Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Millimeter-wave bands are receiving great attention for mobile radio communications due to potential availability of enormous channel bandwidths. Larger channel bandwidths are very important to meet ever increasing data rate and capacity demands of future wireless networks. At high carrier frequencies, transmitted and received signals can suffer from severe hardware impairments. We evaluate the performance of several state-of-the-art waveforms, e.g., Cyclic-Prefix (CP)-OFDM, Windowed (W)-OFDM, Pulse-shaped (P)-OFDM, Universal-Filtered (UF)-OFDM, Filter-Bank Multi-Carrier with Offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation, and DFT-spread (DFT-s)-OFDM, in the presence of hardware impairments. In particular, waveform comparisons have been evaluated in terms of bit error rate, error vector magnitude, and spectral confinement subject to oscillator phase noise and nonlinear power amplifier. It is observed that all waveforms perform similarly subject to hardware impairments—making CP-OFDM with low complexity filtering/windowing operations an attractive option to improve the spectral confinement. One major drawback of multi-carrier waveforms is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR). Various low complexity PAPR reduction techniques for OFDM have been evaluated subject to hardware impairments. It is observed that in case of nonlinear PA and high power transmission, these simple PAPR reduction schemes can achieve similar performance as compared to DFT-s-OFDM, making OFDM also suitable for coverage limited scenarios where power efficiency is important.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Andrews, J., Stefano, B., Wan, C., et al. (2014). What will 5G Be? IEEE Communications Magazine, 32(6), 1065–1082.
Bala, E., Li, J., & Yang, R. (2013). Shaping spectral leakage: A novel low-complexity transceiver architecture for cognitive radio. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 8(3), 38–46. CrossRef
Zhao, Z., Schellmann, M., Wang, Q., et al. (2015). Pulse shaped OFDM for asynchronous uplink access. In Proceedings of the IEEE 49th Asilomar conference on signals, systems and computers (ACSSC), Pacific Grove, CA.
Steendam, H. (2014). Design and analysis of the UW-OFDM signal. In Proceedings of the IEEE 6th international symposium on communication, control, and signal processing (ISCCSP), Athens.
Vakilian, V., Wild, T., Schaich, F., et al. (2013). Universal-filtered multi-carrier technique for wireless systems beyond LTE. In Proceedings of the IEEE Globecom workshops (GC wkshps), Atlanta, GA.
Bellanger, M. (2012). FS-FBMC: An alternative scheme for filter bank based multicarrier transmission. In Proceedings of the IEEE 5th international symposium on communication, control, and signal processing (ISCCSP), Rome.
Huang, G., Nix, A., & Armour, S. (2007). Impact of radio resource allocation and pulse shaping on paper of SC-FDMA signals. In Proceedings of the IEEE 18th international symposium on personal, indoor and mobile radio communications (PIMRC).
Berardinelli, G., Tavares, F., Sǿrensen, T., et al. (2013). Zero-tail DFT-spread-OFDM signals. In Proceedings of the IEEE Globecom workshops (GC wkshps), Atlanta, GA.
Svensson, N. (1995). On differentially encoded star 16QAM with differential detection and diversity. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 44(3), 586–593. CrossRef
Zaidi, A., Luo, J., Gerzaguet, R., et al. (2016). A preliminary study on waveform candidates for 5G mobile radio communications above 6 GHz. In Proceedings of the IEEE vehicular technology conference (VTC), Nanjing, China.
Juo, J., Zaidi, A., Jakko, V, et al. (2016). Preliminary radio interface concepts for mm-wave mobile communications. mmMAGIC Deliverable D4.1 (online). https://5g-mmmagic.eu/results.
3GPP TR 38.802, Study on new radio access technology physical layer aspects, 3GPP, Tech. Rep., V14.1.0, 2017-06.
Harri, H., & Antti, T. (2011). LTE for UMTS: Evolution to LTE advanced (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Rahmatallah, Y., & Mohan, S. (2013). Peak-to-average power ratio reduction in OFDM systems: A survey and taxonomy. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 15(4), 1567–1592. CrossRef
Thompson, S. C., Proakis, J. G., & Zeidler, J. R. (2005). The effectiveness of signal clipping for PAPR and total degradation reduction in OFDM systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE global telecommunication conference (GLOBECOM).
Ochiai, H., & Imai, H. (2012). Performance analysis of deliberately clipped OFDM signals. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 50(1), 89–101. CrossRef
Jiang, T., Yang, Y., & Song, Y. (2005). Exponential companding technique for PAPR reduction in OFDM systems. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 51(2), 244–248. CrossRef
Armstrong, J. (2001). New OFDM peak-to-average power reduction scheme. In Proceedings of the IEEE vehicular technology conference (VTC).
Song, J., & Ochiai, H. (2015). Performance analysis for OFDM signals with peak cancellation. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 64(1), 261–270. CrossRef
Robert, J., Zhao, C., & Tong, G. (2006). Constrained clipping for crest factor reduction in OFDM. IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, 52(4), 570–575. CrossRef
Zaidi, A., Baldemair, R., Tullberg, H., et al. (2016). Waveform and numerology to support 5G services and requirements. IEEE Communications Magazine, 54(11), 90–98. CrossRef
Sharif, M., & Khalaj, B. H. (2001). Peak to mean envelope power ratio of over-sampled OFDM signals: An analytical approach. In Proceedings of the IEEE international conference communications (ICC).
Petrovic, D., Rave, W., & Fettweis, G. (2007). Effects of phase noise on OFDM systems with and without PLL: Characterization and compensation. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 55(8), 1607–1616. CrossRef
Wu, S., & Bar-Ness, Y. (2004). FDM system in the presence of phase noise: Consequences and solutions. IEEE Transactions on Communications, 52(11), 1988–1996. CrossRef
Chen, X., Wang, H., Fan, W., et al. (2017). Phase noise effect on MIMO-OFDM systems with common and independent oscillators. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8238234.
Hunukumbure, M., Castaňeda, M., D’Errico, R., et al. (2016). Initial multi-node and antenna transmitter and receiver architectures and schemes, mmMAGIC Deliverable D5.1 (online). https://5g-mmmagic.eu/results.
Demir, A. (2006). Computing timing jitter from phase noise spectra for oscillators and phase-locked loops with white and 1/f noise. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems, 53(9), 1869–1884. CrossRef
Niknejad, A., Chowdhury, D., & Chen, J. (2012). Design of CMOS power amplifiers. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 60(6), 1784–1796. CrossRef
Cripps, S. C. (2002). Advanced techniques in RF power amplifier design. Norwood, MA: Artech House.
Vuolevi, J., Rahkonen, T., & Manninen, J. (2001). Measurement technique for characterizing memory effects in RF power amplifiers. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 49(8), 1383–1389. CrossRef
Nader, C., Landin, P. N., Moer, W., et al. (2011). Performance evaluation of peak-to-average power ratio reduction and digital pre-distortion for OFDM based systems. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, 59(12), 3504–3511. CrossRef
SystemVue Electronic System-Level (ESL) Design Software (online). http://www.keysight.com/en/pc-1297131/systemvue-electronic-system-level-esl-design-software?cc=US.
- Waveform evaluations subject to hardware impairments for mm-wave mobile communications
Ali A. Zaidi
- Springer US
The Journal of Mobile Communication, Computation and Information
Print ISSN: 1022-0038
Elektronische ISSN: 1572-8196
Neuer Inhalt/© Filograph | Getty Images | iStock