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Über dieses Buch

This book highlights recent research and developments in floating structures on rivers, lakes, seas and oceans for energy harvesting, aquaculture and farming, leisure activities, infrastructure, industrial plants, real estate and cities, with a focus on sustainably living, relaxing and working offshore. Bringing together international experts and leaders, from both industry and academia it reviews and discusses ocean space utilization, and offers an ideal platform for those wanting to establish new collaborations on floating structure projects.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Design Guidelines for Upgrading Living Conditions in Wetslums

Abstract
The megalopolis of Dhaka, Bangladesh faces, in a larger scale, common issues with the rest of Asian ones and more particularly South Asian ones: a massive population growth leading to urban sprawl on flood-prone areas—more precisely on areas located along the shores or on a water body—mainly in form of slums; named wetslum in this article. However, even if this condition is expected to increase in the next decades, these wetslums have poor living conditions and lack access to basic services. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to propose an approach and guidelines to favor small scale project able to improve wetslum dwellers’ living conditions. To do so, the specific issues of these areas which are a shortage of available space, a lack of services due to investment risks and the insecurity of land tenure, are identified along with the position of the different stakeholders involved in these areas. Then, guidelines are set up to bypass these difficulties. Consequently, the findings are used to establish eight constraint requirements that have to be addressed by a wetslum upgrading project proposition: geographic location in wetslum, flood proof ability, flexibility, transportability, standardization, affordability, safety and legality. These guidelines will then be used in a near future to develop a small scale proposition named City App.
Koen Olthuis, Pierre-Baptiste Tartas, Chris Zevenbergen

Repurposing Jack-ups, Semi-submersibles and Superbarges into Offshore and Nearshore Settlements

Abstract
This research study is a collection of ideas proposing offshore and nearshore settlements responding to emergent need in the light of climate change. They are counterpoints to megacities with ecological footprints that are unsustainable. The continued depletion of natural resources leading to scarcity has resulted in displaced communities and prompted these research questions: What if we floated on sea instead of consuming land inefficiently? And could we use wave energy instead of nuclear energy? Could we replenish food supply and regenerate marine eco-diversity? How would our lives be shaped by new offshore settlements? What would we use as structures for shelter, farming scaffold and recreation? Floating cities emerged in the 1960s with Buckminster Fuller’s Triton City and Kenzo Tange’s Tokyo Bay Plan. Current manifestations include Vincent Callebaut’s Lilypad, the Seasteading Institute and the mile long Freedom Ship housing 50,000 people. As an alternative to these examples, three types of vessels in the marine industry, namely, the jack-up platforms, the semi-submersibles and the superbarges are repurposed as small footprint habitable propositions to accommodate 20% of a projected global population of 8.1 billion people in 2050. Floating settlements are spatially conceived with food and energy estimates for housing, recreation, education at sea, post-disaster healthcare and resettlement for nearshore deployment.
Joseph Lim

Floating Infrastructure Large Scale Public Spaces on Water

Abstract
The strain and pressure on the global city infrastructure can be efficiently relieved by allowing this infrastructure to step “onto” the water and thus break this ever existing barrier. Apart from the fact that by doing so we manage to create new and attractive public space in the environment which is usually scarcely utilized, floating infrastructure also provides extremely high resilience while minimizing the environmental impact. Important thing to keep in mind is that these spaces of water often exist in the very heart of our cities where availability of building sites tends to be extremely limited. We have provided practical demonstration on how large public spaces can successfully exist on water and how floating architecture has a potential to deliver new realities by physically mirroring the city on this recently empty water space. Our experience and projects successfully delivered to date remove any doubt that large floating infrastructure projects such as floating hotels, floating hospitals, floating sports activity centre with Olympic size swimming pool, floating museum, floating climbing centre, floating bars and restaurants and many others can successfully exist in the unpopulated environment of bodies of water that meet the city shores. Apart from this fact, floating architecture is able to deliver solutions that provide high resilience while minimising the environmental impact.
Gerard Ronzatti, Petar Lovric

Floating Shipyard Design: Concept and Application

Abstract
Shipyards often incorporate floating structures as elements within their facilities, for example floating docks for drydocking vessels requiring repairs or maintenance and pontoons to provide berths for smaller support vessels, such as tugs and workboats. However, the concept of a shipyard comprised exclusively of floating structures is considered herein. Floating shipyard facilities are particularly suitable for locations with naturally deep water, where floating structures may be more economical due to lower capital construction costs relative to land based facilities (e.g. floating docks versus graving docks). Similarly, fabrication of floating structures can be conducted off site, often benefiting from modular construction and providing more economical solutions relative to in situ construction. In addition, modular approaches to aspects such as power production may be incorporated, e.g. using modular power plants on floating barges. For appropriate operational conditions within the yard facility and acceptable downtime, relatively tranquil metocean conditions are required at the site, i.e. limiting structural movements for the benefits of equipment (e.g. cranes) and personnel. As such, typical suitable locations will be either naturally sheltered or provided with adequate breakwaters. Benefits of such a floating shipyard include the flexibility to more readily adapt the facility when required and potentially re-locate all or part of the shipyard if required due to changes in market conditions. Floating shipyards are likely to be more suitable for ship repair and not for shipbuilding, which typically requires more extensive workshop and assembly areas. In addition to an overview of the floating shipyard concept, relevant examples are provided from an ongoing project under development in a remote location in Angola, West Africa, that is ideally suited to the concept.
Cliff Ohl, Adrian Arnold, Hannes Uys, Miguel Andrade

Floating Bridges and Submerged Tunnels in Norway—The History and Future Outlook

Abstract
To improve the efficiency of land transport, bridges, submerged tunnels and subsea tunnels are introduced to replace ferries to cross straits. For wide and especially straits with a large depth or very soft bottom, floating bridges or submerged tunnels are attractive. Modern floating bridges can be traced back to the pontoon bridge design implemented in the 1940s, and the notable Hood Canal bridge in 1961. More recent floating bridges include the two Norwegian floating bridges: the 845-m long Bergsøysund and the 1246-m long Nordhordland floating bridges built in 1992 and 1994, respectively. Submerged floating tunnels have been considered as an option for strait crossings, especially wide crossing such as the Gibraltar and Messina straits and the Høgsfjord in Norway. So far submerged floating tunnels have not been built, while immersed tunnels have been used in many places, essentially in relatively shallow water. Currently, the Norwegian Public Road Administration (NPRA) is assessing replacing ferries across 8 fjords by providing bridges or submerged tunnels on the Coastal Highway Route E39 Project. The width of the strait crossings is up to 5 km and the water depth is up to 1300 m. The NPRA is currently considering three alternative floating bridge concepts: curved, end anchored floating bridge or straight, side anchored floating bridge with mooring system and floating suspension bridge with pylons supported by TLP or spar floating bodies; as well as submerged tunnel type concepts. This paper presents an overview of relevant concepts, their characteristic behaviour and design criteria for serviceability and safety, especially dynamic response due to environmental and accidental loads, with a highlight on development trends.
Torgeir Moan, Mathias Egeland Eidem

Dynamics of Super-Scale Modularized Floating Airport

Abstract
This paper reviews a study on the nonlinear dynamics of a super-scale floating airport that consists of multiple floating modules with a flexible connection system. A novel network structure dynamics method is proposed for the dynamics prediction of the floating structure. A network modeling method is developed for the super-scale floating airport with arbitrary topological configuration and connection and the experimental validation is conducted in a wave basin. Nonlinear dynamics and network synergetic effect of the floating airport are elaborated, especially for the physical phenomenon of “amplitude death” that plays a key role in the system stability. The mechanism for the occurrence of amplitude death (AD) in non-autonomous systems is revealed and further the mathematical criterion is derived. The stability analysis based on amplitude death mechanism is carried out. Some applications of the network structure dynamics method in ocean engineering is illustrated. Finally, the prospective of the methodology is addressed, potentially extendable to many engineering problems with network structure alike.
Haicheng Zhang, Daolin Xu, Shuyan Xia, Qijia Shi, Guangyu Yang, Rui Ding

Design and Potential Applications of Floating Structures in Singapore

Abstract
As an island city-state with about 710 km2 of land, Singapore treats land as a precious and limited resource. In order to sustain the development growth, Singapore continues to reclaim land from the sea and excavate underground space. In addition, Singapore has also started creating space on the sea by using large floating structure technology. This paper focuses on a multi-purpose floating structure (MPFS) research and development project funded by Land and Liveability National Innovation Challenge (L2 NIC) Directorate and JTC Corporation. The objective of the project is to develop innovative design concepts, optimal structural, and foundation solutions, as well as construction and installation methods for multi-purpose floating structures in Singapore coastal waters. This paper covers three specific applications, namely a floating hydrocarbon storage facility, a floating bridge and a modular multi-purpose floating structure. The technical challenges, conceptual designs, research innovation and key findings will be discussed. The outcomes of this research project may be used as a reference for other potential applications including floating offshore bunker supply bases, LNG regasification facilities, solar plants, desalination plants, piers, shipyards, container port terminals, golf courses, parks and towns/cities.
Kok Keng Ang, Jian Dai, Oyvind Hellan, Arnstein Watn, Michael Boon Ing Si

Hydrodynamic Responses and Loads of a Model Floating Hydrocarbon Storage Tank System for Concept Validation and Numerical Verification

Abstract
An innovative floating hydrocarbon storage facility (FHSF) has been proposed to utilize the shielded near-shore area for countries with large demand on the land space such as Singapore and Japan. The concept comprises 14 floating hydrocarbon storage tanks (FHST) and several surrounding floating barges. All the modular designed FHSTs are loosely connected to the barges through a soft mooring system so as to reduce the loads, and the entire system is free to float to reduce the tidal influence. The single FSHT has been proven to have moderate hydrodynamic responses in previous studies, but there still exist concerns on the influence of potential resonances in the narrow gaps and the strong hydrodynamic interactions. The loads on the specially designed soft mooring system have to be checked. The complete system is complex and difficult to analyze. So, experimental studies were performed on both a simplified system and the complete system to ensure the quality and reduce the uncertainty in the experiments. The simplified system consists of two FHSTs and a surrounding floating barge frame. The experiments were performed in the ocean basin in SINTEF Ocean. A series of random, wide-band and realistic random wave tests were carried out to generate benchmark data to verify numerical analysis tools. This paper will focus on this simplified system that represents the complete system’s behavior. A frequency domain numerical model of the simplified system was established based on potential theory. Empirical coefficients were used to account for viscous damping. The numerical results are comparable to the experimental results in general. The statistical responses of the FHST in the design sea states are also within the acceptable range even with the hydrodynamic interactions. However, further improvement on the system such as a better design of the floating barge is necessary.
Chi Zhang, Allan R. Magee, Nuno Fonseca, Øyvind Hellan, Kok Keng Ang

Wave Induced Motions of a Floating Mega Island

Abstract
Floating mega islands can provide an attractive solution for creating temporal or more permanent space in coastal areas with a high demand for real estate. Also at open sea in the vicinity of wind farms, fish farms or logistical cross points, a floating mega island could be used as a hub, eliminating costly transfers. One of the aspects which needs to be understood is the wave induced motion of such a floating mega island. A piece-wise flexible island has been model tested at MARIN. The motion behavior in mild and severe sea states has been investigated. In this paper, the motion behavior is described and explained by comparing model test results with numerical simulations. An interesting aspect in this is the relative importance of wave diffraction, wave radiation and the dissipation of energy in the construction. The wave drift loads on the island that consists of 87 interconnected triangular pontoons are calculated and analyzed.
William Otto, Olaf Waals, Tim Bunnik, Coline Ceneray

Fish Farming in Floating Structures

Abstract
The world will see an increased use of floating structures for various purposes as well as an increased harvesting of food from the sea. Farming of salmon has become a major contributor to food. Norway has excellent conditions for farming salmon; a long coastline (100,000 km including islands) with nice and fresh water. Norway produces 1.3 million tons of salmon per year (the weight of all Norwegian people is 0.3 million tons). The export value of salmon is the second largest after oil and gas. Starting from a small scale some 50 years ago, entrepreneurial fishermen have developed salmon farming into a huge business. Traditional salmon farming is performed in open nets. The open net solution is inexpensive, and suitable when placed in pure and clean water with ample current that provides for changing the water, which is important for salmons. However, there are challenges for the open net approach. The nets are vulnerable, and a broken net allows farmed salmons to escape, and possibly mingling with the wild salmons. The open net allows feces to fall through, and polluting the sea. Sickness may be spread by toxic water, and sea lice may enter and infest the fish. The obvious remedy to these challenges in “crowded” areas is to farm in closed buckets. One prototype bucket was designed, built and installed on the west coast of Norway, with excellent results. No salmon lice were found in the bucket. The salmon “liked” the closed bucket because one can provide a current that gives the salmon exercise. Salmons farmed in this way are larger and better fit, and thereby achieve a higher selling price. There are many activities around farming that will be described in the paper, and they are linked to the experience of marine concrete structures in general.
Tor Ole Olsen

Technology-Driven Sustainable Aquaculture for Eco-tourism

Abstract
Aquaculture farming provides an avenue to grow food fish for the table in the face of rapid depletion of fish stock around the world due to over-fishing. However, traditional aquaculture farming has been largely dependent upon the environment and waste management issues have not been adequately addressed to make it sustainable in the long term. There have been increasing reports of widespread diseases and even mass fish deaths from the deterioration of water quality or pollution. This pollution may be from farming activity itself or from external sources through natural or man-made incidents. This has created concerns over food safety as companies use more vaccines or antibiotics to treat the diseases. There is also a concern over the spread of diseases from escaped farmed fish into the wild. These issues need to be addressed to ensure the continued viability of aquaculture farming as a critical food source. This paper seeks to address the issues through the application of technology across the value-chain of production for: (1) cost effective production, i.e. “more for less” to generate significant financial returns, and (2) sustainable aquaculture farming without polluting the environment to preserve ocean health. The system provides a perfect platform for the implementation of circular economies through integrated multi-trophic aquaculture for better economics and further protect the eco-system of the ocean. Faced with the current increasing negative perception towards aquaculture, it is proposed that eco-tourism opportunities be utilized to promote the adoption of these technologies as well as to further public awareness and education in this sector. It is also hoped that this will spur more research and development for further improvements.
Ban Tat Leow, Hoon Kiang Tan

Floating Forest: A Novel Concept of Floating Breakwater-Windbreak Structure

Abstract
The floating forest is a novel floating breakwater-windbreak structure that can be deployed in a water environment to reduce both wind speed and wave height behind it. Its purpose is to protect fragile coastlines, port terminals, marinas, and floating structures from severe storms. It can also be used to create a landing sea strip for seaplanes. The floating forest comprises several segments of breakwater hull in a lateral arch shape, caissons or mooring lines at the ends of the segments to keep the arch segments in place, and a tilted deck installed with arrays of tubes. The breakwater hull segment is typically a few hundred meters long, but the scale may be adjusted on different demands. The width is adjusted to fit the incoming wave length. A shallow draft is used since for surface waves most of the wave energy is concentrated near the mean water level. The deck of each hull segment has a gradient to create a beach run-up, and tube arrays are installed on the tilted deck. The hollow tubes provide resistance against the incoming wind, and are connected to the internal channels inside the hull that end with openings on the vertical front wall of the hull. The mooring system comprises either caissons in shallow water depths or several groups of steel mooring chains that are spread around the floating breakwater in deep waters. The primary material of the floating forest is marine prestressed concrete. As a part of the feasibility study, the structure was modelled by using linear BEM software package HydroSTAR (developed by Bureau Veritas) to study the 3D wave diffraction near the hull and its wave transmissibility with inputs of measured wave data in Gold Coast, Australia. Parametric studies were carried out to optimize the main dimensions of the structure. The results show that the arch shape floating structure has a good performance as compared with traditional rectangular breakwaters, and wave height can be reduced by half at the peak wave period. CFD analysis was also performed and it was found that the wind speed could be reduced by 20% for 1 km behind the floating forest and up to 30 m in height; thereby establishing its effectiveness as a windbreak as well.
C. M. Wang, M. M. Han, J. Lyu, W. H. Duan, K. H. Jung, S. Kang An

Classification Principles for Very Large Floating Structures

Abstract
Very Large Floating Structures (VLFS) have been widely used in the offshore oil & gas industry for the past decades as a versatile platform for the exploration, exploitation and processing of seabed mineral resources. The classification principles of ships have been successfully applied to these Mobile Offshore Units (MOUs) by providing assurance that a set of requirements laid down in the classification rules are met during its design and construction and maintained during its operational phase with the aim to ensure that the required safety standards are met. Recently, the concept of VLFS is promulgated in other industries like power generation, residential, agriculture, etc. As an example of how classification principles can be applied to VLFS in new industries, the DNV GL’s new rules on offshore fish farming units and installations (DNVGL-RU-OU-0503) is being applied to an offshore fish farm. This paper will look at how application of classification rules can help in the design of VLFS to help it rapidly gains recognition from the authorities in terms of achieving an adequate level of safety and quality.
ChunWee Ng, Rongrong Jiang

Mooring Systems for Very Large Floating Structures

Abstract
Owing to scarcity of land, very large floating structures (VLFS) are now being designed to cater for the increase in population and growth of coastal areas. The applications of VLFS include floating piers, floating airports, floating bridges, floating fuel storage facilities and even floating cities. One of the key design aspects of VLFS is the mooring design. Mooring design of VLFS is a challenge due to huge size of the structures, environmental loads, shallow water depths, space constraint for mooring lines and anchor installation. There are additional challenges pertaining to transportation of blocks, integration onsite and design allowance for possible future expansion of the VLFS. This paper examines the hydrodynamic and mooring design of a typical VLFS. The relevant concepts, motion response, mooring design and design criteria will be presented. The mooring design will incorporate sensitivity studies on different material choices for mooring lines. Chains, wire ropes and polyester (Dyneema) will be considered for the mooring design. The chain mooring system is compared with piles mooring system. Additional issues pertaining to installation and future expansion of VLFS will be discussed.
Aditya Sankalp, Yves De Leeneer

Durability of Floating Concrete Platforms

Abstract
Concrete is the cheapest construction material and the second most consumed man-maid product after drinking water, which is easily cast to any shape. Concrete technology has evolved very rapidly in recent years and continues to improve with new advancement in construction and materials technology. Early concrete platforms dated to more than 100 years ago with primitive design mixes, materials and construction technique. Since then, many concrete platform have been constructed; some with poor quality and some with very reasonable performance. However, generally the concrete platforms were more durable when compared to steel structures but they are slower to construct. In the past 30 years, there is a new wave of concrete platforms riding on advancement of concrete and construction technology. The owners of concrete platforms now demand for durability design of 100 years or more. The construction time is also significantly reduced. In this paper, durability design of floating concrete platforms is discussed, among which is the recent construction of 138 m × 46 m concrete drydock built for Marisco Ltd. with a lifting capacity of 9500 tons. As stationary platforms, concrete platforms are more durable, less expensive, safer, and more stable and they require less maintenance as compared to steel platforms. However, structural and durability design as well as construction experience are critical for successful execution.
Bahador Sabet Divsholi

Design and Construction of the Floating Concrete Pier in Golden Harbor, Incheon

Abstract
There are two 200 m long floating piers for berthing car ferries in the Golden Harbor, Incheon, South Korea. Each floating pier has almost the same dimensions, but one of these piers is made of steel whereas the other pier is made of concrete. This paper focuses on the design and construction of the floating concrete pier. In the design of the floating steel pier, the 198 m long pier has two inner moorings and comprises three separated steel modules (with each module length L = 66 m). In contrast, the floating concrete pier composed of a single structure (of length L = 200 m) without inner mooring dolphins. This concrete pier design not only maximizes the use of the top-side space but it also minimizes the number of mooring dolphins. The construction method involves fabricating concrete segments on land and assembling them as modules on the seawater. This modular construction method was adopted instead of the conventional method of using a big floating dock because it increases the construction efficiency and enhances the concrete quality of the modules. More detail considerations of this design and construction are explained in this paper.
Kwanghoe Jung, Sanghyu Lee, Heesung Kim, Yoonho Choi, Sara Kang

Potential of Floating Urban Development for Coastal Cities: Analysis of Flood Risk and Population Growth

Abstract
Population growth and urbanization mainly take place in vulnerable coastal areas. This article presents a global overview of these areas with both rapid population growth and high flood risk, in order to identify coastal areas that could benefit most from floating urban development. The analysis focuses on port cities, since they are coastal cities that have both availability of locations and the required expertise (e.g. maritime industry and services) to enable floating developments. After identifying the most promising locations, an implementation strategy is discussed, which favours areas where floating projects are already present to start testing medium and large-scale concepts. Next, a large scale floating maritime spatial project is presented, which integrates urban and ecosystem development with food and energy production in the North Sea. This plan provides a spatial concept for floating urban expansion in front of the coast of the Netherlands.
B. Dal Bo Zanon, B. Roeffen, K. M. Czapiewska, R. E. de Graaf-van Dinther

An Integrated Floating Community Based upon a Hybrid Water System: Toward a Super-Sustainable Water City

Abstract
Over the next century or two, rising sea levels and the increased frequency of extensive natural disasters caused by global climate change will bring about serious problems. Such problems are especially foreseen in lower-lying coastal and riverside areas, located below sea level. The steel barge-type floating foundations were chosen for our research because of their outstanding performance in the Mega-float Project which had been conducted by the Mega-float Technological Research Association of Japan during the 1990s. A 1000 m-long floating structure was constructed under this project for siting an airport complex thereon, with many parts of the smaller floating modular units being welded together at sea using a newly-developed method. Now, our concept is of realizing a new waterfront—developed by excavating the soil in a low-lying ground to create an overall area few meters below the surface level, then flooded to produce an artificial reservoir. The foundations for an urban community are subsequently set afloat upon the artificial reservoir, with buildings and other facilities being constructed on these floating foundations, in a manner similar to the Mega-float Project idea. On the other hand, the construction of substantial sustainable cities not only capable of withstanding global environmental disasters but also simultaneously producing minimum burden on the environment is needed. And to realize a truly sustainable city, we should be mindful of the fact that a multi-water supply system will become more efficient, economical and safe for cities compared with the present status dependent upon a single water supply system. Our paper “a new concept for the safety of low-lying land areas from natural disasters” was therefore selected as one of the 100 top papers from among all papers published by springer-nature in 2015 as a ground-breaking paper that could help humanity while protecting and preserving our planet, under the theme of change the world, one article at a time.
Toshio Nakajima, Motohiko Umeyama

Floating Clean Multi-energy Systems Towards Driving Blue Economic Growth

Abstract
The blue economy is the recent initiative among Indian Ocean realm association (IORA) countries, ASEAN and Caribbean Islands focusing towards sustainable use of ocean resources for economic growth, improvised livelihoods and jobs and preserving ocean ecosystem health. High-density population resides in coastal and islandic regions of these countries and with climate change, rising sea level is seen an imminent danger to the coastal community in the low-lying area. To counter the rising sea level, countries are looking for technologies to support the displaced coastal population by embarking on floating homes and floating cities in their Blue Growth strategy to support living space and amenities needs. Since these floating homes and cities are powered through fossil fuel there is a need to preserve the Coastal marine ecology from the emissions. This paper discusses about powering the floating homes through ocean based floating clean energy systems as a cost-effective energy system that can be manufactured, assembled and maintained in the onshore and easily towed and deployed at a specific ocean site and assure energy security and resilience even during natural disasters. In addition, the paper discusses the idea of hybrid renewable powered energy systems to exploit the multiple available energy sources at the specific site viz., tidal, ocean thermal, wave, solar and wind that may vary in different proportion of availability to increase overall energy generation density from the ocean site. To illustrate, a case study of floating tidal system is discussed that was designed and deployed in Singapore towards tropical shallow water conditions through systematic resource assessment, device design through simulation and field based assessment.
Srikanth Narasimalu

Floating Offshore Wind Turbines in Goto Islands, Nagasaki, Japan

Abstract
Offshore wind energy resources in Japanese EEZ are now considered to be huge. In order to utilize the huge amount of energy located in relatively deep water areas, Ministry of the Environment, Japan funded a demonstration project on floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT). In the project, two FOWTs have been installed. The first FOWT mounted a 100 kW wind turbine of downwind type, and the length dimensions are almost half of the second FOWT. The second FOWT mounted a 2 MW wind turbine of downwind type, and was referred to as the full-scale model. The FOWTs consist of PC-steel hybrid spar which is cost-effective and are moored by three mooring chains. The half-scale model was installed at the site (Kabashima, Goto Islands, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan) on 11 June 2012. The half-scale model was attacked by a very severe typhoon Sanba (1216). The behavior of the half-scale model during the typhoon attack was recorded, and compared with the computer simulations, indicating the validity of the design method. After a successful demonstration test of the half-scale model, the full-scale model was designed, constructed and installed at the same site. The demonstration test for the full-scale model was also successful. After completion of the demonstration project, the full-scale model was moved to a different site off Fukue island, where future expansion as a floating wind farm is planned. There, the full-scale model is operating as a commercial floating wind turbine, providing valuable data and experience for operation and maintenance toward commercial-scale floating wind farms.
Tomoaki Utsunomiya, Iku Sato, Takashi Shiraishi

The Dawn of Floating Solar—Technology, Benefits, and Challenges

Abstract
Floating solar, which is the installation of photovoltaic (PV) systems on water bodies, is a nascent, yet fast-growing PV deployment option, with a terawatt-scale market potential globally. Singapore has contributed significantly to the research in floating solar application on inland fresh water reservoirs by building the world’s largest floating solar testbed. In this paper, we give an overview of floating solar technologies, and highlight some learnings and research findings from the testbed. We quantified the cooling effect on water and its benefits on energy yield of the PV systems. We also discuss some issues and pitfalls to avoid. Going forward, offshore floating solar is the next frontier with significant opportunities.
Haohui Liu, Abhishek Kumar, Thomas Reindl

Seascape the Landscape of Singapore, Repurposing Land in a Land Scarce Nation

Abstract
Singapore’s economy is founded on sand. From ports to airports, offices to factories, from refineries to shipyards, hotels, casinos, roads and homes, the contributors of the national GDP owe their existence to the sand on which they are erected. According to the UNEP this tiny nation state is the world’s largest importer of sand. It needs more land but faces challenges: sand mining is banned. Shallow waters have already been reclaimed. The damage to the marine bio-diversity is undeniable. Sea levels are rising. This paper discusses the viability, modus operandi and merits of “floating out” land-guzzling and out-dated industries on very large floating structures (VLFS) in the sea. The plots of land they currently occupy would be better used if repurposed for 21st century cutting-edge technology and easing the housing pressures. The economic output of the land can also be increased by embracing industries that can go multi-storey. A side benefit to putting industries on VLFS is that roads are not needed for maritime transport. Land needed for road expansion is reduced. Greenhouse emission is also reduced. Rising sea levels would be an irrelevant issue. Marine biodiversity would not be decimated. This strategy is more sustainable than land reclamation. The author invites the government to take leadership in the formation of a R&D Group to flesh out this concept. The time is not far in the future when the Master Plan for this nation has to treat both land and sea as one developable continuum for work, live and play.
Soon Heng Lim

Floating Solutions: The New Meaning of Mobility

Abstract
Floating architecture has a new dimension: from completely static and permanent forms on land to becoming non-stationary. The aim of this paper is to define the new meaning of mobility when it comes to modern, floating space and to analyze opportunities it offers in the future. Through analysis of some examples of good practices, different ideas and aspects are presented. For example, floating buildings can be readily relocated when necessary, be used only periodically on specific locations or for a specific purpose, and be moved only vertically during the tide. Movable architecture is more adaptable and sustainable. The design approach changes a lot as we can now manipulate space in a more dynamic and flexible manner. Water, as an unstable environment, requires people to be more active and provokes their curiosity. Since structures are movable and can be relocated elsewhere offshore, users may need to use alternative ways of getting to them or might employ specific modes while using the space. Mobility, being the pivot of contemporary society, gives ability to movable structures to follow the pace of modern life and global tendencies, while understanding and satisfying people’s needs.
Milica Simovic, Sonja Krasic, Marko Nikolic
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