GIS and remote sensing are used for getting more suitable sites for rainwater harvesting. By applying above process, it was concluded that this area has limited scope of rainwater harvesting.
Chandra Shekhar Dwivedi, Raghib Raza, Arvind Chandra Pandey, D. C. Jhariya
Chapter 23. Attaining Optimal Sustainability for Urban Wastewater Management Using Open Source Tools Like QGIS, EPANET and WATERNETGEN
Nearly 3 in 10 people worldwide lack access to safe, readily available water at home, and 5.5 in 10, lack safely managed sanitation. WHO stated that the total economic return on sanitation spending is US $5.5 for every one dollar invested. Still, M.D.G. for sanitation was missed by 700 million people globally. The primary reason behind this problem is the lack of an integrated approach. In most developing countries, due to a lack of infrastructure, wastewater is not properly disposed of. The status of the water supply system is also pathetic. After a detailed study, it was found that treated wastewater usage in the residential, industrial and agricultural sectors with proper pricing is the best alternative to mitigate water stress, ensure sustainability and generate revenue. The methodology to design and implement water reuse project with economic feasibility is presented with a case study in the present article.
Devang Shah, Dilip Shete
Water Resources Management and Sustainability
herausgegeben von
Dr. Pankaj Kumar
Dr. Gaurav Kant Nigam
Manish Kumar Sinha
Dr. Anju Singh
Springer Nature Singapore
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