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Über dieses Buch

These proceedings present the latest information on regulations and standards for medical and non-medical devices, including wearable robots for gait training and support, design of exoskeletons for the elderly, innovations in assistive robotics, and analysis of human–machine interactions taking into account ergonomic considerations. The rapid development of key mechatronics technologies in recent years has shown that human living standards have significantly improved, and the International Conference on Wearable Sensor and Robot was held in Hangzhou, China from October 16 to 18, 2015, to present research mainly focused on personal-care robots and medical devices. The aim of the conference was to bring together academics, researchers, engineers and students from across the world to discuss state-of-the-art technologies related to various aspects of wearable sensors and robots.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Wearable Sensors

Frontmatter

The Design of E Glove Hand Function Evaluation Device Based on Fusion of Vision and Touch

This paper presents an E gloveE glove hand function evaluation device based on visual and haptic fusion, and uses the Principal Component Analysis (PCA)Principal Component Analysis (PCA) algorithm to establish hand sensor distribution model. The PCA analysis chart shows that three sensors distributed on the thumb, forefinger, and middle finger could effectively estimate the graspGrasp motions. Moreover, threshold values for all category models can be selected by the way of adaptive pressure threshold integrating visual aid. At last, five subjects dressed E glove judging the grasp motions under different combinations of sensors. The results show that: the classification accuracy rate depended on the pressure and visual sensor fusion method reached 94 %; the identification rate of the adaptive pressure threshold method to judge the grasp motions can be increased 1.6–1.7 times than only using single camera vision sensor or pressure sensor. Next step, the E glove hand function evaluation device will be further improved such as function of active control to the collected data will be added.

Jing Guo, Cui-lian Zhao, Yu Li, Lin-hui Luo, Kun-feng Zhang

An Emotion Recognition System Based on Physiological Signals Obtained by Wearable Sensors

Automatic emotion recognitionEmotion recognition is a major topic in the area of human--robot interaction. This paper presents an emotion recognition system based on physiological signalsPhysiological signals. Emotion induction experiments which induced joy, sadness, anger, and pleasure were conducted on 11 subjects. The subjects’ electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration (RSP) signals were recorded simultaneously by a physiological monitoring device based on wearable sensors. Compared to the non-wearable physiological monitoring devices often used in other emotion recognition systems, the wearable physiological monitoring device does not restrict the subjects’ movement. From the acquired physiological signals, one hundred and forty-five signal features were extracted. A feature selection method based on genetic algorithmGenetic algorithm was developed to minimize errors resulting from useless signal features as well as reduce computation complexity. To recognize emotions from the selected physiological signal features, a support vector machineSupport vector machine (SVM) method was applied, which achieved a recognition accuracy of 81.82, 63.64, 54.55, and 30.00 % for joy, sadness, anger, and pleasure, respectively. The results showed that it is feasible to recognize emotions from physiological signals.

Cheng He, Yun-jin Yao, Xue-song Ye

Integrated Application Research About the Necklace Type Wearable Health Sensing System Under the Internet of Things

The Wearable Health Sensing SystemWearable health sensing system (WHSS) is to integrate the various sensors on the necklace, which is convenient for the real-time detection of human life and health, meanwhile to use the data processing ability of portable handheld terminal and coordination with the application of APP interaction to make the health assessment, diet care information pushing, and the emergency medical treatment true. This paper puts forward a scheme that integrating the multiple health sensors on the necklace, which includes the movement frequency, heart rate, sweat, skin tissue fluid, ECG, blood oxygen saturation, skin moisture, body fat, etc., objecting to setup a dynamic and collaborative monitoring physiological data under the daily life and the complicated working environment by means of a lower physiological and psychological load. Three modules are designed for WHSS: sensor integration module, power supply and power module, and signal integration and network transmission module. Corresponding sensors are chosen for WHSS according to various application requirements. Existing disturbances affect the accuracy and reliability of the judgment about the health feature points, accordingly the anti-interference processing is carried out. WHSS has only integrated multi-sensor without setting powerful data processing unit, so the captured signal is extended to handheld terminals to display and control in accordance with the processing ability of formalities terminal. The function model of data fusion system is setup, the level of the data fusion system is analyzed, the data fusion algorithm is realized, and the Multi-sensor system identificationMulti-sensor system identification technology is studied. Due to the automatic comprehensive analysis capabilities of the multi-sensor system identification technology, it could be more effective and accurate to reflect the physical status of the object than any single sensor in the system. Under the environment of the Internet of thingsInternet of Things, the fusion of multiple data display control from WHSS, can accurately obtain the health information, and sets up the health system security network to a certain extent.

Jian-jun Yu, Xing-bin Chen

A Multi-scale Flexible Tactile-Pressure Sensor

The Bionic Electronics industry often requires that flexibleFlexible artificial skin should have human skin-like multi-sensory functions. However, present sensors are difficult to achieve tactile and pressure sensory functions simultaneously due to the trade-off between measurement range and measurement precision. In order to deal with this problem, this paper presents a flexible tactile-pressure sensorFlexible tactile-pressure sensor based on bionic structureBionic structure. The bionic structure combines several sensors to simulate different types of pressure stimulation receptors of the human skin. The upper sensors have high measurement accuracyMeasurement accuracy to achieve the tactile sensory function. The lower sensor has a wide measurement range to achieve pressure sensory function. These two measurement ranges are able to realize multi-scaleMulti-scale measurement stress measurement of external pressure stimulation. The sensor, in turn, is able to perform the tactile and pressure sensory functions simultaneously.

Xiao-zhou Lü

Design of a Wearable Thermoelectric Generator for Harvesting Human Body Energy

This paper presents the design and fabrication of a wearable thermoelectric generatorThermoelectric generator (TEG) with high power densityHigh power density for harvesting the human body heatHuman body heat energy. The proposed TEG was fabricated using a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) as the substrate. The P-type and N-type thermoelectric blocks were made of Bi2Te3-based thermoelectric material and welded on the FPCB, and they were surrounded by the soft PDMS material. The prototyped TEG consisted of 18 thermocouples, which was connected by FPCB and silver paste over an area of 42 × 30 mm2. The fabricated TEG could generate a voltage of 48 mV for a temperature difference of 12 K. Then, the TEG was mounted onto the human wrist skin to harvest the human body heat energy. Results showed that the measured output power was 130.6 nW at ambient temperature of 25 °C. Thus, the developed TEG has the potential for human body heat energy harvesting and utilized for the development of wearable self-powered mobile devices.

Haiyan Liu, Yancheng Wang, Deqing Mei, Yaoguang Shi, Zichen Chen

Three-Axis Contact Force Measurement of a Flexible Tactile Sensor Array for Hand Grasping Applications

This chapter explores the development of a flexibleFlexibletactile sensorTactile sensor array based on pressure conductive rubberPressure conductive rubber for three-axis forceThree-axis force measurement in grasping application. The structural design, testing principle, fabrication process, and characterization of the tactile sensor array are presented. Three-axis force measurement performances for all nine sensing units have been carried out. The full-scale force measurement ranges of the tactile sensor array in x-, y- and z-axis are 5, 5, and 20 N, respectively. The corresponding sensitivities in x- and y-axis are 0.838 and 0.834 V/N, respectively. In z-axis, the sensor array has two sensitivities: 0.3675 V/N for 0–10 N and 0.0538 V/N for 10–20 N measurement ranges. Then, the tactile sensor array has been mounted onto a human hand finger and used to measure the real-time 3D contact forces during grasping application. Results showed that the developed tactile sensor array features high sensitivities and has the potential for real-time tactile images for gripping positioning and 3D grasping force feedback control in grasping applications.

Yancheng Wang, Kailun Xi, Deqing Mei, Zhihao Xin, Zichen Chen

A Novel Silicon Based Tactile Sensor with Fluid Encapsulated in the Cover Layer for Prosthetic Hand

Tactile sensing is indispensable for prosthetic handProsthetic hand to obtain information about contact forces and thus improve graspGrasp stability. To reduce the burden of the hand’s control and data acquisition (DAQ) system, we have developed a simple silicon-based tactile sensorTactile sensor containing a small number of sensing elements and owning large active sensory area in our previous work. In this paper, we incorporate a novel cover layer containing fluid in the sensor design to improve the uniformity of sensitivity from point to point in the whole receptive field. Experimental results show that with the cover layer, the normalized sensitivities of the tactile sensor are 1, 0.89151, 0.87736, and 0.82075 for four different indenting locations, which are 0, 1, 2 and 3 mm away from the center of the top surface, respectively. While without the cover layer, the normalized sensitivities of the tactile sensor are just 1, 0.8055, 0.42283, and 0.24101 for the four indentation locations, respectively.

Ping Yu, Chun-xin Gu, Wei-ting Liu, Xin Fu

An Adaptive Feature Extraction and Classification Method of Motion Imagery EEG Based on Virtual Reality

With the aim to solve the problems such as low classification accuracy and weak anti-disturbances in brain–computer interfaces (BCI) of motion imageryMotion imagery EEG, a new method for recognition of electroencephalography (EEG) was proposed in this work, which combined the wavelet packet transform and BP neural networkBP neural network. First, EEG is decomposed by wavelet packet analysis. Then, distance criterion is selected to measure the separable value of the feature frequency bands. Furthermore, the optimal basis of wavelet packet is attained by using a fast search strategy of “from the bottom to the top, from left to right.” The classification feature is extracted by choosing the part wavelet package coefficient, which can attain higher classification evaluation value according to the optimal basis of wavelet packet. And then, the optimal bands are combined with BP neural network. The experimental results show that the proposed method can choose the feature bands of EEGs adaptively, and the highest classification accuracy is 94 %. The correctness and validity of the proposed method is proved. Lastly, establish the virtual robot in MATLAB and use the classification results to control the robot’s arm motion.

Li Wang, Huiqun Fu, Xiu-feng Zhang, Rong Yang, Ning Zhang, Fengling Ma

One-Handed Wearable sEMG Sensor for Myoelectric Control of Prosthetic Hands

A novel sEMG (Surface electromyographysurface electromyography)Engineering Surface electromyography sensor using polypyrrole-coated nonwoven fabric sheetPolypyrrole-coated nonwoven fabric sheet as electrodes (PPy-electrode) is proposed for the disabled to control prosthetic limbs in daily life. The PPy-electrodes are sewed on an elastic band to guarantee closely contact to the skin thus to enable stable sEMG measurement with high signal-to-noise ratio. Furthermore, the sensor is highly customizable to fit for the size and the shape of the stump so that the disabled can wear the sensor by themselves. The performance of the proposed sensor is investigated by comparing with Ag/AgCl electrodes with electrolytic gel in an experiment to measure the sEMG from the same muscle fibers. The high correlation coefficient (0.87) between the sEMG measured by the two types of sensors suggests the effectiveness of the proposed sensor. The experiment to control myoelectric prosthetic handsProsthetic hand showed that the disabled can use it with one hand to obtain sEMG signals for myoelectric control.

Yin-lai Jiang, Shintaro Sakoda, Masami Togane, Soichiro Morishita, Hiroshi Yokoi

Wearable Indoor Pedestrian Navigation Based on MIMU and Hypothesis Testing

Indoor pedestrian navigation (IPN) has attracted more and more attention for the reason that it can be widely used in indoor environments without GPS, such as fire and rescue in building, underground parking, etc. Pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR) based on inertial measurement unit can meet the requirement. This paper designs and implements a miniature wearable indoor pedestrian navigationWearable Indoor Pedestrian Navigation system to estimate the position and attitude of a person while walking indoor. In order to reduce the accumulated error due to long-term drift of inertial devices, a zero-velocity detector based on hypothesis testingHypothesis testing is introduced for instantaneous velocity and angular velocity correction. A Kalman filter combining INS information, magnetic information, and zero transient correction information is designed to estimate system errors and correct them. Finally, performance testing and evaluation are conducted to the IPN; results show that for leveled ground, position accuracy is about 2 % of the traveled distance.

Xiao-fei Ma, Zhong Su, Xu Zhao, Fu-chao Liu, Chao Li

Calibration Method of the 3-D Laser Sensor Measurement System

In order to improve the efficiency and adaptability of 3-D laser sensorLaser sensor measurement system, this paper proposed a calibrationCalibration method based on structural parametersStructural parameters for the 3-D laser sensor measurement system. In this method, by scanning and measuring the structural calibration target with known structural parameters, the models are established in the laser scanning coordinate system and inertial measurement sensor coordinate system respectively, and the linear features are extracted then solve out the relative position and attitude by the constrains of structural parameters. The calibration results are carried out on the 3-D measurement system, which is used to conduct a simulation measurement experiment. In the experiment, the measured results’ relative errors of lengths and angles of measured objects are less than 1.0 and 0.5 % on average, which indicate the accuracy of the calibration method. While the noise is increasing, the relative errors keep stability, which indicates the effectiveness of the calibration method.

Qing-Xu Meng, Qi-Jie Zhao, Da-Wei Tu, Jin-Gang Yi

Wearable Robots

Frontmatter

Study on a Novel Wearable Exoskeleton Hand Function Training System Based on EMG Triggering

InEMG triggering order to improve the rehabilitation initiative of stroke patients with hand dysfunction, this paper proposes a novel wearable exoskeleton hand function trainingHand function training system based on myoelectric (EMG) triggering. EMG controlEMG control system is designed and the exoskeleton hand function training device is modeled and tested to verify the motion capabilities. The experiment results show that subject can complete prehension and looseness independently. The maximum flexion degrees of fingers are in agreement with the theoretical values. The feasibility of the wearable exoskeleton hand function training system is validated.

Wu-jing Cao, Jie Hu, Zhen-ping Wang, Lu-lu Wang, Hong-liu Yu

Dynamic Analysis and Design of Lower Extremity Power-Assisted Exoskeleton

A newDynamic Analysis design of lower extremity power-assisted exoskeleton (LEPEX), is presented in this paper, which is used for transmitting the backpack weight of the wearer to the ground and enhancing human motion, with each joint driven by corresponding actuator. Primarily, a 7-bar human machine mathematical model is introduced and analyzed with different walking phases using Lagrange’s Equations. Second, dynamic parameters, such as torque and power consumptions of each joint in the sagittal plane are obtained for human with 75 kg payload in his (her) back with different conditions, i.e., flat walking and climbing stairs. Afterwards, the actuator for each joint is chosen based on the torque and power consumptions, i.e., a passive actuator for each knee joint and an active actuator for each ankle and hip joint; as well as the structure of LEPEX. Last but not least, the designed LEPEX is simulated under ADAMS environment by using wearer’s joint movement data, which is obtained from flat walking and climbing stairs experiments. Eventually, the simulation results are reported to witness the potentialities of the structure.

Shengli Song, Xinglong Zhang, Qing Li, Husheng Fang, Qing Ye, Zhitao Tan

Human Gait Trajectory Learning Using Online Gaussian Process for Assistive Lower Limb Exoskeleton

Human gait trajectory estimating and acquiring using human--robot interaction (HRI) is the most crucial issue for an assistive lower limb exoskeleton. The relationship between the HRI and the human gait trajectory is nonlinear, which is difficult to be obtained due to the complex dynamics parameters and physical properties of mechanism and human legs. A Gaussian process (GP) is an excellent algorithm for learning nonlinear approximation, as it is suitable for small-scale dataset. In this paper, an online sparse Gaussian processOnline sparse Gaussian process is proposed to learn the human gait trajectory, i.e., the increment of angular position of knee joints, where the input is the HRI signal and the output is the increment of angular position of knee joints. We collect the HRI signals and the actual angular position by using torque sensors and optical encoders, respectively. When collecting dataset, the subjects are required to wear the exoskeleton without actuation system and walks freely as far as possible. After purifying the dataset, a subspace of training set with appropriate dimensionality is chosen. The subspace will be regarded as the training dataset and is applied in the online sparse GP regression. A position control strategy, i.e., proportion- integration-differentiation (PID), is designed to drive the exoskeleton robot to track the learned human gait trajectory. Finally, an experiment is performed on a subject who walks on the floor wearing the exoskeleton actuated by a hydraulic system at a natural speed. The experiment results show that the proposed algorithm is able to acquire the human gait trajectory by using the physical HRI and the designed control strategy can ensure the exoskeleton system shadow the human gait trajectory.

Yi Long, Zhi-jiang Du, Wei Dong, Wei-dong Wang

Research on Bionic Mechanism of Shoulder Joint Rehabilitation Movement

In view of the clinical need of rehabilitation training to the human upper limbUpper limb, the paper puts forward a novel exoskeleton device for shoulder rehabilitation. Based on the analysis of anatomy and biomechanics of shoulder jointShoulder joint, a novel bionic mechanismBionic mechanism with 5° of freedom was proposed in the exoskeleton device. Then, the designs of mechanisms’ scheme and mechanical structure to bionic mechanism were performed successively. The bionic mechanism of shoulder joint was optimized to match the physiological motion of anatomical center of rotation adaptively and improves the compatibility of human-machine kinematic chain. It is expected that the research will provide a reference method to the study of bionic mechanism in rehabilitation trainingRehabilitation training related to other joints.

Guo-xin Pan, Hui-qun Fu, Xiu-feng Zhang, Feng-ling Ma

Reducing the Human-Exoskeleton Interaction Force Using Bionic Design of Joints

This paperBionic design presents a new method for design of lower body exoskeleton based on optimizing the human-exoskeleton physical interface to improve user comfort. The approach is based on mechanisms designed to follow the natural trajectories of the human hip and knee joints as flexion angles vary during motion. The motion of the hip joint centerHip joint center (HJC) with variation of flexion angle was experimentally measured and the resulting trajectory was modeled. Similarly, the knee joint rolling and sliding motion was calculated based on analytical knee joint modelKnee joint model. An exoskeleton mechanism able to follow the hip and knee joints centers’ movements has been designed to cover the full flexion angle motion range and adopted in the lower body exoskeleton. The resulting design is shown to reduce human-exoskeleton interactionHuman-exoskeleton interaction forces by 25.5 and 85.5 % during hip flexion and abduction, respectively with bionic hip joint and to reduce human-exoskeleton interaction forces by 75.4 % during knee flexion with bionic knee joint. The results of interaction forces led to a more ergonomic and comfortable way to wear exoskeleton system.

Wei Yang, Canjun Yang, Qianxiao Wei, Minhang Zhu

Development of a Lower Limb Rehabilitation Wheelchair System Based on Tele-Doctor–Patient Interaction

PortableLower limb rehabilitation wheelchair rehabilitation training devices are coming into normal families and becoming an important part of home rehabilitation. At the same time, the rehabilitation system combining virtual realityVirtual reality technology and tele-doctor–patient interactionTele-doctor–patient interaction and portable rehabilitation devices is a new research trend. In this paper, an intelligent rehabilitation trainingRehabilitation training system which is one of the first product that make it possible for patients to do lower limb training at home is proposed. It includes an electric wheelchair with lower limb training function, a multivariate control module, a virtual reality training module and a tele-doctor–patient interaction module. This system can solve the shortcomings of large volumes of existing products. The lower limb training games module which is based on virtual reality technology make the rehabilitation procedure more interesting. The tele-doctor–patient interaction module enables patients to do lower limb training at home, meanwhile doctors can give assignments to patients based on the score of the last game to save more medical resources and time effectively.

Shuang Chen, Fang-fa Fu, Qiao-ling Meng, Hong-liu Yu

A Grasp Strategy with Flexible Contacting for Multi-fingered Hand Rehabilitation Exoskeleton

To recovering the functions of hand after stroke, many hand exoskeletons and their control methods are developed. However, less research involves in the multi-fingeredMulti-fingered grasping. There are two primary problems: the fingers are correlative in the movement and the contacting part, the human finger, is flexibleFlexible. This paper presents a method, which takes not only all the fingers but also their mechanical impedance into a dynamic system. The method is divided into three levels. First level, grasping planning, the desired interface force of each finger is derived by the geometric and external force information of object. Second level, multi-fingered coordinate force control, we see each finger’s impedance as a second-order subsystem to model an integrated coordinate dynamic system. Third level, single finger force control, execute the position and force command calculated in middle level by each finger, which has been presented in our early research. To verify the method, we set an experiment to graspGrasp an apple assisted by a three fingers (thumb, index finger, and middle finger) exoskeleton. The results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method and also point out the direction for further research.

Qian-xiao Wei, Can-jun Yang, Qian Bi, Wei Yang

Unscented Transform-Based Correlation Between Surrogate and Tumor Motion in Robotic Radiosurgery

Human respiration hinders real-time accurate radiation in robotic radiosurgeryRobotic radiosurgery with most of the extracranial tumors. Respiratory tumor motion tracking is crucial for respiration compensation in radiosurgery treatments. This paper presents our work on correlating the surrogate motion with the tumor motion both caused by human respiration. Usual correlation models between surrogates and tumor motions are built by linear or polynomial fitting based on least square method. In those models, sensor data are regarded as accurate. Our work aims to solve the respiration tracking problem by Kalman filters. In this paper, sensor data along with noises are considered in correlation modelCorrelation model. Moreover, uncertainty of the model itself is obtained by calculating covariance of the model parameters induced using Unscented Transform.

Shu-mei Yu, Feng-feng Zhang, Meng Dou, Rong-chuan Sun, Li-ning Sun

A Pulmonary Rehabilitation Training Robot for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patient

As a kind of progressive obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is seriously harmful to people’s health, especially for the elder. People with COPD usually have symptoms of respiratory discomfort, leg tiredness, and even dyspnea. Traditionally, pulmonary rehabilitationPulmonary rehabilitation is considered as an important management and treatment for COPD and is widely applied in clinics. The pulmonary rehabilitation training robot proposed in this paper is designed based on the pulmonary rehabilitation principle. Additionally, this respiratory robot can effectively assist COPD patients with respiratory rehabilitation training exercise, relief the burden of respiratory muscleRespiratory muscle and help them adjust the respiratory strategy. In the experimental study, we used the wireless EMG measurement technique to study the activity of respiratory muscle during training exercise and found that the activity of the diaphragm muscle decreases under training state comparing with that the nonassisted state. In addition, with the increase of the motor’s speed, the diaphragm muscle becomes less active. We also studied the motion changes of the subject’s chest and diaphragm muscle during training through motion captureMotion capture system.

Zhi-hua Zhu, Tao Liu, Bo Cong, Fengping Liu

Research and Development for Upper Limb Amputee Training System Based on EEG and VR

It is necessary to have electromyogram (EMG) training before installing an EMG prosthetic for upper extremity amputees. Aiming to improve the training effect, in this paper a training system based on EMG and virtual realityVirtual reality (VR) is designed. The hardware and software of the training system were designed. And based on the VR technology and EMG technology, in this paper an interesting game in the software has been developed. Meanwhile some experiments were done in the hospital. After actual upper limbUpper limb amputee experiment, the feasibility and rationality of the system is proved. This paper develops an upper limb amputees training system which has a lively and interesting game, can actively mobilize the amputees’ subjective training initiative, which has good effects and positive meanings for clinical prosthetics installation and usage.

Jian Li, Hui-qun Fu, Xiu-feng Zhang, Feng-ling Ma, Teng-yu Zhang, Guo-xin Pan, Jing Tao

Evaluation on Measurement Uncertainty of Sensor Plating Thickness

The thickness of the sensor plating is a very important parameter, but it is difficult to measure it accurately. The sensor plating thickness is studied, and it is measured by metallographic method. From the aspects of repeatability of measurement, verticality of inlaying specimen, calibration of microscopic ruler, and distinguishability of optical microscope; the influences are analyzed and the measurement is done. Then the uncertainty components are combined. Finally the value of uncertainty of plating thickness is calculated, the method of uncertainty measurement and the notes during the measurement are illuminated.

Xu-cheng Rong, Jian-jun Yu

Research on the Stability of Needle Insertion Force

The unstable needle insertion, contributing to imprecise insertion, can be reflected from insertion force stability. To improve the accuracy of needle-based intervention procedures and guide the investigation on needle steering technologies, a series of needle insertion experiments were performed on different soft tissues including single-layer PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) phantoms, multi-layer PVA phantoms and porcine livers. The effects of insertion velocities, tissue properties and tissue structures on insertion force stability were investigated. For mechanical noises in force data vary with interventional equipment, they were filtered before quantitative analysis of insertion force stability. The unit amplitude of insertion force was directly used to reflect the insertion stability. The results from both the single-layer PVA phantoms and porcine livers show that there is a critical velocity, under which the unit amplitude sharply decreases with the increase of velocity and above which it almost does not vary with velocity. In the actual application, insertion velocity above this critical value can be adopted to improve the insertion stability. The multi-layer PVA phantom tests show that the unit amplitude increases firstly and then decreases with the increase of PVA composition. By changing the direction of insertion into the same multi-layer PVA phantom, results indicate that both friction and cutting force can lead to unstable insertion.

Qiang Li, De-dong Gao

The Metabolic Cost of Walking with a Passive Lower Limb Assistive Device

Lower limb assistive devices capable of augmenting metabolic performance have typically targeted the ankle joint during push off. Here, a lower limb passive assistive device was evaluated that instead helps the user by performing negative work about the knee joint at the end of swing. A pilot study (n = 8), where subjects walked overground at a self-selected speed, revealed that the device is capable of reducing metabolic energy expenditure equal to the amount of additional energy required to carry the weight of the device. The cost of transport (COT) walking with the assistive device (COT = 2.55 ± 0.36 J/kg) showed no significant difference to normal walking (COT = 2.56 ± 0.33 J/kg) without the device.

Jean-Paul Martin, Qingguo Li

Advanced Control System

Frontmatter

A Novel Method for Bending Stiffness of Umbilical Based on Nonlinear Large Deformation Theory

In this paper a novel method is introduced to test the bending stiffness of umbilical. The four point bending test is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The nonlinear deflection model has been established because of large deformation. Half of the umbilical can be considered as a cantilever beam. By applying MATLAB optimization toolbox, we deal with differential equations with a nonlinear term pretty fast. Finally, an automatic testing system was designed to test the bending stiffness, which allows us to experimentally study the deflections of umbilical by means of a series of measurements.

Zuan Lin, Lei Zhang, Can-jun Yang

Silicon Micro-gyroscope Closed-Loop Correction and Frequency Tuning Control

In this paper, we present the improved performance of silicon micro-gyroscopeSilicon micro-gyroscope under closed-loop correction and frequency tuningFrequency tuning. First, this paper analyzes the source of the quadrature errorQuadrature error in the micro-gyroscope. Second, the mode-matching state of the silicon vibratory gyroscope is studied. The sense mode resonant frequency is tuned to be closed to the drive mode resonant frequency under the mode-matchedMode-matched condition. Then, the closed-loop system correction is realized under the mode-matched condition and the proportion-integral differential correction with a passive impedance network. Finally, the experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of the closed-loop system correction scheme under the mode-matched condition.

Xingjun Wang, Bo Yang, Bo Dai, Yunpeng Deng, Di Hu

Autofocus for Enhanced Measurement Accuracy of a Machine Vision System for Robotic Drilling

Erroneous object distance often causes significant errors in vision-based measurement. In this paper, we propose to apply autofocus to control object distance in order to enhance the measurement accuracy of a machine vision system for robotic drilling. First, the influence of the variation of object distance on the measurement accuracy of the vision system is theoretically analyzed. Then, a Two Dimensional Entropy Sharpness (TDES) function is proposed for autofocus after a brief introduction to various traditional sharpness functions. Performance indices of sharpness functions including reproducibility and computation efficiency are also presented. A coarse-to-fine autofocus algorithm is developed to shorten the time cost of autofocus without sacrificing its reproducibility. Finally, six major sharpness functions (including the TDES) are compared with experiments, which indicate that the proposed TDES function surpasses other sharpness functions in terms of reproducibility and computational efficiency. Experiments performed on the machine vision system for robotic drilling verify that object distance control is accurate and efficient using the proposed TDES function and coarse-to-fine autofocus algorithm. With the object distance control, the measurement accuracy related to object distance is improved by about 87 %.

Biao Mei, Wei-dong Zhu, Ying-lin Ke

A New Scene Segmentation Method Based on Color Information for Mobile Robot in Indoor Environment

Scene segmentationScene segmentation is the basis of autonomous robots environmental understanding. For scene objects show different color characteristics aggregation in the mobile service robotService robot operating indoor environment, this thesis proposes a scene segmentation method based on color layeringColor layering and Multi-Size filteringMulti-Size filtering. This paper slices the scene by constructing the color layering model and then designs the multi-size filter, which is designed according to the results of detecting the numbers and size of the connected domains in one layer, to segment the target. This paper also builds a robot operating system and the experiments of global environment and local scene are constructed with an average accuracy of scene segmentation and hierarchical, respectively, reaching 96.2 and 92.5 %. The results show that the method can effectively segment the scenes with salient color features.

Xu-dong Zhang, Qi-Jie Zhao, Qing-XU Meng, Da-Wei Tu, Jin-Gang Yi

Dynamic Hopping Height Control of Single-Legged Hopping Robot

In orderDynamic hopping height control to control the vertical hopping height of two degree-of-freedom articulated single-legged hopping robotSingle-legged hopping robot, a hopping height control scheme based on the energy conservation in the course of hopping was proposed. The kinematic modelKinematic model of the legged hopping robot and the hybrid dynamic model on flight and stance phase according to the different constraint condition was established, and the ground contact model based on the impact collisions between end-effector and ground was analyzed. On the one hand when robot was controlled to hop higher, energy was imparted into the robot system by increasing the pre-compressed length of the virtual spring. On the other hand, when robot was controlled to hop lower, the redundant energy of the robot system was dissipated by the inelastic collisions when the end-effector touched down the ground. The control scheme is demonstrated by the simulation experiment of hopping height control implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The robot’s hopping height increases from 0.55 to 0.8 m and then decreases from 0.8 to 0.55 m with 0.05 m intervals. The phase plot shows that the dynamic hopping with different height approaches respective periodic and stable orbit. And the time domain hopping plot shows that the control scheme has fast dynamic response and nearly no steady-state error. The experiment result shows great efficiency of the control scheme proposed here.

Zhi-wei Chen, Bo Jin, Shi-qiang Zhu, Yun-tian Pang, Gang Chen

The Stability Analysis of Quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vechicles

The problems of dynamic stability of the quadrotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), such as: cornering, wear, and explosion of oar take place due to the aerodynamic force and gyroscopic effect during takeoff and landing process; the vibration; reduction of instruction tracking accuracy; and out of control are prone to take place due to the influence of atmospheric turbulence and motion coupling during yawing. However, the optimized structural parameters of the aircraft is very important for improving the stability of the motion control and the energy saving. Therefore, the relationship of quantification between structural parameter of quadrotor UAV and dynamic stability is built with the method of Lyapunov exponent starting from structure design of mechanical, which guides the mechanical-structural design and provides important basis for optimizing the control system. This relationship lays a basic foundation for enhancing the reliability and stability for the flight mission. Compared with the direct method of Lyapunov, the method of Lyapunov exponent is easier to build, and the calculation process is simpler.

Yun-ping Liu, Xian-ying Li, Tian-miao Wang, Yong-hong Zhang, Ping Mei

Hand Exoskeleton Control for Cerebrum Plasticity Training Based on Brain–Computer Interface

Rehabilitation therapy with exoskeleton robots has been widely adopted to realize normal traction training of muscles, but the plasticity training of cerebrum is usually ignored during rehabilitation with exoskeletons. This paper presents a new exoskeleton aided hand rehabilitation method for post-stroke patient to validate the feasibility and reliability of cerebrum plasticity trainingCerebrum plasticity training. The approach is based on the Brain–Computer Interface (BCI) technology with which the EEG can be acquired and processed to obtain the patient’s hand motion intentionHuman motion intent by applying Independent Component Analysis (ICA) algorithm. The hand exoskeletonHand exoskeleton system is motivated and controlled by the motion intention to assist the hand movement. Experiments of hand exoskeleton motion control and force control based on BCI validated the feasibility and reliability of the system. Despite the 1.8–2.9 s time delay of response during experiment, the subject’s hand motion intention was well acquired by BCI and the corresponding hand motion was executed by hand exoskeleton.

Qian Bi, Canjun Yang, Wei Yang, Jinchang Fan, Hansong Wang

Lateral Balance Recovery of Quadruped Robot on Rough Terrains

In recent years, the proportion of nuclear power use in China has gradually risen; however, of the numerous nuclear power plant accidents warn us to consider aspects related to the relief provided at the scene of the accident. Therefore, the development of an emergency rescue robot for the nuclear power plant becomes the necessity of the hour in addition to being a world-level problem in the field of international nuclear disaster relief. At the accident scene, due to the unexpected situation that may exist, the emergency rescue robot may be hampered during its motion. Considering this situation, this article discusses the situation wherein a quadruped robotQuadruped robot achieves the lateral balance recoveryLateral balance recovery while moving on rough terrainsRough terrain. Therefore, we propose a flywheel pendulum model and the capture pointCapture point theory to derive relevant equations. Finally, in the simulation, we exert a lateral force on our quadruped robot, the performance of which will prove our methodology’s validity.

Guo-liang Yuan, Shao-yuan Li, He-sheng Wang, Dan Huang

Research on the Application of NoSQL Database in Intelligent Manufacturing

Intelligent manufacturing is a new trend that is a deep integration of information and industrialization. As to the information, database is very important. For the past 20 years, relational databases have been widely used in a lot of fields because of their rich feature, such as query capabilities and transaction management and so on. However, they do not have the capacity of storing and processing a large number of data effectively, and at the same time, they are not very efficient to make transactions and join operations. In order to adapt to the new demand, some of new databases have been invented which are not in accordance with relational model. These databases are known as NoSQL. The underlying data and transaction model of the NoSQL are different from relational database. Some of organizations have shown much interest in NoSQL and adopted this new technology, which promote further research on the NoSQL. In this thesis, we research NoSQL database about their origin and characteristics. Then, we compare between one of the NoSQL database, MongoDBMongoDB, to the standard relational database, SQL ServerSQL Server. We contrast their performance from different aspects. Results show that MongoDB performs better than the relational database.

Chuan-hong Zhou, Kun Yao, Zhen-yang Jiang, Wu-xia Bai

Design and Application of Auditory Evoked EEG Processing Platform Based on Matlab

To improve the processing speed and efficiency of imaging EEG signals, a processing system based on Matlab GUI and Virtual RealityVirtual reality sink which integrates various algorithms such as Independent Component Analysis, Hilbert–Huang TransformHilbert–Huang transform, Support Vector MachineSupport vector machine, etc., is designed in this paper. The EEG data used is collected based on a novel auditoryAuditory EEG evoked method proposed in this paper. The experimental results indicate that the novel evoked method has preferable recognition that can reach to 87.2 %, and the classification results can control the movement of the designed virtual arm accurately. This research provides a certain theory and experiment basis for the research of the stroke rehabilitationStroke rehabilitation robot based on the imaging movement EEG signal of auditory evoking.

Rong Yang, Hui-qun Fu, Xiu-feng Zhang, Li Wang, Ning Zhang, Feng-ling Ma

Visual Recognition Application

Frontmatter

An Efficient Detection Method for Text of Arbitrary Orientations in Natural Images

Due to the high complexity of natural scenes, text detection is always a critical yet challenging task. On the basis of existing character detection method, a novel text line detectionText line detection method is proposed in this paper, which can localize text of arbitrary orientation by using related information of character regions in candidate text line. First, inspired by the Hough transform, text line detection problem is regarded as line detection problem in candidate characters set obtained by Most Stable Extremal Regions (MSERsMSERs). Second, in order to find out the relationship of adjacent candidate regions, a graph modelGraph model is built based on some constraints and adjacent candidates are linked into pairs to obtain search domain. Then, to avoid repeated calculation of the same line, some strategies need to be used. Finally, as some of the potential text lines are incorrect, we use a new text line descriptorText line descriptor to exclude the non-text areas. Experimental results on the ICDAR 2013 competition dataset and MSRA-TD500 show that the proposed approach is favorable no matter for non-horizontal text or horizontal text.

Lanfang Dong, Zhongdi Chao, Jianfu Wang

Research of a Framework for Flow Objects Detection and Tracking in Video

The flow objects are ubiquitous in nature, and the detection and tracking of flow objects is very important in the field of machine vision and public safety, so building a framework for the detection and tracking is more advantageous for this research. For this demand, a systematic framework is proposed. First, the foreground can be detected by GMM (gaussian mixture model) and SNP (statistical nonparametric) algorithm, and candidate regions can be determined by static features extracted in the foreground. Second, all these candidate regions should be combined and tracked. At last, dynamic features of the tracked regions should be extracted and whether it is flow objects or not should be confirmed. To solve the problem of combination of adjacent small regions and the multi-objects matching, similar regional growth algorithm and the method for tracking multiple targets are put forward. To verify the effect of the framework, a lot of experiments about smoke, fire, and rain are implemented.

Lanfang Dong, Jiakui Yu, Jianfu Wang, Weinan Gao

A Kinect-Based Motion Capture Method for Assessment of Lower Extremity Exoskeleton

Rehabilitation exoskeletonRehabilitation exoskeleton provides a new method for therapy of stroke patients, but it needs a portable and effective method to analyze the validity of exoskeleton rehabilitation trainingRehabilitation training. This paper proposes a motion captureMotion capture system based on Kinect to measure the variation of joint angles of a patient’s lower extremity during rehabilitation training. Comparing the measured angles with the input rehabilitation trajectory, human–machine couplingHuman–machine coupling property of exoskeleton can be achieved to analyze its validity. The system used image sequence motion detection algorithm based on markers and arranged eight marker bars on the surface of lower extremity. Then it got bars’ spatial direction vectors by clustering algorithm (DBSCAN) and least square method. With lower extremity 5-bar model built, the system finally gained the joint angles. Meanwhile an experiment was designed to verify the precision of Kinect motion capture system. Results showed that the maximal static error was 2.76° and correlation coefficient of dynamic track was 0.9917. This proved that the Kinect motion capture system was feasible and reliable to provide parameter foundation to assess the validity of exoskeleton.

Min-hang Zhu, Can-jun Yang, Wei Yang, Qian Bi

Table Tennis Service Umpiring System Based on Video Identification—for Height and Angle of the Throwing Ball

Table tennisTable tennis is a very rapid movement in competitive sports, and its referee needs to make a judgment based on observation and experience within a few seconds, which is a very challenge task. Due to the subjective judgment of the referee’s uncertainty and imprecision, it will lead to some false judgment, resulting in a significant impact on the results of the competition. In the current competitions, the most controversial penalty is the height and angle of the throwing ball’s problem. To solve this controversial problem, this paper designs a complementary video-based recognition of table tennis service umpiring systemUmpiring system that can identify and track the location of the table tennis in the video and determine the exact moment when the ball leaves the hand. As a new umpiring system, this paper first introduces into the machine learningMachine learning methods to identify in table tennis, and discusses a new method of predicting the region of interestRegion of interest to reduce the recognition error rate and improve the recognition efficiency. This system will eventually get through the data of height and angle of the throwing ball, which not only provides a scientific reference for the referees, but also provides a supplementary basis for the athletes to question the referee.

Yun-feng Ji, Chao-li Wang, Zhi-hao Shi, Jie Ren, Ling Zhu

Visual Servo-Based Control of Mobile Robots for Opening Doors

Fingerprint lock cannot work effectively in the case of finger cut or desquamating. Besides, the structure of electronic locks is different from most wooden doors’ and security doors’, and it is also too time-consuming and laborious to change the existing structures. This paper presents a method of opening the door by a mobile robot at home. The robot receives wireless commands and calls the door fixed camera to capture a photo of the visitor. After that, it makes a visual servo based path planningPath planning after the verification of the visitor autonomously, then moves from a certain place to the interior door and opens the door. The mobile robot consists of a fixed base 4 degrees of freedom manipulator and a camera. This article focuses on the extraction of work space of the robot, path planning, face recognitionFace recognition, lock positioning, and robotic motion control. Using visual C++ development environment and image processing technology, a controller of the mobile robot to open the door is proposed, the effectiveness of the proposed method is also demonstrated through experiments.

Xiao-mei Ma, Chao-li Wang, Lei Cao

Control of Two-Wheel Self-balancing Robots Based on Gesture Recognition

Currently, wearable devicesWearable device have been paid a great attention in lots of practical fields. This paper discusses the design of two-wheel self-balancing robots based on gesture recognition. The objective is to control the robot’s movement by using gestures. Static gesture recognitionStatic gesture recognition without wearing data gloves is exploited to control the motion of the robot. The gesture recognition involves the calculation the distance between the user gesture and template gesture through Hu geometric features. The remote terminal is the Two-wheel Self-balancing Robots. These are unstable and a class of special wheeled mobile robotsMobile robots which are multivariableMultivariable, nonlinear, strong coupling dynamic system, but it has the characteristics of small, simple, flexibleFlexible movement. This paper proposes a controller design of Two-wheel Self-balancing Robots, and the simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method, which is verified also on the DSP platform at the same time.

Jie-han Liu, Lei Cao, Chao-li Wang

An Extended Kalman Filter-Based Robot Pose Estimation Approach with Vision and Odometry

Visual cameras and encoders are usually equipped on mobile robotic systems. In this paper, we present a robust extended Kalman filter-based pose estimationPose estimation approach by fusing the information from both the onboard camera and encoders. Different from existing works, the system state is chosen in a new simplified way, including the robot pose and the depth of feature points. Moreover, a new observation model is formulated and the corresponding Jacobian matrix is derived. A robust feature associationRobust feature association approach with an outlier removing mechanism is proposed. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Xue-bo Zhang, Cong-yuan Wang, Yong-chun Fang, Ke-xin Xing

Visual Servoing of a New Designed Inspection Robot for Autonomous Transmission Line Grasping

This paper presents a new visual servoingVisual Servoing using two lines features and this method is adopted for a novel dual-arm power transmission line inspectionPower Transmission Line InspectionrobotInspection Robot to graspGrasp transmission line autonomously. The new designed inspection robot has 5 DOFs ofeach arm, and the arms for the wheel-arm platform will cross obstacle on the transmission lines alternately. With a new mechanism, the robot can actively control the position of its center of mass, thus enhancing its stability and reducing the load on motors when changing its configuration to overcome obstacles. Then an adaptive visual servoing using line features of two power transmission lines for the robot in an uncalibrated eye-in-hand setup is developed, guaranteeing the off-line arm can grasp the line automatically after overcoming obstacles. A new Lyapunov method is used to prove the asymptotic convergence of the errors to zero. The paper ends with the presentation of several simulation results.

Tao He, He-sheng Wang, Wei-dong Chen, Wei-jie Wang

A Novel Design of Laser In-Frame Robot for Electron Cyber Scalpel Therapy and Its Rotary Joint

This paper presents a conceptual design of laser in-frame robot for electron cyber scalpel therapy, and a detailed design of its rotary joint, particularly. This manipulator system is expected to be a tool, which transmits strong pulse laser beamsPulse laser beam from its base to tip, where the electron beams are stimulated for therapy, also controls and delivers such electron beams for precise treatment. Among all the research issues of radiosurgery robotics the rotary joint, which acts as the driving/guiding part and supporting structure, comes out to be extremely significant. With the novel proposal, the mentioned joint is designed with a big diameter vacuum hollow structure inside, to serve for the transmission channel of laser. Thus, all the driven components are outward distributed. Relative analysis or discussion is given to illuminate design goal, high positional precision, high rigidity and motion stability, low manufacturing cost, simple structure, and easy maintainability, also welcome for laser transmission.

Jian-jun Yuan, Xi Chen, Chang-guang Tang, Kazuhisa Nakajima

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Globales Erdungssystem in urbanen Kabelnetzen

Bedingt durch die Altersstruktur vieler Kabelverteilnetze mit der damit verbundenen verminderten Isolationsfestigkeit oder durch fortschreitenden Kabelausbau ist es immer häufiger erforderlich, anstelle der Resonanz-Sternpunktserdung alternative Konzepte für die Sternpunktsbehandlung umzusetzen. Die damit verbundenen Fehlerortungskonzepte bzw. die Erhöhung der Restströme im Erdschlussfall führen jedoch aufgrund der hohen Fehlerströme zu neuen Anforderungen an die Erdungs- und Fehlerstromrückleitungs-Systeme. Lesen Sie hier über die Auswirkung von leitfähigen Strukturen auf die Stromaufteilung sowie die Potentialverhältnisse in urbanen Kabelnetzen bei stromstarken Erdschlüssen. Jetzt gratis downloaden!

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