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2016 | Buch

Water Security, Climate Change and Sustainable Development


Über dieses Buch

This book pursues a comprehensive approach so as to arrive at a better understanding of the implications of climate change on sustainable development, focusing on the perspective of water. Climate change is one of today’s most pressing global issues and will become increasingly important in the decades to come, as societies will feel its pervasive impacts in many aspects of their lives. Given that the majority of these climate change impacts will be felt through the medium of water, the book explores the interrelationships and inter-linkages between water, climate change and sustainable development.


Water Security, Climate Change and Sustainable Development: An Introduction
The global population is estimated to increase from 7.3 billion at present to about 11.2 billion by 2100. Providing good quality of life for the existing hundreds of millions of people living in poverty and for the additional 3.9 billion people will be a challenging task under the best of circumstances. Many parts of the world are already facing serious water problems, both in terms of quality and quantity. Adding climate change scenarios further intensifies the uncertainties and complexities of the global situation by several orders of magnitude. The realities and politics of water security, climate change and sustainable development are likely to be one of the greatest challenges of the twenty-first century. Each country must rise to and meet these challenges successfully since there are no other alternatives. Status quo or incremental progress will not be an effective option.
Asit K. Biswas, Cecilia Tortajada
Climate Change, Resource Efficiency and Sustainability
Nestlé has developed numerous strategies along the years to address climate change, resource efficiency and other long-term challenges within a sustainability framework. These strategies have given the company the opportunity to innovate towards more environmentally sustainable and science-based products and services. Nestlé has successfully and continually improved resource use efficiency in water, energy and materials in a perspective of reducing exposure to risks of disruption. The Group championed the use of clean and renewable energy, as well as reducing waste at all stages of production and other parts of the value chain it can influence. The implementation of the sustainability framework has, among other things, resulted in significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
Peter Brabeck-Letmathe
Water Resources Management and Adaptation to Climate Change
Initiatives to solve world water issues and climate change have been individually developed and implemented without adequate synergy among them. The relevance of adapting to climate change has increased in addition to the mitigation to climate change. Integrated water resources management (IWRM) is expected to work well as an adaptation to climate change, preferably integrated with disaster risk management (DRM), proper land management, and poverty alleviation, to accomplish sustainable development. A synthesized review on water and climate is provided based on the 5th Assessment of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Taikan Oki
Adapting to Climate Variability and Change in India
Responding to rainfall variability has always been one of the most critical risks facing farmers. It is also an integral part of the job of water managers, whether it be designing interventions for flood management, improving the reliability of water supply for irrigation or advising on priorities during drought conditions. The conventional tools and approaches employed are no longer sufficient to manage the increasing uncertainty and incidence of extreme climate events, and the consequent effects these have on human vulnerability and food security. To be effective, the technological advances need to be matched with physical, institutional and management innovations that transcend sectors, and place adaptation and responsiveness to variability at the centre of the approach. This chapter examines a number of these challenges and possible solutions at a range of scales, from ‘climate-smart villages’ to national policy, with a focus on Asia and India, in particular.
J. Bird, S. Roy, T. Shah, P. Aggarwal, V. Smakhtin, G. Amarnath, U. A. Amarasinghe, P. Pavelic, P. G. McCornick
Downstream Implications of Climate Change in the Himalayas
The Himalayas, Hindu Kush, Karakorum mountains and the Tibetan Plateau make up the Hindu Kush-Himalayan (HKH) region, an area that has more snow and ice resources than any other region outside of the Polar Regions (Fig. 1). The HKH region extends 3500 km over all or part of eight countries from Afghanistan in the west to Myanmar in the east. About 200 million people live in the HKH mountains, while 1.3 billion people depend directly or indirectly on waters that originate in the mountains in 10 major river basins. These mountains are under threat from climate change and other socio-economic changes that will pose a challenge for Asia’s future. This chapter reviews the state of knowledge concerning the mountain’s water resources, draws out implications for downstream users, and recommends key actions to be taken.
David J. Molden, Arun B. Shrestha, Santosh Nepal, Walter W. Immerzeel
Economic Growth and Climate Proofing Asia Through Sustainable Water Resources Management
Asia has demonstrated remarkable economic growth over the past decade. However, competing demands for finite water resources coupled with climate change impacts now pose a major threat. With India expected to have over half of its inhabitants residing in cities by 2050, achieving urban water security will become increasingly critical to enhance people’s livelihood and to sustained economic growth. This chapter will consider innovative solutions to meet future demands for water focusing on future cities, whilst addressing climate change risk. Effective governance and policy reforms creating an enabling environment for integrated planning of urban and basin water resources are paramount.
Bindu Lohani, Yasmin Siddiqi, Garrett Kilroy
Business Case for Water
As competing demands for clean, fresh water (agriculture, households, energy generation, industrial use, ecosystems) continue to rise, the effects of climate change further exacerbate the challenges associated with water quality and availability creating new risks for businesses, governments, communities and the environment. Business can contribute to the alleviation of the strain on water by becoming water stewards by adopting an economically, environmentally and socially responsible water strategy. This means adopting values and practices that aim to safeguard long-term availability of clean water for all stakeholders in a watershed, prompted by recognition of water as an externality with a potentially material business risk. Industrial water reuse and managing agriculture withdrawals are important solutions on this path. In doing so, business has to become more actively involved in water governance.
Joppe Cramwinckel
Water, Climate Change and Sustainable Development: An Industry Example
Over more than a decade, Nestlé has engaged in numerous initiatives to create and support climate action actions and accelerate individual and collective efforts to address the potential impacts of climate change. Some of these initiatives include the Business Leadership platform, the United Nations Environment Programme and The Global Compact. Within its sustainability framework, the company has on-going programmes for water and biodiversity conservation, increasing resource use efficiency, no-deforestation, reduction of air pollution emissions, adaptation to climate change and zero waste. Additionally, within its Rural Development Framework, the company has developed its Natural Resource Stewardship with inputs from important stakeholders such as Solidaridad, Rainforest Alliance, The Fair Labor Association and Danish Institute for Human Rights. Many of these initiatives are carried out by Nestlé in India and this chapter includes examples of the initiatives.
Sanjay Khajuria
Journey of Sustainable Development by Private Sector Actors
While valiant efforts have been made to reduce natural resource extraction and companies are increasingly incorporating sustainability initiatives into business planning, greater collective action, integrated government policies, innovation and support are needed to ensure natural resource sustainability—especially when it comes to water, the heart of sustainable development. After exploring three key water trends of the last 30 years, this chapter looks ahead to the next 30 years, informing of three areas where businesses, in partnership with governments and civil society, should focus efforts to make a positive difference on global water challenges.
Asim Parekh
Will Rivers Become a Cause of Conflict, Rather Than Co-operation, in South Asia?
South Asia faces among the most severe shortages of fresh water anywhere in the world. That scarcity will worsen amid growing demand because of economic and demographic growth and uncertainty over supply, partly as a result of climate change. In a region with a history of cross-border conflict and feeble regional institutions, some analysts warn competition over water supplies, notably rivers that cross borders, is most likely to lead to conflict between countries. This chapter argues resource scarcity need not automatically lead to conflict--abundance can equally be a cause of conflict. How political and military actors choose to respond to scarcity, seeking co-operation or an excuse for conflict, will do more to determine utcomes.
Adam Roberts
Water Security, Climate Change and Sustainable Development
herausgegeben von
Asit K. Biswas
Cecilia Tortajada
Springer Singapore
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