This paper concerns the bringing together of the science of hydrology and the socio-economics of water supply in order to deliver a high degree of human security to those people who have diminished, or complete loss of access to their water supply. Human security is measured in a number of ways, but one underlying factor for all humanity is access to adequate water (quality and quantity) at an affordable cost. In Azerbaijan there are over 50 secondary towns with populations in the range 10,000 - 100,000. While the larger towns had a well developed industrial and infrastructure base during the former Soviet Union, with its collapse and shut down of industry in the early 1990s, the town infrastructure has significantly deteriorated and water supply and sanitation systems are anticipated to collapse by the middle of this century. The situation in the smaller towns, where the economic base was more fragile, having been founded on agriculture and processing of agricultural products, the situation is no less dire. For a combined population of 1.45 million in secondary towns, the systems originally designed to a capacity of 179.6 Mm
/y, actually delivers only 48.2 Mm
/y. As a consequence, the population resident in these towns suffers considerable hardships incurring high personal costs, thus further impacting their incomes, and reinforcing widespread poverty. The water related health and environmental problems add to the burden, trapping some people into a vicious cycle of poverty.